Nonviolent intervention by members of social movements or transnational networks has become an increasingly common way to oppose forms of militarism, injustice or oppression, and/or to express solidarity with those suffering. Some of these protests, for example sailing into nuclear testing zones, are covered later in this bibliography in relation to peace and green movements.
Intervention to prevent war – Maude Royden’s proposal for a ‘Peace Army’ to create a barrier against Japanese aggression in China in the 1930s is an early example – has proved difficult to implement for political, strategic and practical reasons. But plans to provide ‘human shields’ and to interpose between the two sides were attempted in relation to both the 1991and the 2003 Gulf War.
Intervention to demonstrate transnational solidarity has since 2000 resulted in a range of projects designed to support Palestinians against Israeli repressive measures and in some cases has helped to increase international awareness of the issue. Several references are included in this section.
Intervention with limited objectives, such as monitoring conflict or providing protective accompaniment to threatened individuals has also increased in recent years with some success. The interventions organised by Peace Brigades International and the Nonviolent Peace Force are intended to ‘create space’ for civil society actors. While raising human rights concerns with the local authorities and also internationally, those intervening avoid making condemnatory statements. Studies of individual organisations are appended to relevant entries.
This section includes a number of comparative studies of intervention and accounts of some specific cases. A major source, surveying the practices of recent peace teams in the field, as well as selection, training and support of personnel, only available in electronic form is:
- Schweitzer; Howard; Junge; Levine; Stieren; Wallis, Nonviolent Peace Force Feasibility Study (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment)
An overview of types of nonviolent intervention undertaken by different organisations, and theoretical discussion of the role it can play is provided by Section II of Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) . Theoretical contributions are:
- Eguren, Developing Strategy for Accompaniment (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment)
- Martin, Making Accompaniment Effective (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment)
- Schweitzer, Civilian Peacekeeping: Providing Protection without Sticks and Carrots (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment)