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, Beyond the hash tag: Black Lives Matter is becoming a conventional political movement, The Economist, 2018, pp. 36-36

Brief assessment of developments since shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson in 2014, quoting from Patrice Cullors, author Jamala Rogers (Ferguson is America, 2015) and Barbara Ransby (Making All Black Lives Matter) and local residents. 

, Sex and Power: #MeToo, one year on, Economist, 2018, pp. 16-16

Argues that movements sparked by alleged rape accusations could be the most powerful force for equality since women's suffrage' and discusses their impact and challenges in politics and business in the US.

See also more detailed articles on the same issue: ‘#MeToo and politics; Truth and Consequences', pp. 36-37, and 'American business after Weinstein: Behind closed doors', pp. 59-60.

, The Race Issue. Black and White, [April 2018], National Geographic, 2018, pp. 79-149

In this special issue on race in the US, Michele Morris recounts how demographic changes across the US are challenging white Americans’ perception of their majority status. She also discusses attempts to re-create a narrative that could reflect more than white Christian ethnicity as the only identity framework of US history. Michael A. Fletcher reports the personal stories of people of colour who had suffered traumatic experiences of stop-and-search by police officers on the basis of their racial profile. Clint Smith examines two major and prestigious colleges that have experienced a recent surge in enrolment of black youth and the rise of new forms of Black activism. Finally, Maurice Bergers reports on the work by photographer Omar Victor Dopi on slave revolts, independence movements, social justice quests. The events represented range from 18th century’s Queen Nanny of the Maroons, known for her ability to lead Jamaican slaves to liberation from British colonialism, to 21st century’s 12 year-old Trayvon Martin, whose shooting by a white neighborhood watch volunteer inspired the birth of the Black Lives Matter movement.

 

, The Big Story: Black Lives Matter, [March 2018], New Internationalist, 2018, pp. 12-25

Introductory article by Amy Hall summarises the growth of BLM in the USA, discusses its global potential and spread to other countries, and notes the relevance of BLM in the UK.  Jamilah King comments on the US movement, both on its strengths and the divisions within it. Other articles examine how BLM relates to a history of  'a policy of black extermination' in Brazil, and to the struggle by Aboriginal people in Australia.

Abernathy, Ralph D., And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, New York, Harper, 1989, pp. 638

One of King’s closest associates from 1955 onwards, Abernathy took on greater prominence after King’s assassination.

Ackerman, Peter ; Duvall, Jack, A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict, New York and Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2000, pp. 554

Analysis of a selection of predominantly nonviolent struggles from Russia 1905 to Serbia 2000, arguing against ‘the mythology of violence’. Some of the case studies are standard in books on civil resistance, others – for example the 1990 movement in Mongolia – less familiar. Each chapter has a useful bibliography. The book arose out of a 1999 US documentary television series ‘A Force More Powerful’, now available on DVD, and therefore includes, in the more recent cases, information from interviews.

ACT UP, Accomplishments and Chronology in Brief: 1987-2012, Vol. 2017, New York, ACT UP New York, 2009

Lists range of nonviolent direct action protests by ACT UP since 1987, involving marches, sit-ins, blockades, political funerals, die-ins, disrupting political occasions and speeches, etc. Main targets have been pharmaceutical companies (for profiteering and failure to produce new drugs or provide adequate access to them in Africa), the medical establishment in the US, health insurance companies, the Catholic Church and President Bush Snr and President Clinton and Vice-President Gore.

Akuno, Kali, Pillars of Change, [Feb/Mar 2018], Red Pepper, 2018, pp. 34-35

Describes the movement behind the 2017 election (by 93 per cent of the vote) of Chokwe Antar Lumumba as Mayor of Jackson, Mississippi.  He is committed to implement the 'Jackson Plan' for participatory democracy, promotion of public services and a local economy based on cooperatives and other forms of popular organization.  The Plan, which is promoted by the Jackson People's Assembly and the Malcolm X Grassroots Movement (MXGM), represents the kind of participatory local initiatives envisaged in the Black Lives Matter 2016 Platform.  A longer version of this article is available in Akuno, Kali and Ajamu Nangwaya, Jackson Rising: The Struggle for Economic Democracy and Black Self-Determination, Daraja Press, 2017, and at: www.mxgm.org

Altman, Dennis, AIDS in the Mind of America, New York, Anchor Press, 1986, pp. 240

Altman, Dennis, Homosexual: Oppression and Liberation, [1971], with new Introduction by Jeffrey Weeks and Afterword by author commenting on his book in light of developments since 1970s., New York, New York University Press, 1993, pp. 304

Key work on early period of Gay Liberation in 1960s/70s in the USA, examining different strands of movement and arguing need for struggle for common goals.

Amnesty International, USA: Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct against LGBT People in the US, London, Amnesty International, 2005, pp. 149

Anderson, Carol, White Rage: The Unspoken Truth Of Our Racial Divide, New York, Bllomsbury, 2016, pp. 256

White Rage, by Professor of African American Studies Carol Anderson, centres on a discussion on race, more specifically on the foregrounding of whiteness and the continuing threat that structural racism poses to US democratic aspirations. She provides an historical account of landmark moments in US history, namely the end of the Civil War and the Reconstruction; the reaction to the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954; the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965; the disenfranchisement of Black communities in the aftermath of Reagan’s War on Drugs; and the mass protests in Ferguson, Missouri, triggered by the shooting of Mike Brown in 2014. Through her analysis, Anderson argues that white rage erupts as a backlash at a moment of Black progress and therefore needs to be placed at the centre of US’s national history. In this light, White Rage is an attempt to illustrate how whiteness is positioned at the core of state power, and how it permits the reinforcement of a system that systematically disadvantages African Americans.

Anderson, Jervis, A. Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1986, pp. 398

Study of black trade union leader who played key role in pressuring presidents Roosevelt and Truman to ban discrimination in federal and defence employment. In 1963 headed the March on Washington.

Antilla, Susan, Entire industries are being blacklisted by insurers over #MeToo liability, The Intercept, 2019

A short report on a rising wave of pressure that is weighing on companies that seek sexual harassment insurance in the US.

Baldwin, James, The Fire Next Time, [1963], New York, NY, The Dial Press, 1992, pp. 120

This now famous work contains two essays written on the occasion of the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation - "My Dungeon Shook. Letter to my Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of Emancipation," and "Down At The Cross. Letter from a Region of My Mind". It provides a three-point dissection on "The Negro Problem", an expression not owned by Baldwin that he refers to while discussing the roots of racial tensions of his time and how to overcome them. (To know more about the use of and debate on this expression by Baldwin himself, please see: http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,830326,00.html and https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2934484.pdf).

In the first essay, Baldwin focuses on the central role of race in American history, and specifically addresses himself to his 14 year-old nephew who was confronted with anger and outrage. Through his nephew, Baldwin aims to address any Black young Afro-American.

In the second essay, Baldwin discusses relations between race and religion. He addresses Christianity with particular regard to its meaning for US society and to its use for the oppression of Black people.

A common thread to the whole book is Baldwin’s call to both Whites and Blacks to use compassion, communication and mutual understanding to transcend tensions and overcome the legacy of racism. 

James Balwin was an iconic essayist, novelist, playwright and critic, who worked primarily about the Black American experience, racial tension, homosexuality and religion. He was active in the Civil Rights Movement, but spent his last years in the more congenial society of France.

Banerjee, Subhankar, Arctic Voices: Resistance at the Tipping Point, New York, Seven Stories Press, 2012, pp. 560

Narratives and assessments by 30 activists and researchers of struggle by indigenous peoples and environmentalists to prevent proposed exploitation of oil, gas and coal in Arctic Alaska.

Banks, Andy, The Power and Promise of Community Unionism, Labor Research Review, Vol. 1, no. 18, 1991, pp. -17

Discusses the ‘Justice for Janitors’ campaign in Los Angeles from 1986-1990 and success in reaching out to the immigrant community.

Bannan, John F. ; Bannan, Rosemary, Law, Morality and Vietnam: The Peace Militants and the Courts, Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press, 1974, pp. 241

Explores the conflict between law and morality, and case for civil disobedience, with reference mainly to six well known prosecutions, including: the Fort Hood Three (GIs who refused to be posted to Vietnam); Dr Spock and others in 1967-68 charged with conspiracy to violate draft laws; and Daniel and Philip Berrigan and five other who burnt draft files at Catonsville in 1968.

Bardacke, Frank, Trampling Out the Vintage: Cesar Chavez and the Two Souls of the United Farm Workers Union, London and New York, Verso, 2011, pp. 840

Very detailed account and analysis by former civil rights activist who also worked in the fields for six seasons 1971 and 1979, charting contradictions within the movement and the role of Chavez, based on hundreds of field reports and first hand experience.

Bayer, Ronald, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1987, pp. 244

Account of 1973 decision by American Psychiatric Association to stop listing homosexuality as a mental disorder and attempts by some psychiatrists to overturn this decision.

Bbatia, Bela ; Dreze, Jean ; Kelly, Kathy, War and Peace in the Gulf: Testimony of the Gulf Peace Team, Nottingham, Spokesman Books, 2001, pp. 181

Account by participants of transnational team which went to Iraq to try to intervene between the two sides in the 1991 Gulf War. (See also Robert J. Burrowes, ‘The Persian Gulf War and the Gulf Peace Team’ in Moser-Puangsuwan and Weber, Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders, pp. 305-18 – 209 below.)

Bennett, Scott H., Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 2003, pp. 312

Includes CO revolts in camps and prisons in World War Two against racial segregation, and role of League members in helping to found the Congress of Racial Equality and its nonviolent direct action strategy. Also covers relations of secular and radical WRL with other pacifist bodies, such as Christian Fellowship of Reconciliation.

Berrill, Kevin T., Anti-Gay Violence and Victimization in the United States: An Overview, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 5, no. 3, 1990, pp. 274-294

There have been significant campaigns to protect and promote LGBT rights in the USA, including a series of National Marches on Washington in 1979, 1987, 1993 and 2000, but also in many other western countries, which are not so well covered in English publications. The political, legal , religious and cultural contexts vary, however, between countries, so LGBT communities can face somewhat different problems. (For the UK see G.2.b.)

Bingham, Clara, Witness to the Revolution: Radicals, Resisters, Vets, Hippies, and The Year America Lost and Found its Soul, New York, Random House, 2016, pp. 655, pb

The book focuses on 'year' August 1969-1970, and explores the roots of the movement against the Vietnam War in the Civil Rights Movement, citing testimony of those involved.

Blumenkranz, Carla ; Gessen, Keith ; Greif, Mark ; Leonard, Sarah ; Resnick, Sarah ; Saval, Nikil ; Schmitt, Eli ; Taylor, Astra, Occupy!: Scenes from Occupied America, ed. Social Movement Studies, , New York and London, Verso, 2012, pp. 224

Collection of brief accounts of events at Zuccotti Park encampment and initial assessments by writers from leftist New York media, plus extracts from speeches of visiting intellectuals and activists – Judith Butler, Slavoj Zizek, Angela Davis and Rebecca Solnit.

Boardman, Elizabeth Jellinek, The Phoenix Trip: Notes on a Quaker Mission to Haiphong, ed. Chatfield, Charles, Bournsville, Celo Press, 1985, pp. 174

Diary of a participant in this defiance of the US prohibition on taking supplies to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

Boelens, Rutgerd ; Getches, David ; Gil, Armando Guevara, Out of the Mainstream: Water Rights, Politics and Identity, New York, Routledge, 2011, pp. 384

Compares struggles over water in Andean communities of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia and Native American communities in S .W. USA, noting the combined goals of cultural justice and socio-economic justice.

 

Boesten, Jelke, Ni Una Menos stares down conservative reaction, NACLA, 2018

Discusses the development of a new wave of feminism in Latin America, with particular regard to the ‘Ni Una Menos’ movement, and notes its main differences from ‘Me Too’ in the US, particularly in the type of testimonies relayed, and the inclusion and diversity within the Latin American movement. Boesten also reports on the harsh backlash against the newly developing feminist movements, provoked by conservative Catholicism and pays tribute to Colombian writer Emma Reyes, who symbolises the hidden contribution to literature women in Latin America can offer, providing a different perspective on the pervasive violent misogyny in the country.

Bouchier, David, The Feminist Challenge: The Movement for Women’s Liberation in Britain and the USA, London, Macmillan, 1983, pp. 252

Traces the course of the feminist movement from its beginnings at a meeting in Seneca Falls, USA, in 1848, through the campaign for voting rights in the early 20th century to the emergence of radical feminism in the 1960s and 1970s.

Boyle, Richard, The Flower of the Dragon: The Breakdown of the US Army in Vietnam, San Francisco CA, Ramparts Press, 1972, pp. 283

Traces the growth of disillusionment with the war amongst American GIs and the increasingly militant opposition within the US forces. Extracts published as pamphlet ‘GI Revolts: The Breakdown of the US Army in Vietnam’, available online: https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/richard-boyle-gi-revolts-the-breakdown-of-the-u-s-army-in-vietnam

Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63, Vol. 1, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1988, 3 volumes, pp. 1064

Part 1 of the trilogy. Episodes extracted from this readable narrative have been compiled into one volume – Taylor Branch, The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Simon and Schuster, pp. 256.

Branch, Taylor, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-1965, Vol. 2, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1998, 3 volumes, pp. 746

Part 2 of a trilogy. Episodes extracted from this readable narrative have been compiled into one volume – Taylor Branch, The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Simon and Schuster, pp. 256.

Branch, Taylor, At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68, Vol. 3, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2006, 3 volumes, pp. 1056

Part 3 of a trilogy. Episodes extracted from this readable narrative have been compiled into one volume – Taylor Branch, The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Simon and Schuster, pp. 256.

Brill, Harry, Why Organizers Fail: The Story of a Rent Strike, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1971, pp. 192

Examines community action by the poor; (in Californian Studies of Urbanization and Environment series).

Brinkley, Douglas, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Life of Rosa Parks, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2000, pp. 248

(published in the USA as Rosa Parks, New York, Viking, 2000)

Parks is famous for her role in sparking the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott, but had a long history of engaging in the struggle for civil rights.

Brock, Peter, These Strange Criminals’: An Anthology of Prison Memoirs by Conscientious Objectors from the Great War to the Cold War, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 505

Anthology of prison memoirs by conscientious objectors from World War One to the Cold War. Contributions from Britain, Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Bullough, Vern L., Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context, New York, Routledge, Harworth Gay and Lesbian Studies, 2002, pp. 464

Survey of gay and lesbian rights issues in USA. Part 1 covers period before 1950, Parts 2 and 3 organizational activists and national figures , and Part 4 ‘Other Voices’.

Bundy, McGeorge ; Kennan, George F. ; McNamara, Robert S. ; Smith, Gerard, Nuclear weapons and the Atlantic Alliance, ed. Thompson, Edward P., Foreign Affairs, Vol. 60, no. 4, 1982, pp. 753-766

Byrne, Janet, The Occupy Handbook, New York, Back Bay Books, 2012, pp. 560

Includes discussion of why the 1% have such a dominant economic position.

Calhoun, Craig, Occupy Wall Street in Perspective, ed. Byrne, Janet, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 64, no. 1, 2013, pp. 26-38

Argues Occupy Wall Street was ‘less an organized effective movement’ than a dramatic performance.

Camp, Jordan T. ; Heatherthon, Christina, Policing The Planet: Why the Policing Crisis Led to Black Lives Matter, London and New York, Verso , 2016, pp. 320

Policing the Planet extensively examines the ‘broken windows policing’, a practice through which minor crimes are pursued as a way to prevent major offences. It simultaneously offers a critique that places this particular policy at the centre of a broader neoliberal project for social order and illustrates how its application contributes to the expansion of the punitive and discriminatory capacities of the state.

Through the contributions of several authors, parallels are drawn between the enforcement of US policies against the domestically racialised and criminalised, and the “war on terror” and the use of drones and surveillance technologies abroad. The work contextualizes the Black Lives Matter movement in a wider context, and emphasises its attempts to globalise its struggle and create a new form of global solidarity by highlighting similarities between the murder of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, and the Israeli siege of Gaza in the summer of 2014.

The book offers a platform for debating alternatives to neoliberal and imperialistic policies, and provides element that might serve to foster the political imagination needed for constructing alternative futures.

Jordan T. Camp is an assistant professor of American studies at Barnard College in New York. He researches and teaches about racial capitalism, expressive culture, gentrification, political economy, policing and prisons, militarization, social reproduction, social theory, and the history of social movements in the United States.

Christina Heatherthon is an Assistant Professor of American Studies at Barnard. She is a scholar and historian of anti-racist social movements.

Carawan, Candie ; Carawan, Guy, Sing for Freedom: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement through its Songs, [1992], Montgomery AL, NewSouth, 2008

Combines two earlier collections of songs and participant memoirs, We Shall Overcome (1963) and Freedom is a Constant Struggle (1968). Compiled by veterans of the Highlander Folk School (later Center), Tennessee – the adult education centre described as an ‘incubator’ for the Civil Rights movement.

Carbado, Devon W. ; Weise, Donald, Time on Two Crosses: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin, ed. Carbado, Devon W., Weise, Donald, San Francisco, Cleis Press, 2003, pp. 354

Rustin was an influential adviser to MLK and the coordinator of the 1963 March on Washington. These writings on civil rights and gay politics from 1942 to 1986 include his important 1964 essay ‘From Protest to Politics’ arguing for a policy shift towards mainstream politics through voter registration and involvement with trade unions. Rustin’s later attempts to achieve his goals through the Democratic Party made him a contentious figure in some radical circles.

Carmichael, Stokeley ; Hamilton, Charles V., Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America, London, Jonathan Cape, 1968, pp. 198

Makes case for black separatism in the struggle for equality, to enable black people to lead their own organisations and create their own power bases. Describes the attempts to achieve these aims through the Mississippi Freedom Democrats in 1964, and the role of SNCC in voter registration 1965-66. There is also a chapter on the northern ghettoes.

Carmin, JoAnn ; Balser, Deborah B., Selecting Repertoires of Action in Environmental Movements: An Interpretative Approach, Organization and Environment, Vol. 15, no. 4, 2002, pp. 365-386

Compares North American Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace.

Carr, Joetta L., The Slutwalk Movement: A Study in Transnational Activism, Journal of Feminist Scholarship, no. 4 (Spring), 2013, pp. 24-37

North American initiative, but taken up in Britain and transnationally.

Carson, Clayborne, In Struggle, Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press, 1981, pp. 359

Admired study of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) by an activist in the Civil Rights Movement.

Carson, Clayborne ; Garrow, David J. ; Gill, Gerald ; Harding, Vincent ; Hine, Darlene Clark, The Eyes on the Prize - Civil Rights Reader: Documents, Speeches and Firsthand Accounts from the Black Freedom Fighters, 1954-1990, ed. Carson, Clayborne, Garrow, David J., Gill, Gerald, Harding, Vincent, Hine, Darlene Clark, New York and London, Penguin, 1991, pp. 764

Comprises documents, speeches and firsthand accounts of from the black freedom struggle during this period. Published to accompany Eyes on the Prize TV series.

Carter, David, Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution, [2004], New York, St Martins Press, 2010, pp. 352

Detailed account of protests that erupted on 28 June 1969 when New York police raided the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village (popular among gays), when many others joined in, and demonstrations spread across the city for several days. The ‘riots’ led to the founding of the Gay Liberation Front and the first Gay Pride marches in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco a year later.

Castells, Manuel, Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age, Cambridge, Polity, 2012, pp. 200

Well known theorist of global networks examines the mass uprisings across the world in 2011, giving account of events in ‘Arab Spring’ and the reaction to the bank collapse and austerity policies in the west in Iceland, Spain, Greece and the USA, and stressing the causal role of the internet.

Castle, Ben, The Global Movement against Fracking : Lessons from Bulgaria, the UK and New York State, The Democracy Center, Climate Campaign Profiles, 2012, pp. -12

Cervera-Marzal, Manuel, Désobeir En Démocratie:La Pénsee Désobeissante De Thoreau A Martin Luther King, Paris, Aux forges de Vulcain, 2013, pp. 170

Largely based on the author’s PhD thesis, this book analyses three historical approaches to civil disobedience, from conservatives and liberal philosophies to the applied theory of disobedience derived from Gandhi and Martin Luther King.

Charlton, Michael ; Moncrieff, Anthony, Many Reasons Why: The American Involvement in Vietnam, [1978], London, Hill and Wang, 1989, pp. 250

Based on BBC series of programmes and consisting primarily of interviews with wide range of those involved in first French and then US policy on Vietnam, and individuals prominent in opposition. Covers period 1945-1973. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss protests inside US and the leaking by Daniel Ellsberg of The Pentagon Papers, which revealed in detail secret internal policy making.

Chatfield, Charles, The Americanisation of Gandhi: Images of the Mahatma, New York, Garland, 1976, pp. 802

Chatfield, Charles, Ironies of Protest: Interpreting the American Anti-Vietnam War Movement, ed. Grünewald, Guido, Van den Dungen, Peter, In Grünewald, Guido ; Van den Dungen, Peter , Twentieth-century peace movements: Successes and failures Lewiston NY, Edwin Mellen Press, , 1995, pp. 254, pp. 198-208

Argues radical left never had a cohesive centre and that when movement most confrontational, its liberal wing was working most effectively with the political system. Suggests the movement became associated with social and cultural iconoclasm, which appeal to sections of middle classes, but that the broader public eventually opposed both the war and the antiwar protest, because ‘both seemed to threaten the established social order’.

Chomsky, Noam, Occupy, London and New York, Penguin Books and Zucotti Park Books, 2012, pp. 120

This book comprises five sections:

  1. Chomsky’s Howard Zinn Memorial Lecture given to Occupy Boston in Oct.2011;
  2. an interview with a student in Jan 2012;
  3. a question and answer session with ‘InterOccupy’;
  4. a question and answer session partly on foreign policy; and
  5. Chomsky’s brief appreciation of the life and work of radical historian Howard Zinn.

There is a short introductory note by the editor, Greg Ruggiero.

Cliff, Tony, Class Struggle and Women’s Liberation: 1640 to the Present Day, London, Bookmarks, 1984, pp. 271

Sweeping historical and transnational survey from a socialist standpoint, noting industrial action by working women and criticizing class base and focus of second wave American and British feminism.

Cohen, Fay G., Treaties on Trial: The Continuing Controversy over Northwest Indian Fishing Rights, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1986, pp. 229

Includes protest ‘fish-ins’

Cone, James H., Martin, Malcolm and America: A Dream or a Nightmare, London, Fount/Harper Collins, 1993, pp. 358

Compares two contrasting African-American leaders. Initially totally opposed, they moved closer together in the later 1960s, as King came out against the Vietnam War and Malcolm X moved away from black messianic separatism. They also worked with different constituencies: the black communities of the south and the alienated residents of the northern ghettoes.

Corr, Anders, No Trespassing: Squatting, Rent Strikes and Land Struggles Worldwide, Cambridge MA, Southend Press, 1999, pp. 256

Discusses the success of squatter movements by the homeless, addresses issues such as ‘direct action and the law’ and ‘tactics and mobilization’ and includes case studies of squatter settlements and rent strikes.

Cortright, David, Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today, reissued as Soldiers in Revolt: GI Resistance During the Vietnam War, Haymarket, 2005, Garden City NY, Anchor Press, 1975, pp. 364

Costain, Anne N., Women’s Movements and Nonviolence, PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 33, no. 2 (June), 2000, pp. 175-180

Discusses nonviolent direct action by US feminists in both early suffrage movement and the 1970s.

Crawford, Vicki L. ; Rouse, Jacqueline ; Woods, Barbara, Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers – 1941-1965, ed. Crawford, Vicki L., Rouse, Jacqueline, Woods, Barbara, Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press, 1993, pp. 290

Articles presented at 1988 conference.

Cress, Daniel M. ; Snow, David A., The Outcomes of Homeless Mobilization: The Influence of Organization, Disruption, Political Mediation and Framing, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 105, 2000, pp. 1063-1104

Analysis of how organization, tactics, political context and ‘framing’ of the issue affect outcomes, based on 15 campaigns in 8 US cities.

D'Emilio, John, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States 1940-1970, [1983], 2nd edn, with new preface and afterword, Chicago IL, Chicago University Press, 1998, pp. 282

Highly regarded book on the American Homophile movement by historian and gay activist, including biographical sketches of prominent lesbian and gay figures.

D'Emilio, John, The World Turned: Essays on Gay History and Politics and Culture, Durham NC, Duke University Press, 2002, pp. 264

A collection of diverse essays, not a comprehensive survey of LGBT history in the US, but explores the movement’s growth and activities from the 1970s to 1990s, the impact of AIDS in increasing resources and organization in the LGBT community, and the role of several organizations, including the influential National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) founded in 1973 to promote grass roots power and its role in resisting hostile referenda and promoting positive legislation. NB. NGLTF records from 1973-2008 are based in the Cornell University library: http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/RMM07301.html

Dalton, John Frederick, The Moral Vision of Cesar Chavez and the Farm Worker Movement, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1988, pp. 350

Davis, Angela Y., Freedom Is A Constant Struggle: Ferguson, Palestine And The Foundation Of A Movement, Chicago, IL, Haymarket Books, 2016, pp. 180

In this series of interviews conducted by Frank Barat - activist for human rights and Palestinian rights -, Angela Davis reflects on the importance of Black feminism, intersectionality, and prison abolitionism for today's struggles. She discusses the legacies of previous liberation struggles and makes connection between the Black Freedom Movement and the South African anti-apartheid movement, as well as between the events in Ferguson and Palestine. The core message of the book is the emphasis on the importance of establishing transnational networks of solidarity and activism.

Angela Y. Davis is a political activist (who supported the Black Panthers in the late 1960s and became widely known in 1971 when arrested on false charges), scholar, author, and speaker. She is an outspoken advocate for the oppressed and exploited, writing on Black liberation, prison abolition, the intersections of race, gender, and class, and international solidarity with Palestine.

Day, Mark, Forty Acres: Cesar Chavez and the Farm Workers, New York, Praeger, 1971, pp. 222

De Benedetti, CharlesChatfield, Charles, The Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 1990, pp. 495

Detailed and well researched account. Final chapter by Charles Chatfield analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the movement and influence on US policy. Concludes that anti-war activists contributed to the growth of public disaffection with the war, but could not harness it, but that both Johnson and Nixon Administrations adapted their policies in response to pressure from dissenters.

Deloria Jr, Vine Jr, Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties: An American Indian Declaration of Independence, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 1985, pp. 296

Covers developing activism in the 1960s, the protest caravan of 1972 culminating in the occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and site occupations, including the 71 day occupation and siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota in 1973.

Diehl, Sophie, Is Social Media Only For White Women? From #MeToo to #Mmiw, Master Thesis, Northern Arizona University, 2019, pp. 62

This thesis scrutinises the conversation about violence against women on social media. The main research question is: ‘Does social media reproduce colonial ideologies such as racism and sexism?’ Indigenous women experience the highest rates of sexual violence in the United States: they are twice as likely to be as all other women. Social media is praised as a tool for activists and marginalized groups to raise awareness. The thesis explores whether this applies to Indigenous women and sexual violence, or whether their voices are generally overlooked.

Dockterman, Eliana, Survivors used #MeToo to speak up. A year later they are still fighting for meaningful change, Time, 2018

After Weinstein accusers were nominated by Time as ‘Person of the Year’, this article explores the legacy left by the movement in the US one year since #MeToo exploded globally.

Drainville, Andre C., A History of World Order and Resistance: The Making and Unmaking of Global Subjects, ed. Development, , London, Routledge, 2011, pp. 216

Looks at Global Justice Movement in a broad historical framework and relates it to case studies of earlier struggles in the USA, UK, France, South Africa, Algeria, the Philippines and Jamaica.

Dryzek, John S. ; Downes, David ; Hunold, Christian ; Schlosberg, David ; Abstract, Hans-Kristian Hernes, Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Norway, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 238

Comparative study of successes and failures of four environmental movements since 1970, exploring implications of inclusion and exclusion from political process.

Dumbrell, John, Vietnam and the Antiwar Movement: An International Perspective, Aldershot, Avebury, 1989, pp. 182

Chapters include: ‘Kent State: How the War in Vietnam became a War at Home’; ‘Congress and the Anti-War Movement’; ‘US Presidential Campaigns in the Vietnamese Era’; ‘Opposing the War in Vietnam – the Australian Experience’; ‘Vietnam War Resisters in Quebec’; ‘Anger and After – Britain’s CND and the Vietnam War’.

D’Emilio, John, Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin, New York, Freedom Press, 2003, pp. 568

Shows how Rustin’s gay lifestyle was repeatedly brought up by public enemies intent on discrediting the movement and by political rivals wanting to marginalize him.

Edwards, Jeff, AIDS, Race and the Rise and Decline of a Militant Oppositional Lesbian and Gay Politics in the US, New Political Science, Vol. 22, no. 4, 2000, pp. 485-506

Elbaz, Gilbert, Beyond Anger: The Activist Construction of the AIDS Crisis, Social Justice, Vol. 22, no. 4, 1995, pp. 43-76

Discusses ACT-UP in relation to two contrasting approaches in social movement theory: ‘resource mobilization’ and the ‘identity’ paradigm.

Ellner, Andrea ; Robinson, Paul ; Whetham, David, When Soldiers Say No: Selective Conscientious Objection in the Modern Military, ed. Cinar, Ozgur Heval, Usterci, Coskun, Farnham, Ashgate, 2014, pp. 290

Explores theoretical arguments for and against selective objection, together with case studies from US, Britain, Australia, Germany and Israel.

Elster, Ellen ; Sørensen, Majken Jul, Women Conscientious Objectors: An Anthology, London, War Resisters' International, 2010, pp. 156

A collection of essays by and about women COs in USA, Europe, Turkey, Israel, Eritrea, Korea, Paraguay and Colombia.

Translations: Spanish
Engler, Mark ; Engler, Paul, This is an Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt is Shaping the Twenty-First Century, New York, Nation Books, 2016, pp. 368

The book examines how contemporary movements are using strategic nonviolent action to promote social change, covering a range of protests including climate change, immigrant rights, gay rights, Occupy and Black Lives Matter. The authors argue that nonviolent uprisings are becoming more common than violent rebellion, and look back to twentieth century antecedents in the Indian Independence and US Civil Rights movements, examine the nature of effective strategy and discuss organizational discipline. Their analysis includes the Arab Spring, but notes its discouraging implications.

Epstein, Barbara, Political Protest and Cultural Revolution: Nonviolent Direct Action in the 1970s and 1980s, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1991, pp. 327

Covers environmental/peace/feminist protest in the USA, analysing key ideas and organising methods, as well as evolution of some major campaigns, for example against the Seabrook nuclear energy plant and the Livermore nuclear weapons laboratory.

Evans, Jodie ; Benjamin, Medea, Stop the Next War Now: Effective Responses to Violence and Terror, Novat CA, New World Library, 2005, pp. 256

The editors were among the women who launched the campaign Code Pink: Women for Peace in November 2002, which has since undertaken a wide range of nonviolent direct action protests in the United States and forged links with women in many other countries. (For details see: http://www.codepink.org). The book is a collection of essays by peace activists and scholars exploring a range of issues but including an emphasis on dissent and movement building.

Farmer, James, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Arbor House and Plume, 1998, pp. 370

Central figure in CORE outlines its origins and later campaigns (chapters 9, 10 and 19).

Feigenbaum, Anna ; Frenzl, Fabian ; McCurdy, Patrick, Protest Camps, ed. Edwards, Michael, Gaventa, John, London, Zed Press, 2013, pp. 272

Examines protest camps as key tactic of movements from Tahrir Square to Occupy Wall Street; includes Red Shirts in Thailand and teachers in Oaxaca.

Ferris, Susan ; Sandoval, Ricardo, The Fight for the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farm Workers Movement, (Foreword by Gary Soto), New York, Harcourt Brace and Co, 1998, pp. 352

Well documented and illustrated account of movement.

Fine, Janice, Community Unions and the Revival of the American Labor Movement, ed. Bieler, Andreas, Lindberg, Ingemar, Politics and Society, Vol. 33, no. 1, 2005, pp. 153-199

Fleras, Augie ; Elliott, Jean Leonard, The Nations Within, ed. Dyck, Noel, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 267

Covers Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Foner, Philip S., American Labor and the Indochina War: The Growth of Union Opposition, Re-issued as US Labor and the Vietnam War, 1989., New York, International Publishers, 1971, pp. 126

Traces the emergence of (belated) trade union opposition from a November 1967 conference in Chicago, attended by 523 trade unionists from 38 states and 63 international unions, which established the trade union division of the peace organization SANE. Includes a chapter on labour-student alliances.

Food Empowerment Project, Water Usage and Privatization, Vol. 2016, Cotati CA, Food Empowerment Project, 2015

Useful summary analysis including brief case studies of corporate misuse of water and resistance to them (and further references): Nestle in US, Vivendi and Suez in Mexico, Bechtel in Bolivia and Coca Cola in India.

Forman, James, The Making of Black Revolutionaries, New York and Washington DC, MacMillan and Open Hand, 1972, pp. 568

Memoirs of SNCC Executive Secretary, 1961-65.

France, David, How To Survive A Plague: The Story Of How Activists and Scientists Tamed AIDS, London, Random House , 2016, pp. 640

Well reviewed inside account of the succesfull battle to halt the AIDS epidemic, this is the incredible story of grassroots activists whose work turned HIV from a mostly fatal infection to a mangeable disease. France gives account of bureaucratic incompetence and political cowardice in a country where in 1982, 42.6 percent of gay men in San Francisco and 26.8 gay men in New York were infected by AIDS. Almost universally ignored, these men and women learned to become their own researchres, lobbysts, and drug smugglers; established their own newspapaers and research journals, and went on to force reform in the nation's disease fighting agencies. 

Freedman, Estelle B., Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 416

Estelle Freedman highlights the forces that have shaped the definition of rape in the US, namely political power and social privilege. She outlines the history of how the conception of rape has evolved since the 1870s to the 1930s, when both racial segregation and the women’s suffrage movement influenced how rape was understood.

Freeman, Jo, The Politics of Women’s Liberation, New York, Longman, 1975, pp. 268

Examines the evolution of second wave feminism in the USA from the early protests.

Gallo, Marcia M., Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Birth of the Lesbian Rights Movement, [2006], Seattle WA, Seal Press (Avalon Publishing), 2007, pp. 274

‘DOB’ was founded in 1955 as a social group in San Francisco, but developed over two decades into a national organization. See also  Martin; Lyon, Lesbian/Woman (G.1. The 'Homophile' Movement and Rise of Gay Liberation in the West: 1950s-1970s) .

Ganz, Marshall, Why David Sometimes Wins: Leadership, Organisation, and Strategy in the California Farm Worker Movements, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 344

Uses the struggle of Latino farmworkers in California in the 1960s to illustrate the concept of ‘strategic capacity’ – how strategic resourcefulness can sometimes compensate for lack of resources.

Gedicks, Al, The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles against Multinational Corporations, ed. Evans, Geoff, Goodman, James, Lansbury, Nina, Boston MA, South End Press, 1993, pp. 270

Examines campaigns by the Ojibwa Indians against mining and over land tenure and the role of multinationals in Wisconsin.

Gelb, Joyce, Feminism and Political Action, In Dalton, Russel J.; Kuechler, Manfred , Challenging the Political Order: New Social and Political Movements in Western Democracies Oxford, Oxford University Press, , 1990, pp. 344, pp. 137-156

Comparing the US, British and Swedish movements.

Gitlin, Todd, Occupy Nation, the Roots: The Spirit and the Promise of Occupy Wall Street, New York, Harper Collins, 2012, pp. 320

Book by former radical student leader in the 1960s, providing a portrait of the movement.

Gosse, Van, The Movements of the New Left 1950-1975: A Brief History with Documents, New York, Bedford/St. Martins, 2004, pp. 224

Uses a very broad definition of the New Left, and examines common features in Civil Rights, peace, anti-war, student, feminist and gay/lesbian movements in the USA.

Gould, Deborah B., Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP’s Fight Against AIDS, Chicago IL, University of Chicago Press, 2009, pp. 524

Analysis of emergence, development and decline of ACT UP, highlighting emotional dimension in movement politics.

Gould, Kenneth ; Schnaiberg, Allan ; Weinberg, Adam, Local Environmental Struggles: Citizen Activism in the Treadmill of Production, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 239

A study of community power and regional planning on the environment, based on US case studies.

Graeber, David, The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement, London, Allen Lane, 2013, pp. 352

Reflections on Occupy Wall Street movement and its beginning in the occupation of Zucotti Park, September 2011, from standpoint of an anarchist theorist.

Greenwood, Ian ; McBride, Jo, Community Unionism: A Comparative Analysis of Concepts and Contexts, Basingstoke, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2009, pp. 264

Explores the diverse meanings of community unionism, provides case studies from the UK – the ‘London’s living wage’ campaign, and activism by black and minority workers and migrant workers – and from Japan, Australia and the US.

Hall, Simon, Peace and Freedom: The Civil Rights and the Antiwar Movements in the 1960s, [2004], Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, pp. 280

Using archival research, explores both how the Civil Rights Movement reacted to the Vietnam War, and also examines relations between black groups opposed to the War and the wider peace movement, and difficulties that arose.

Halstead, Fred, Out Now! A Participant’s Account of the American Movement Against the Vietnam War, [1978], Atlanta, GA, Pathfinder, 2001, pp. 886

Traces the rise of the anti-Vietnam War movement, including accounts of the ideological and institutional rivalries between organizations, and covers all the major demonstrations and civil disobedience actions from the Students for a Democratic Society March on Washington in 1965 to US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973.

Harvey, Kyle, American Anti-Nuclear Actvism 1975-1990: The Challenge of Peace, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 221

The introduction examinesthe dynamics of anti-nucelar activism in the Second Cold War. There is a chapter on mainstream movement building, but the emphasis is on nonviolent approaches and the role of pacifists.

Harvey, Kyle, American Anti-Nuclear Activism 1975-1990: The Challenge of Peace, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 221

The Introduction examines the dynamics of anti-nuclear activism in the Second Cold War. There is a chapter on mainstream movement building, but the emphasis is on nonviolent approaches and the role of pacifists.

Healey, Josh, Whose Streets? Our Streets!, Red Pepper, no. Apr/May, 2012, pp. 41-43

Examines Occupy Oakland, its potential and downside.

Heuer, Wolfgang, Hannah Arendt: Ein Zuhause fuer den zivilen Ungehorsam, INDES- Zeitschrift fuer Politik und Gesellschaft, no. 4, 2017, pp. 66-76

Hannah  Arendt presented her ideas about civil disobedience at a symposium of the New York Bar Association in 1970, and posed as the central question whether the law was dead.  This article explains Arendt's 'republican' philosophy and distinguishes it from the liberal approaches of  Rawls and Habermas, and from democrats like Etienne Balibar, before discussing in some detail Arendt's work On Revolution.  

Hill, Lance, Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement, Chapel Hill NC, University of North Carolina Press, 2004, pp. 363

Documents emergence of armed self-defence groups in Louisiana and Mississippi in the mid-1960s to counter the Klan and enforce civil rights legislation.

Hill, Marc Lamont, Nobody: Casualties Of America’s War On The Vulnerable, From Ferguson To Flint And Beyond, ed. Camp, Jordan T., Heatherthon, Christina, New York, Atria , 2016, pp. 273

African-American Studies scholar and policy analyst Marc Lamont Hill examines the interlocking mechanisms of unregulated capitalism, public policy, and social practice in the US. His work starts recounting one of the most salient event that gave birth to the Black Lives Matter movement: the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, in 2014. More precisely, the narration spans different periods of time, starting with the grand jury testimony of Darren Wilson, the officer who killed Michael Brown, and then looks back at the 1939 World’s Fair and Le Corbusier’s lofty ideas about urban renewal. It moves forward in time again to the development of the Pruitt-Igoe public housing projects in St. Louis, completed in 1955 and demolished twenty years later, with many of the displaced residents having to move to Ferguson and face a climate of socio-cultural deprivation. Hill terminates his narration in Flint, Michigan, where the American city’s population ended up being poisoned by lead in the water.

Hill’s work is an account of the systematically disadvantaged identities - “those marked as poor, black, brown, immigrant, queer, or trans” – by a system that treats them as nobody, and makes them disposable, vulnerable and invisible. This work has been praised for enriching the contemporary canon of US civil rights literature not only because it captures the systemic nature of inequality in US society, but also because of his positive conclusion on the transformative power of organising, the most recent version of which lies in the Black Lives Matter movement.

Hill, Simon, Rethinking the American Anti-war Movement, New York, Routledge, 2011, pp. 208

Structured in sections covering key events and key individuals in movement against Vietnam War, and includes a chapter assessing strength and weaknesses of movement. Extensive footnotes and bibliography.

Hobbs, Allyson, One year of #MeToo: the legacy of Black women’s testimonies, The New Yorker, 2018

Hobbs explores the tradition of testimony over sexual assault allegations by women of colour – from Harriet Jacobs’ case in 1861 up to now - and how that has facilitated testimony today in the US. She advocates a more inclusive narrative that can overcome the gender-only or race-only approach to telling stories of sexual abuse.

Hunt, Andrew E., The Turning: A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War, [1999], 2nd edition, New York, New York University Press, 2001, pp. 296

Covers origins and development of Vietnam Veterans Against the War and key events, as well as attempts to recruit Afro-American veterans and the role of women in the organization.

Jackson, Mandi Isaacs, Harlem’s Rent Strike and Rat War: Representation, Housing Access and Tenant Resistance in New York 1938-1964, American Studies, Vol. 47, no. 1, 2006, pp. 53-71

Jasper, James M., The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp. 514

Takes up the challenge that ‘most academic theories of social movements are not prepared to explain the full range of protest goals and activities, especially those of privileged rather than oppressed citizens’, specifically drawing on the US environmental, anti-nuclear energy, and animals rights movements.

Jay, Karla ; Young, Allen, Out of the Closet: Voices of Gay Liberation, ed. Flam, Helena, New York, New York University Press, 1997, pp. 367

Views and experiences of US activists and their assessment of how much or little had changed since Stonewall.

Jenkins, Craig, The Politics of Insurgency: The Farm Workers Movement in the 1960s, New York, Columbia University Press, 1985, pp. 261

Jezer, Marty, Where Do We Go From Here? Tactics and Strategies for the Peace Movement, New York, A.J. Muste Institute, 1984, pp. 74

Answers by range of peace activists to questions about the future of the movement, including whether it should focus on the arms race or more broadly on US foreign policy, its relationship to electoral politics, the role of civil disobedience and issues related to feminist separatism.

Joppke, Christian, Mobilizing Against Nuclear Energy: A Comparison of Germany and the United States, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 307

Kaltefleiter, Werner ; Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Peace Movements in Europe and the United States, London, Croom Helm, 1985, pp. 211

Essays arising out of May 1984 conference at the Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, on peace movements in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, West Germany, France, Italy, Britain and the US. Focus is on the anti-nuclear movements of the 1980s, though some contributors sketch the earlier history of movements in their countries.

Kantor, Jodi ; Twohey, Meg, She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story that Helped Ignite a Movement, London, Bloomsbury Circus, 2019, pp. 336

Widely reviewed and recommended account by the two journalists who wrote the New York Times article that exposed and documented Harvey Weinstein’s systematic abuse of women actors and employees over decades. The book reveals the unfolding story they uncovered, exposes in detail the mechanisms of power that silenced many women, and reveals those who resisted these pressures. The second part of the book covers the Senate hearings for Trump’s Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanagh and Blasey Ford’s accusation against him.

Kapur, Sudarshan, Raising up a Prophet: The African American Encounter with Gandhi, Beacon, Beacon Press, 1992, pp. 222

Katz, Milton, Ban the Bomb: A History of SANE, the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1986, pp. 215

SANE was founded in the US in 1957 to campaign against nuclear tests, but also to draw attention to wider dangers of the arms race. Its emphasis was on public appeals, lobbying in Washington and backing peace candidates in the 1962 primaries, and its support was mainly from intellectuals and some business people; students tended to support more radical groups and nonviolent direct action against tests and bases was carried out by groups like the Committee for Nonviolent Action.

Katz, Steven ; Mayer, Margit, Gimme shelter: Self-help Housing Struggles within and against the State in New York City and West Berlin, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 9, no. 1, 1985, pp. 15-47

Kelly, Cara ; Hegarty, Aaron, #MeToo was a culture shock. But changing laws will take more than a year, USA Today, 2018

A comprehensive article exploring the legislative advances and what is yet to be accomplished in the US one year after the emergence of the #MeToo movement and #TimeIsUp campaigns.

Kelsey, Kim, Set in Bronze: Examining the Women’s Movements and the Politics of Comfort Women Memorialization , UCLA Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2018

After decades of silence, many surviving ‘comfort women’ – sex slaves for the Imperial Japanese Army in World War Two - have publicly come forward to demand justice through apologies and reparations. The Japanese government has continued to deny responsibility. In response, supporters of ‘comfort women’ have created public memorials throughout the world, particularly in the US. These memorials have led to Japanese diplomatic intervention and demands for their removal, sparking a battle for recognition in the public sphere. This thesis explores the ‘comfort women’ movement and the controversy surrounding the memorials, reexamining these memorials as a form of recognition, reparations and reconciliation.

The thesis can be accessed here https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5h71r542#article_main

Kerton, Sarah, Tahrir Here? The influence of the Arab Uprisings on the emergence of Occupy, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social Cultural and Political Protest, Vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 302-308

Khan-Cullors, Patrisse ; Bandele, Asha, When They Call You a Terrorist: A Black Lives Matter Memoir, New York, NY, St. Martin Press, 2018, pp. 257

When They Call You A Terrorist is the story of Patrisse Khan-Cullors, one of the co-founders of the Black Lives Matter movement. It collects her reflections on humanity, on her life and activism since early age, her brother’s first-hand experience with police brutality, and on the founding of a movement for racial justice and its development during the Trump era.

King, Coretta Scott, Martin Luther, King, Il Sogno Della Nonviolenza. Pensieri, [1983], Milano, Edizione Feltrinelli, 2006, pp. 117

In this book, Coretta Scott King collects a series of extracts on Dr. King’s views on issues such as racism, justice, civil rights, freedom, religion, nonviolence and peace. She also includes some of her husband’s major speeches.

King, Martin Luther, Stride Towards Freedom: The Montgomery Story, London, Victor Gollanez, 1958, pp. 216

Account of year-long 1955 bus boycott which heralded a new stage of nonviolent direct action against segregation and launched King’s leadership.

King, Martin Luther, Letter from Birmingham City Jail, Philadelphia PA, American Friends Service Committee, 1963, pp. 15

Answer to critics during the major campaign to desegregate Birmingham Alabama. President Kennedy intervened to get King released.

King, Martin Luther, Why We Can’t Wait, New York, Harper and Row, 1963, pp. 159

Answer to white leaders urging less militant confrontation and greater patience.

King, Mary Elizabeth, Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, New York, William Morrow, 1987, pp. 592

Insider account by white woman working in SNCC office. Meticulously detailed, with extensive quotes from key documents.

King, Mary Elizabeth, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr: The Power of Nonviolent Action, Paris, UNESCO, 1999, pp. 539

2nd edition New Delhi, Indian Council for Cultural Relations and Mehta Publishers, 2002, pp. 520.

Kingsnorth, Paul, One No, Many Yeses: A Journey to the Heart of the Global Resistance Movement, London, Free Press, 2003, pp. 355

Wide ranging exploration of campaigns in all parts of the world seen at first hand. Includes coverage of Sem Terra in Brazil, Cochabamba in Bolivia, township resistance to privatization in South Africa, the Zapatistas, opposition to mining in West Papua, and campaigning groups in the USA. See also his: Kingsnorth, Paul , Protest still matters New Statesman, 08/05/2006 , 8 May, 2006, discussing why the Global Justice Movement has dropped out of the news, the turn away from street demonstrations to social forums, and stressing that struggles still continue, especially in the Global South.

Kolb, Felix, Protest and Opportunities: The Political Outcomes of Social Movements, Frankfurt Main, Campus Verlag, 2007, pp. 360

Derives propositions about social movements and political change from detailed analyses of the US Civil Rights Movement compared with movements against nuclear power.

Krasniewicz, Louise, Nuclear Summer: The Clash of Communities at the Seneca Women’s Peace Encampment, ed. Harford, Barbara, Hopkins, Sarah, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 1992, pp. 276

L'Abate, Alberto, Riflessioni su “La Rivoluzione Disarmista” di Carolo Cassola (Rizzoli, 1983), a oltre trenta anni dalla sua pubblicazione, [2016], Torino, Centro Studi Sereno Regis, 2016

In this long article, L’Abate reflects on Cassola’ s work, La Rivoluzione Disarmista, which focuses on pursuing a nonviolent ‘disarming revolution’ aimed at strengthening fraternity amongst people and abolishing nuclear weapons. Starting from Cassola, L’Abate examines the relevance of nonviolent movements in Italy and worldwide, starting from those whose activity contributed to the adoption of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, signed in 1987 by Gorbachev and Reagan. He also sharply analyses the pervasive, global structural violence caused by the huge concentration of natural resources in the hands of a few, and reflects on how nonviolence can contribute to changing the current global financial system. L’Abate cites both Italian and internationally renowned authors on nonviolence, and proposes his solutions for overcoming the current state of affairs.

Available at http://serenoregis.org/2016/12/12/riflessioni-su-la-rivoluzione-disarmista-di-carlo-cassola-rizzoli-1983-a-oltre-trenta-anni-dalla-sua-pubblicazione-alberto-labate/

La Duke, Winona, Uranium Mines on Native Land, The Harvard Crimson, 1979

On struggle in late 1970s by Navajos against proposed uranium and coal mining, stressing dangers of uranium mining.
See also her article La Duke, Winona , Uranium Mining, Native Resistance and the Greener Path: The impact of uranium mining on indigenous communities Orion Magazine, 2009 , on Navajo resistance in past and new threat from revived stress on nuclear power. (Includes references to Kakadu.)

Lainer-Vos, Dan, Social Movements and Citizenship: Conscientious Objection in France, the United States and Israel, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 11, no. 3 (Oct), 2006, pp. 277-295

Compares movements of objection to the French war in Algeria, the US War in Vietnam and Israel’s invasion of Lebanon.

Laqueur, Walter ; Hunter, Robert Edwards, European Peace Movements and the Future of the Western Alliance, ed. Kaltefleiter, Werner, Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., New Brunswick, Transaction Books in association with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 1985, pp. 450

Generally critical contributions on the peace movements of the 1980s in various European countries and their impact on the Western alliance. Includes chapter on the US peace movement of the 1980s.

Lawson, Ronald, The Rent Strike in New York City 1904-1980: The End of a Social Movement Strategy, Journal of Urban History, Vol. 10, no. 3 (May), 1984, pp. 235-258

Lawson, Ronald ; Naison, Mark, The Tenant Movement in New York City, 1904-1984, New Brunswick NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1986, pp. 289

See also the article by Lawson, Ronald , The Rent Strike in New York City 1904-1980: The End of a Social Movement Strategy Journal of Urban History, 1984, pp. 235-258

Lebron, Christopher J., The Making Of Black Lives Matter, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 216

This work presents a concise and accessible history of the rhetoric and activism that has laid the foundation to the modern #BlackLivesMatter movement. Drawing on the work of earlier Black public intellectuals, such as Frederick Douglass, Ida B. Wells, Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston, Anna Julia Cooper, Audre Lorde, James Baldwin, and Martin Luther King Jr., it prompts readers to understand the thoughts, demands and emotions of African Americans in order to understand their activism and the history of Black thought in the face of contemporary anti-Black law enforcement.

Christopher J. Lebron is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Johns Hopkins University. He specializes in political philosophy, social theory, the philosophy of race, and democratic ethics.

Lee, Martha F., Earth First! Environmental Apocalypse, Syracuse NJ, Syracuse University Press, 1995, pp. 221

Study of the militant US movement founded in 1980, which split between what the author terms ‘millenarian’ and ‘apocalyptic’ wings, the former seeking to educate others and the latter trying to save biodiversity before it is too late.

Legislature, NCSL – Nation, 2018 Legislation On Sexual Harassment in the Legislature, Washington, D.C. and Denver, NCSL – National Conference of State Legislature, 2018

This online report includes up-to-date links to the status of the legislation on sexual harassment in every state in the US.

Levy, Jacques, Cesar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa, New York, W.W. Norton, 1975, pp. 546

Lewis, John ; D’Orsa, Michael, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement, with Michael D’Orsa, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1998, pp. 496

By an early SNCC leader who came from the South.

Lowery, Wesley, They Can’t Kill Us All: The Story Of Black Lives Matter, London, Penguin, 2017, pp. 256

A front-line account of the police killings and the Black, young activism that sparked the birth of the racial justice movement Black Lives Matter. Lowery, a Washington Post reporter, provides the narration of the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, in August 2014, and the weeks of protests and rioting that broke out in the aftermath. He also challenges readers with the question of why so little progress has been made on the racial front during Barack Obama’s presidency, despite its promise and potential for such a transformative advancement.

Wesley Lowery became renowned, together with other of his colleagues at The Washington Post, for establishing an informal database that collects information about the shooting of Black people by police officers in 2014 and 2015, in the absence of a comprehensive federal government database.

Lowery, Wesley, 'The Birth of a Movement', Guardian (17 Jan 2017), pp. 23-25.

This Guardian 'Long Read' article is an adapted extract from Lowery's book They Can't Kill Us All, London, Penguin, 2017. The article is available (free) at https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/17/black-lives-matter-birth-of-a-movement

Lynd, Alice, We Won’t Go: Personal Accounts of War Objectors, Boston, Beacon Press, 1998, pp. 332

Deals with conscientious objection in US during the Vietnam War, 1961-1975.

Lynd, StaughtonLynd, Alice, Nonviolence in America: A Documentary History, ed. Lynd, Alice, [1966], Maryknoll NY, Orbis Books, 1995, pp. 530

The 1966 anthology included writings by opponents of slavery, anarchists and ‘progressives’ in the 19th century, and trade unionists, conscientious objectors and peace campaigners in the 20th century, up to the Civil Rights Movement and anti-Vietnam War protests. The revised edition covers radical Catholic resistance, nonviolent trade unionism, resistance to US imperialism in Central America in the 1980s and assistance to Central American refugees, opposition to the 1991 Gulf War and environmental protests.

Macklem, Patrick, Distributing Sovereignty: Indian Nations and Equality of Peoples, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 45, no. 5 (May), 1993, pp. 1311-1367

Compares Canada and USA from a legal perspective.

Mandelbaum, Michael, The Nuclear Question: The United States and Nuclear Weapons 1946-1976, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1979, pp. 288

Marotta, Toby, The Politics of Homosexuality, Boston MA, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1981, pp. 361

Examines struggle for gay rights in USA from 1950s to early 1970s, charting the different political and cultural issues and types of campaigning and the contradictions between political reformism and radical hippy culture. Part III covers the Lesbian Feminist Movement.

Martin, ‘Del’ (Dorothy L. Taliaferro) ; Lyon, Phyllis, Lesbian/Woman, [1972], Volcano CA, Volcano Press, 1993, pp. 384

By two women journalists at forefront of US gay and lesbian rights struggle from the 1950s, founders of Daughters of Bilitis and active in the feminist campaign NOW (National Organization for Women) where they argued that lesbian issues were feminist issues. A couple since the 1950s, they married in San Francisco in February 2004.

Mason, Paul, Why Its Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions, London, Verso, 2012, pp. 237

Wide-ranging exploration, by BBC economics journalist, of campaigns round the world since 2008, including the Arab uprisings of 2011, but mainly focused on resistance to economic policies and including accounts of protest in UK, USA and Greece. Discusses economic and social causes of unrest and role of new communications.

McAdam, Doug, Freedom Summer, New York, Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 368

A detailed study of SNCC’s Mississippi summer project in 1964.

McAdam, Doug, Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970, [1982], Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1999, pp. 304

McAdam, a leading social movement theorist, has written widely on various aspects and interpretations of the Civil Rights Movement, including McAdam, Doug , The US Civil Rights Movement: Power from Below and Above, 1945-70 In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 58-74 . His influential article  McAdam, Doug , Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency American Sociological Review, 1985, pp. 735-754  (reprinted in McAdam; Snow, Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics and Outcomes (A. 7. Important Reference Works and Websites) ) highlights how innovative tactics of mass action broke through institutionalised powerlessness.

McAllister, Pam, Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence, ed. McAllister, Pam, Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 1982, pp. 440

Examines feminism, pacifism and nonviolence and anti-nuclear protests in the USA.

McCarthy, Mary, Vietnam, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1968, pp. 119

Influential account by US novelist of her visit to Vietnam, in which she argued that the US was fighting a war it could not win, and called for withdrawal.

McCrea, Frances B. ; Markle, Gerald E., Minutes to Midnight: Nuclear Weapons Protest in America 1950s-80s, Newbury Park CA, Sage, 1989, pp. 200

Meier, August ; Rudwick, Elliot, CORE: A Study on the Civil Rights Movement 1942-1968, [1973], Urbana IL, Illini Books, 1975, pp. 563

Extensive analysis of rise and fall of CORE drawing on interviews with key members and CORE archives. Covers the 1960 sit-ins, 1961 Freedom Ride, mass campaigns in 1963 to desegregate Southern cities, and the impact of black power ideology.

Menasche, Louis ; Radosh, Ronald, Teach-ins USA: Reports, Opinions, Documents, New York, Praeger, 1967, pp. 349

Records how the Teach-In movement began modestly in a mid-West campus in 1965 but spread across the country, engaging many students and professors, and released a vast quantity of material about the Vietnam War. For first teach-in see: ‘History of Education: Selected Moments of the 20th Century: 1965 First ‘Teach-in’ held at University of Michigan: New Tool for Further Education is Born’:

http://schugurensky.faculty.asu.edu/moments/1965teachin.html

Merton, Thomas, La Mia Passione Per La Pace, Miano, Garzanti Editore, 2017, pp. 164

Merton explains his theoretical approach, which draws on exponents of nonviolence such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr, and in this context discusses the Danish people's resistance against the Nazis, the perils of the nuclear age and racism.

Meyer, David S., A Winter of Discontent: The Nuclear Freeze and American Politics, New York, Praeger, 1990, pp. 320

Meyer, David S.Rochon, Thomas, Coalitions and Political Movements: The Lessons of the Nuclear Freeze, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 1997, pp. 277

Examines movement of the early 1980s which mobilized huge numbers in the US to protest against the dangers of nuclear weapons and strategies and demanding a US-Soviet agreement for a freeze on testing, production and deployment of nuclear weapons, bombers and missiles. The movement gained some support in Congress, organized a mass lobby in Washington and demonstrated throughout the country in 1983, and engaged in electoral activity. This book examines the successes and failures of the Freeze, and broader implications for other movements. See also: Meyer, David S., A Winter of Discontent: The Nuclear Freeze and American Politics New York, Praeger, , 1990, pp. 320

Molin, Marian, Radical Pacifism in Modern America: Egalitarianism and Protest, Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, pp. 255

Morris, Aldon, Black Southern Student Sit-in movement: An Analysis of Internal Organisation, American Sociological Review, Vol. 46, no. 6 (December), 1981, pp. 744-767

(reprinted in McAdam; Snow, Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics and Outcomes (A. 7. Important Reference Works and Websites) )

Describes the expansion of organisational capacity for direct action between 1956 and 1960.

Morris, Aldon, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organising for Change, London, Collier Macmillan, 1984, pp. 563

Details continuity with pre-civil rights movement generations of protest, and studies organisational infrastructure of protest in black communities.

Morris, Monique W., Black Stats: African-Americans By The Numbers In The Twenty-First Century, New York and London, The New Press, 2014, pp. 240, p.b.

In this work, Monique Morris provides a statistical account on the lives of African Americans in the U.S. related to the field of education, environment, sport, health and justice system, military, politics, voting and civic engagement in order to highlight the disparity between racial communities.

Moser, Richard R., The New Winter Soldiers: GI and Veteran Dissent During the Vietnam Era, New Brunswick NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1996, pp. 252

Draws on interviews and personal stories to examine how the ideal of the ‘citizen soldier’ encouraged thousands to move towards opposition to the Vietnam war.

Moskos, Charles C. ; Chambers, John Whiteclay, The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 286

Section 1 suggests ‘the secularization of conscience and modern individ-ualism have been the driving force’ in the rise of conscientious objection. Section 2 looks at the historical record in the USA. Section 3 has articles on France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, the former Communist states in Eastern Europe, Israel and South Africa.

Moyer, Bill ; McAllister, JoAnn ; Finley, Mary Lou ; Soifer, Steven, Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements, Gabriola Island, New Society Publishers, 2001, pp. 228

From his central insight that some movements could not recognise when they were succeeding, Bill Moyer constructed his model MAP - Movement Action Plan - as a tool for strategic analysis for nonviolent movements. The book includes case studies of five US movements: civil rights, anti-nuclear energy, gay and lesbian, breast cancer and anti-globalization.

Nancy, Gregory, The Gay and Lesbian Movement in the United States, In Moyer; McAllister; Finley; Soifer, Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements (K.1. Planning and Development of Campaigns), Gabriola Island, New Society Publishers, pp. 152-164

Analyses the US LGBT movement from 1945-2000 using the model of the Movement Action Plan developed by Moyer.

Nepstad, Sharon Erickson, Religion and War Resistance in the Plowshares Movement, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 204

Study of radical nonviolent direct action movement initiated by Catholic left during Vietnam War (burning draft records and pouring blood on conscription papers), which developed into wider protests against nuclear weapons and unjust wars involving openly declared sabotage of missiles and planes. Compares movement in US with similar groups in UK, Australia, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden, and examines how a movement involving long prison sentences maintained itself over decades.

Nepstad, Sharon Erickson, Nonviolent Struggle: Theories, Strategies, and Dynamics, New York, Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 264

Designed as a textbook, it covers history, theoretical developments and debates about the results of nonviolent movements. It categorizes nine types of nonviolent action, which are illustrated by case studies.  A separate chapter explores key issues of why and when sections of the armed services defect from a regime challenged by a nonviolent movement. 

North, Anna, The #MeToo movement and its evolution explained, Vox, 2018

This long article narrates the birth of the #MeToo movement and its development. It also provides a list of the more than 200 high-profile figures who were accused since 2017, which is constantly updated. (You can access the lost from here as well: https://www.vox.com/a/sexual-harassment-assault-allegations-list).

Orosco, José-Antonio, Cesar Chavez and the Common Sense of Nonviolence, Albuquerque, NM, University of New Mexico Press, 2008, pp. 160

Payne, Charles, I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organising Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle, [1995], 2nd edn. with new preface, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 2007, pp. 525

Thorough study of grass-roots activism in Mississippi, with useful bibliographical essay.

See also commentary by Francesca Polletta in Goodwin; Jasper, Contention in Context: Political Opportunities and the Emergence of Protest (A. 6. Nonviolent Action and Social Movements) , pp. 133-152.

Pazzanese, Christina ; Walsh, Coleen, The women’s revolt: Why now, and where to?, The Harvard Gazzette, 2017

In this long article academics across a range of disciplines assess the factors that currently define the repercussions of and reactions to sexual harassment among survivors, perpetrators and in society in general. It explores the power of narrative in the post-Weinstein era; the waves of feminism that had led to the current movements; the role of culture and power in addressing gender relations and the power dynamics of sexual harassment; the role of formal policies and education in tackling sexual harassment, and the need to reframe masculinity.

Peace, Roger C., A Just and Lasting Peace: The US Peace Movement from the Cold War to Desert Storm, Chicago IL, The Noble Press, 1991, pp. 345

Peace, a writer/activist, documents the growth of the peace and justice movement in the US, with particular focus on the 1980s. Areas covered include anti-nuclear campaigning and campaigns for justice in Latin America. Discusses also debates and controversies within the movement.

Peace, Roger C., A Call to Conscience: The Anti-Contra War Campaign, Manchester, University of Manchester Press, 2012, pp. 328

History of the 8 year anti-Contra campaign, its links in Nicaragua and its impact on deterring the US President from sending troops to oust the left-wing Sandanista government. See also on border monitoring:  Griffin-Nolan, Witness for Peace: A Story of Resistance (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment)  and shorter version in  Moser-Puangsuwan; Weber, Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders: A Recurrent Vision (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment) , pp. 279-304.

Peck, James, Freedom Ride, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1962, pp. 170

Firsthand account by white activist who participated in both in the 1947 ‘Journey of Reconciliation’ organised jointly by the Fellowship of Reconciliation and CORE, and the 1961 Freedom Ride organised by CORE at the height of the Civil rights Movement.

Pever, Stephen L., The Rights of Indians and Tribes: The Basic ACLU Guide to Indian Tribal Rights, [1985], 4th edn. (first edition of this American Civil Liberties Union Guide published 1985 and 2nd 1992 by Southern Illinois University Press)., New York, Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 540

Pickerill, Jenny ; Krinksy, John, Why does Occupy matter?, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social Cultural and Political Protest, Vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 279-287

Piven, Frances Fox ; Cloward, Richard A., Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail, [1977], New York, Vintage Books, 1979, pp. 408

Compares the efficacy of defiance and disruption with constitutional methods in four US movements.

Poggi, Isotta ; Mokslaveskas, Virginia, From Global Protests to Local Archives in the Collections of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, ed. Chiavacci, David, Obinger, Julia, Los Angeles, Paper presented at: IFLA WLIC 2017 – Wrocław, Poland – Libraries. Solidarity. Society. In Session 123 - Art Libraries with Social Science Libraries, 2017

The period of sustained dissent in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s, associated particularly with the Civil Rights Movement, the rising opposition to the Vietnam War and second wave feminism, also proud forms of radical art. The Getty Research Institute Library, which was active in documenting this art in Los Angeles, helped to define this era. Drawing primarily on the holdings of the Library, such as photobooks, photographs, performance art, and art books, this presentation discusses the visual language of different types of art media used for social activism. It also illustrates the role the Getty Research Institute has played in collecting these primary materials and making them increasingly available to the public, both locally and globally, through collaborative initiatives, exhibitions and publications.

Polletta, Francesca, ”It Was Like a Fever...” Narrative and Identity in Social Protest, Social Problems, Vol. 45, no. 2 (May), 1998, pp. 137-159

(reprinted in McAdam; Snow, Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics and Outcomes (A. 7. Important Reference Works and Websites) ).

Discusses the contagious impact of the sit-ins and the spirit they generated among participants.

Popovic, Srdja ; Miller, Matthew, Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanise Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World, Melbourne and London, Scribe, 2015, pp. 282

Popovic, an activist against the Milosevic regime in Serbia in the 1990s, went on to find CANVAS, which has offered advice and nonviolent training to activists in former Soviet states and other parts of the world, including Egypt before Tahrir Square and Syria. The book emphasizes the role of CANVAS (but does not address criticism of its role) and foregrounds the author's own experiences and interpretation of nonviolent action. It covers many varied campaigns with examples of how to mobilize successfully and use humour and imaginative forms of protest. It also addresses how to make oppression 'backfire' and the need to persevere in one's effort after apparent success. Written for activists rather than for scholars of nonviolence. 

Powers, Thomas, The War at Home: Vietnam and the American People, 1964-1968, Boston MA, G.K. Hall, 1984, pp. 348

Argues that, although all forms of opposition had some effect, those that involved the greatest self-sacrifice tended to work best. However, these sacrifices had most impact first time or two, before the public came to accept and then ignore them. Concludes that opposition to the war did not cause US failure, but forced the government to recognize this failure.

Price, Jerome, The Antinuclear Movement, (Revised edition 1989), Boston MA, Twayne Publishers, 1982, pp. 207

General analysis of evolution of movement in the US and the groups and organizations involved. Chapter 4 examines direct action groups and their protests.

Quart, Alyssa, #MeToo’s hidden activists? Working class women, The Guardian, 2018

The article sheds light on the need to include the struggle of women from lower social classes, who suffer harassment and sexual abuse, within the public exposure that the #MeToo movement achieved since 2017. It argues that understanding the dynamic of sexual harassment and sexual assaults in every working context is fundamental to understand how to end it.

Raines, Howell, My Soul is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered, [1977], New York, Penguin, 1983, pp. 496

A range of recollections from 1955 to MLK’s assassination in 1968.

Ramirez-Valles, Jesus, Companeros, Latino Activists in the Face of AIDS, Chicago IL, University of Illinois Press, 2011, pp. 192

A professor of community health tells the stories of 80 gay, bisexual and transgender activists and volunteers in Chicago and San Francisco.

Ransby, Barbara, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision, Chapel Hill NC, University of North Carolina Press, 2003, pp. 470

Recounts the life and work of black woman activist who played key role in three major organisations: the NAACP, SCLC and SNCC.

Ransby, Barbara, Making All Black Lives Matter: Reimagining Freedom In The Twenty-First Century, Oakland, CA, University of California Press, 2018, pp. 148

Historian and activist, Barbara Ransby, explores the birth of the hashtag and social media platform #BlackLivesMatter by three Black activist women following the shooting of unarmed 17 year-old Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Florida, in 2012, and the acquittal of his killer, George Zimmerman. Through a series of interviews with its principal organisers, Ransby’s narration contextualizes the origin of the Black Lives Matter movement in prison reform and anti-police violence reform policies, the establishment of Black youth movements, and radical mobilizations across the country dating back for at least a decade.

Reading, Anna ; Katriel, Tamar, Cultural Memories of nonviolent Struggles: Powerful Times, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, pp. 260

This is an acadmeic contribution to memory studies, but shows how preserving knowledge and stories of past movements affects present politics, and how nonviolent activists can learn from past campaigns. Examples examined include the suffragettes, Greenham Common, Polish Solidarity, US struggles against racism and Australian aboriginal campaigns. The authors also illustrate how one movement can influence others and stress the need to make archival and other sources (films, music, etc.) available.

Robinson, Jo Ann Gibson, The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It: The Memoir of Jo Ann Gibson Robinson, edited and with afterword by David Garrow, Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1987, pp. 208

Robnett, Belinda, How Long? How Long?: African-American Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights,, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 272

Rock, Lucy, How American women’s growing power finally turned #metoo into a cultural moment, The Guardian, 2017

Journalist Lucy Rock briefly explores the history of ‘sexual harrassment’ in the US since 17th  century slavery. She then focuses on the 1990s up to the Harvey Weinstein scandal, a moment which she considers revolutionary because of the reforms it can lead to.

Roddewig, Richard J., Green Bans: The Birth of Australian Environmental Politics, Montclair NJ, Allanheld, Osmun, 1976, pp. 180

Compares Australian and US environmental activism in relation to their political and social context.

Rogers, Jamala, Ferguson is America. Roots of Rebellion, St. Louis, MO, Jamala Rogers, 2015, pp. 135

This work is collection of articles and essays exploring the roots and development of the fight for racial justice and human rights in Ferguson, USA.  Political activist Jamala Rogers narrates the history of systemic racism and police violence in St. Louis and of the development of the Black Lives Matter movement in the region.

Rohr, John A., Prophets Without Honor: Public Policy and the Selective Conscientious Objector, Nashville and New York, Abingdon Press, 1971, pp. 191

Examines lack of a constitutional right or political tolerance for selective refusal to take part in particular wars.

Rosales, Francisco Arturo, Chicano! The History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement, Houston TX, Arte Publico, 1997, pp. 304

Rupp, Leila, The Persistence of Transnational Organizing: The Case of the Homophile Movement, American Historical Review, Vol. 116, no. 4 (Oct), 2011, pp. 1014-1039

Study of the reformist groups which were active in Scandinavia, West Germany, France, the UK, Canada and USA, primarily in the 1950s and 1960s, which joined in the International Committee for Sexual Equality (1951-1963) founded by the Dutch COC (the first ‘homophile’ group).

Ryan, Barbara, Feminism and the Women’s Movement: Dynamics of Change in Social Movement Ideology and Activism, New York, Routledge, 1992, pp. 272

After looking at earlier history of US feminism, examines 2nd wave and in particular the mobilization around the Equal Rights Act passed in 1975; also explores ideological divisions within the movement.

Sale, Kirkpatrick, SDS: The Rise And Development Of The Students For A Democratic Society, New York, Random House, 1973, pp. 752

Traces emergence of Students for a Democratic Society from 1960-1970, with a major focus on campaigns against the Vietnam War, including the 1965 March on Washington.

Scalmer, Sean, Gandhi in the West: the Mahatma and the Rise of Radical Protest, Cambridge MA, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 254

Primarily discusses the US civil rights and the British nuclear disarmament movements.

Scasta, D. I., John E. Fryer, MD and the Dr. H. Anonymous Episode, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, Vol. 6, no. 4, 2002, pp. 73-84

Recounts Fryer’s anonymous appearance on stage, at the 1972 American Psychiatric Association session on psychiatry and mental illness, to announce his homosexuality. (He spoke anonymously – as he explained later – through fear of being refused tenure at his university.)

Schilts, Randy, The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk, [1998], New York, Atlantic Books and St Martins Press, 2009, pp. 480

The career of Milk, the first openly gay man to be elected to political office in the USA – as a councilor in San Francisco – reflects the rise of the gay community in the 1970s. He was assassinated in November 1978. His life is also the subject of a 1984 documentary film, ‘The Times of Harvey Milk’, 1984, directed by Rob Epstein, and a feature film ‘Milk’ 2008, directed by Gus Van Sant.

Schlissel, Lillian, Conscience in America: A Documentary History of Conscientious Objection in America, 1757-1967, New York, E.P. Dutton, 1968, pp. 444

Documents and statements on conscientious objection, later sections cover COs in two world wars and Vietnam, and case for tax resistance.

Schragg, James L., Report from Wounded Knee, In Hare; Blumberg, Liberation without Violence: A Third Party Approach (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment), London, Rex Collings, pp. 117-124

On the spot account by pacifist during the occupation, noting the demands of the American Indian Movement protesters, that they had been invited by organizations representing many of the Sioux on the Pine Ridge Reservation angry about the conduct of the reservation government, and commenting on disparity between the light rifles of the protesters and the full military arsenal being deployed by the FBI.

Shabecoff, Philip, A Fierce Green Fire: The American Environmental Movement, ed. Seel, Benjamin, Patterson, Matthew, Doherty, Brian, (revised edition), Washington DC, Island Press, 2003, pp. 352

History stretching back to origins of the republic, covering key individuals, NGOs and governmental responses.

Shawcross, William, Side Show: Kissinger, Nixon an d the Destruction of Cambodia, [1979], London, Andre Deutsch and Fontana, 1980, pp. 467

Detailed analysis of the evolution of the US war on Cambodia.

Sheehan, Neil ; Smith, Hedrick ; Kenworthy, E.W. ; Butterfield, Fox, The Pentagon Papers as published by the New York Times, New York, Bantam Books, 1971, pp. 677

Based on extensive Pentagon files on conduct of war and US role, leaked by Daniel Ellsberg, then an official in the Pentagon.

Sherry, Dave, Occupy! A Short History of Worker Occupations, London, Bookmarks, 2010, pp. 157

Covers campaigns in Argentina, Chicago (USA), France, Ukraine, Turkey, Egypt, South Korea and China.

Simons, Donald L., I Refuse: Memories of a Vietnam War Objector, Trenton NJ, Broken Rifle Press, 1997, pp. 184

A personal account which includes a brief summary of the course of the war and statistics on the scale of draft resistance and desertion.

Small, Melvin, Johnson, Nixon and the Doves, New Brunswick NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1988, pp. 319

Focus on the presidents and their relationship with the Vietnam Anti-War Movements between 1961 and 1975.

Small, Melvin, Covering Dissent: The Media and the Anti-Vietnam War Movement, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1994, pp. 228

Smith, Jackie ; Glidden, Bob, Occupy Pittsburgh and the challenges of participatory democracy, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social Cultural Political Protest, Vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 288-294

Smith, Paul Chaat ; Warrior, Robert Allen, Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee, New York, New Press, 1996, pp. 384

Examines the militant American Indian Movement (AIM). from the seizure of Alcatraz in 1969 to Wounded Knee in 1973, assessing failures as well as successes.

Social Movement Studies, Occupy!, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social Cultural and Political Protest, Vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 279-485

This issue has several articles on Occupy. See:

Content overview: http://tandfonline.com/toc/csms20/11/3-4?nav=tocList

Solnit, Rebecca, Savage Dreams: A Journey into the Hidden Wars of the American West, San Francisco CA, Sierra Club Books, 1994, pp. 401

Autobiographical account of radical campaigning activities against nuclear tests in Nevada. Author argues that policy of testing nuclear weapons in the American West is rooted in 19th century attitudes and policies towards native American peoples.

Solomon, Clare ; Palmieri, Tania, Springtime: The New Student Rebellions, ed. Snow, David A, Della Porta, Donatella, Klandermans, Bert, McAdam, Doug, London, Verso, 2011, pp. 256

Focuses on the widespread student protests in Britain in 2010, but also extends to Italy, France, Greece and the USA, as well as the beginning of the Arab uprisings in Tunisia. Includes texts from the past and reminders of 1968, as well as coverage of contemporary events, and political and theoretical commentaries from established and new voices.

Squatting Europe Kollektive, ; Cattaneo, Claudia ; Martínez, Miguel Ángel, The Squatters’ Movement in Europe: Commons and Autonomy as Alternatives to Capitalism, London, Pluto Press, 2014, pp. 288

Case studies from most of Europe (excluding eastern Europe and Greece) covering direct action to create social housing and other community services over 30 year period.

Steinem, Gloria, My Life On The Road, London, One World Publications , 2016, pp. 310

Autobyography of Gloria Steinem, journalist and prominent activist in feminist campaigns in the USA from the 1960s onward, who was also one of the foundersof Ms Magazine. It provides detailed insights into the early feminist ways of orgsanizing and protesting, and the internal politics of the movement. the book also covers Steinem's earlier two years in India and contact with the Gandhian movement, her links with Native American women, and her continued actvism in varied causes. 

Steiner, Stan, The New Indians, New York, Harper Row, 1968, pp. 220

On the development of the ‘Red Power’ movement rejecting white culture.

Stephens, Robert, The Fire Next Time, [Oct/Nov 2014], Red Pepper, 2014, pp. 29-31

Uses interviews with Black organisers to discuss disagreements about the best strategy to build on the mobilization resulting from the 2014 Ferguson 'rebellion' triggered by the shooting of Mike Brown. Notes in particular conflict between those working through the electoral process and seeking reform, and those focusing on resistance to the white power structure.       

Stone, Amy, Dominant Tactics in Social Movement Tactical Repertoires: Anti-Gay Ballot Measures, 1974-2008, ed. Coy, Patrick G., In Coy, Patrick G., Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change Bingley, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, , 2010, pp. 344, pp. 141-174

Examines how LGBT movement responded to over 200 attempts by religious right in US to promote discrimination through anti-gay referenda.

Stryker, Susan, Transgender History, Berkeley CA, Seal Press, 2008, pp. 208

Survey of US Transgender movement from mid 20th century to early 2000s in chronological order.

Sweeney, Sean ; Skinner, Lara, Global Shale Gas and the Anti-Fracking Movement. Developing Union Perspectives and Approaches, Trade Unions for Energy Democracy (TUEDF), in cooperation with the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung and the Global Labor Institute at Cornell University, 2014, pp. 28

Szasz, Andrew, Ecopopulism: Toxic Waste and the Movement for Environmental Justice, Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, 1994, pp. 216

Traces how a movement developed in the US out of official debate and television coverage into the formation of thousands of neighbourhood groups, and over a decade the establishment of strong civic organizations tackling different toxic threats.

Taibbi, Matt, I Can't Breathe: The Killing That Started a Movement, London, WH Allen, 2017, pp. 336

Matt Taibbi discusses Eric Garner’s life and work as a cigarettes dealer, and his subsequent killing by the police of New York that strengthened the Black Lives Matter movement and protest. He reports on how he become targeted by the police, and allegedly mistaken by police officers on the day of his death. He touches upon his problematic personal and health conditions, within the wider context of the criminalisation of drugs policies in the United States of America. The work expands on Garner’s life and killing, contextualising its narration on the 2008 Bloomberg’s policy of tax increase on cigarettes of 400% per pack, which – Taibbi argues – motivated Eric Garner to sell cigarettes to people who couldn’t afford them. Additional contextualising elements to the analysis that Taibbi offers are the ‘broken windows’ policing, computerised policing and statistical analyses on crime rate and the inherently racialized imposition of order that stems from them.

Taylor, Clyde, Vietnam and Black America, New York, Anchor Books, 1993, pp. 335

Includes essays, articles and poems by black opponents of the war, including Martin Luther King, James Baldwin, and (in a section ‘The Black Soldier’) extracts from the diaries of black GIs and the Statement of Aims of ‘GIs United Against the War in Vietnam’. Taylor notes how the advice to African Americans from some leaders to ‘prove themselves worthy’ by taking part in the war in Vietnam became increasingly discredited.

Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta, From #BlackLivesMatter To Black Liberation, Chicago, IL, Haymarket Books, 2016, pp. 180

In this analysis, activist and scholar Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor offers a concise history of the Black Lives Matter movement, and an account of how the eight years of Barack Obama’s presidency led to a state of uprising against the constant killing of Black people. Writing from a Black radical, feminist and socialist perspective, Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor argues against persisting forms of structural racism, such as mass incarceration, Black unemployment and police violence. While connecting the fight against cultural and structural racism to a broader anti-capitalist project, she provides a rationale that depicts how this scenario has the potential to reignite the advancement for Black liberation.

Taylor, Richard K., Blockade: A Guide to Nonviolent Intervention, Maryknoll NY, Orbis Books, 1977, pp. 175

Account of how a nonviolent fleet of canoes and kayaks blocked Pakistani shipping at East Coast ports of the USA to oppose US support for Pakistan’s repression in East Bengal. Part 2 is a manual for direct action.

Taylor, Ronald B., Chavez and the Farm Workers, Boston, Beacon Press, 1975, pp. 342

Includes assessment of impact of grape pickers’ strike on immigrant labour in other industries.

Taylor, Verta ; Whitaker, Nancy E., Collective Identity in Social Movement Communities: Lesbian Feminist Mobilization, ed. Morris, Aldon, Mueller, Carol McClure, In Morris, Aldon ; Mueller, Carol McClure, Frontiers in Social Movement Theory New Haven CT, Yale University Press, , 1992, pp. 400, pp. 104-129

Examines development of lesbian feminism in the US from the early 1970s and explores its collective identity and engagement in range of actions challenging status quo.

Terzani, Tiziano, Lettere Contro La Guerra, Milano, Edizioni Longanesi, 2002, pp. 196

A collection of letters following the attack in the US on 11th September 2001 that Terzani published in response to some declarations made by his colleague, Oriana Fallaci, on the same event. In his collection Terzani discusses the need to explore the root causes of violence and extremism within human nature. He also advocates nonviolence as the only creative response to conflict, alongside the necessity to reconstitute  the paradigms upon which the idea of Western globalisation rests.

Tracy, James, Direct Action: Radical Pacifism from the Union Eight to the Chicago Seven, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1996, pp. 196

Examines how a small group of radical pacifists (such as Dave Dellinger, A.J. Muste and Bayard Rustin) played a major role in the rebirth of US radicalism and social protest in the 1950s and 1960s, applying nonviolence to social issues and developing an experimental protest style.

Valocchi, Stephen, Social Movements and Activism in the USA, New York and London, Routledge, 2009, pp. 200

Examines what can be learned from social movement activists, focusing on community, labour, feminist, gay and lesbian, peace and anti-racist groups in Hartford Connecticut.

Van Gelder, Sarah, This Changes Everything: Occupy Wall Street and the 99% Movement, ed. Blumenkranz, Carla, Gessen, Keith, Greif, Mark, Leonard, Sarah, Resnick, Sarah, Saval, Nikil, Schmitt, Eli, Taylor, Astra, Bainbridge Isle WA, Yes! Magazine, 2012, pp. 96

Contributors include Naomi Klein, David Korten, Ralph Nader and Rebecca Solnit.

Vinthagen, Stellan, A Theory of Nonviolent Action: How Civil Resistance Works, London, Zed Books, 2105, pp. 400

Vinthagen develops a new general theory of nonviolent action which embraces Gandhian concepts and commitments, but relates these to modern sociological theory (for example, Haberms's conception of rationality) and reinterprets them within a more contemporary ethos. Four key dimensions explored are: dialogue facilitation; 'power breaking': 'utopian enactment' - Gandhi's constructive programme; and nonviolent training. Theoretical analysis is illustrated by examples drawn from a range of movements such as US Civil Rights, Movimento Sem Terra and radical protests against nuclear weapons. 

Waldman, Sidney R. ; Richards, Susan ; Walker, Charles C., The Edgewood Arsenal and Fort Detrick Projects: an Exchange Analysis, Haverford PA, Center for Nonviolent Conflict Resolution, 1967, pp. 67

‘Exchange analysis’ between organizers of two protests against Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) weapons production, the first a 21 month campaign at Fort Detrick from January 1960, the second planting a tree inside the base.

Weyler, Rex, Blood of the Land: The Government and Corporate War Against the American Indian Movement, [1982], New York, Random House/Vintage, 1984, pp. 304

Wilkinson, Charles, Blood Struggle: The Rise of Modern Indian Nations, New York, W.W. Norton, 2006, pp. 560

Part 1 ‘the Abyss’ examines the socio-economic conditions of many Native Americans in the 1950s, Part 2 the development of a movement, leadership on the reservations and ‘Red Power’, whilst Part 3 explores ‘the Foundations of Self-determination’.

Wittner, Lawrence S., Working for Peace and Justice: Memoirs of an Activist Intellectual, Knoxville, TN, University of Tennessee Press, 2012, pp. 288

Lively account of peace, racial justice and labour activism in USA from the 1960s to 2000s by author of major study of transnational movement against nuclear weapons from 1945 (442-445 D.3.b).

Woods, Alex, Winning at Walmart, ed. Greenwood, Ian, McBride, Jo, Red Pepper, 2013, pp. 45-47

On the campaign by OUR Walmart against the retail giant in USA in 2012, when non-unionized workers mobilized across the country with support from local communities, using blockades as well as brief strikes.

Woodward, Vann C., The Strange Career of Jim Crow, [1955], updated and reissued by Oxford University Press, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1966, pp. 272

Writers for the 99%, Occupying Wall Street: The Inside Story of an Action that Changed America, ed. Van Gelder, Sarah, Chicago IL, Haymarket Books, 2012, pp. 217

(Initially published by OR Books New York on print-on-demand and ebook basis.)
Detailed account of daily life at the camp by figures on the left.

X, Malcolm, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, [1965], (with assistance of Alex Hayley), with introduction by Paul Gilroy, Penguin, 2001, pp. 512

See also:  Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements New York, Grove Press, , 1966, pp. 226 .

X, MalcolmBrietman, George, Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, ed. Brietman, George, New York, Grove Press, 1966, pp. 226

Yeung, Beatrice, In A Day’s Work: The Fight to End Sexual Violence Against America’s Most Vulnerable Workers, New York, The New Press, 2018, pp. 240

Investigative journalist Beatrice Yeung explores episodes of sexual violence that immigrant workers in the US experience in their workplace at the hands of employers who exploit them. It also gives an account of what type of reactions they face when they decide to denounce the abuses.

Young, Iris, From Guilt to Solidarity: Sweatshops and Political Responsibility, Dissent, no. Winter, 2003, pp. 39-44

On US movement.

Young, Nigel J., An Infantile Disorder? The Crisis and Decline of the New Left, ed. Weiss, Peter, Coates, Ken, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977, pp. 490

The New Left became closely associated with opposition to the Vietnam War, and there are frequent references to this opposition in the US and UK, including a critique in chapter 9 ‘Vietnam and Alignment’, of New Left support for North Vietnam, pp. 163-88.

Youth of Rural Organising and Culture Center, Minds Stayed On Freedom: The Civil Rights Struggle In The Rural South – An Oral History, Boulder CO, Westview, 1991, pp. 198

Oral histories from Holmes County, Mississippi, voter registration campaign, which Payne (above) says ‘suggests what we may hope for’ in future historical research, identifying ‘themes important from an organising perspective’ and based on the collective work of teenagers – ‘a powerful reminder of what the movement’s values were’.

Zinn, Howard, SNCC: the New Abolitionists, Boston, Beacon Press, 1964, pp. 246