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The rise of so many social movements employing a wide range of tactics has prompted a growing theoretical literature since the 1970s Whilst this literature has largely developed independently of the study of nonviolent action, some more recent studies do take note of civil resistance or cover movements employing nonviolent methods. The emphasis of this Guide is on sources which give prominence to nonviolent tactics, major campaigns or examples of protest, but some of the references are books or articles written within a theoretical framework drawn from the social movement literature. Others draw on theories of nonviolent action, or on wider political and social perspectives.

A preliminary selection of titles covering both nonviolent action and social movements was published in Volume 1 (A.6.) and can be found at: The references on transnational or national movements listed below under 1.a. and 1.b. are additional titles directly relevant to Volume 2, with an emphasis on recent publications.

There are, however, a number of books listed in Volume 1 which are particularly relevant to various movements and campaigns covered in this volume, and which are cited under these movements. For ease of reference for those using this printed version of Volume 2 we have listed these titles in full under 1.c. below.


For the convenience of those using this volume, we are including these titles (which are already listed in Vol.1) in alphabetical order of author but unnumbered. Where applicable in later references, readers will be referred back to this section for full publication details.

Keck, Margaret ; Sikkink, Kathryn, Activists Across Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 1998, pp. 240

See also:

Burgmann, Verity, Power, Profit and Protest: Australian Social Movements and Globalization, Crows Nest NSW, Allen and Unwin, 2003, pp. 393

Gosse, Van, The Movements of the New Left 1950-1975: A Brief History with Documents, New York, Bedford/St. Martins, 2004, pp. 224

Uses a very broad definition of the New Left, and examines common features in Civil Rights, peace, anti-war, student, feminist and gay/lesbian movements in the USA.

King, Brayden, A political mediation model of corporate response to social movement activism, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 53, issue 3, 2008, pp. 395-421

The author examines, using newspaper reports on corporate boycotts in the US from1990 to 2005, why some corporations that are boycotted are more likely to respond to the demands than others. Brayden concludes that boycotts are more likely to succeed when they attract considerable media attention, and especially if the corporation has previously suffered from attacks on its reputation and from declining sales.

Koopmans, Ruud, Democracy from Below: New Social Movements and the Political System in West Germany, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1995, pp. 300

Analyzes range of social movements and over 3,000 ‘protest events’ between 1965-1989 in the context of West German institutional arrangements, drawing comparisons with the Netherlands and Switzerland.

Tyler, Imogen, Revolting Subjects: Social Abjection and Resistance in Neoliberal Britain, London, Zed Books, 2013, pp. 224

Begins with forced eviction (despite their resistance) of about 500 travellers from their homes in 2011, and explores exclusion and labelling of a range of ‘abjected’ groups (treated as scapegoats) and denigration of their resistance. Main focus on Britain, but makes comparisons with other oppressed groups, such as those in the Niger Delta.

Valocchi, Stephen, Social Movements and Activism in the USA, New York and London, Routledge, 2009, pp. 200

Examines what can be learned from social movement activists, focusing on community, labour, feminist, gay and lesbian, peace and anti-racist groups in Hartford Connecticut.

van Gelder, Sarah, The Revolution Where You Live: Stories from a 12,000-Mile Journey through a New America, London and New York, Penguin Random House , 2017, pp. 240 (pb)

This book focuses on importance of community-based resistance to tackle major national and global issues.  It covers diverse groups and campaigns in the USA, for example against racial injustice, coal mining and claiming workers' rights, and is based on the author’s interviews during her extended journey.

Wittner, Lawrence S., Working for Peace and Justice: Memoirs of an Activist Intellectual, Knoxville, TN, University of Tennessee Press, 2012, pp. 288

Lively account of peace, racial justice and labour activism in USA from the 1960s to 2000s by author of major study of transnational movement against nuclear weapons from 1945 (442-445 D.3.b).

Beck, Valentin, Consumer boycotts as instruments for structural change, Journal of Applied Philosophy, Vol. 36, issue 4, 2018, pp. 543-559

The author notes that consumer boycotts are frequently adopted as a means of protest, especially in the digital age, to put pressure on corporations to improve their practices on a wide range of moral issues. Valentin argues that such boycotts are legitimate and can be effective and suggests criteria campaigners should adopt, such as proportionality and transparency.

Castells, Manuel, Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age, Cambridge, Polity, 2012, pp. 200

Well known theorist of global networks examines the mass uprisings across the world in 2011, giving account of events in ‘Arab Spring’ and the reaction to the bank collapse and austerity policies in the west in Iceland, Spain, Greece and the USA, and stressing the causal role of the internet.

Della Porta, Donatella, Social Movements in Times of Austerity: Bringing Capitalism Back into Protest Analysis, Cambridge, Polity and Wiley, 2015, pp. 216

Analyzes movements since 2008 (Iceland) challenging corruption and inequality and situating them within the crisis of neoliberalism. Covers Spain, Greece and Portugal anti-austerity movements, but also Peru, Brazil, Russia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Ukraine.

Edwards, Michael ; Gaventa, John, Global Citizen Action, London, Earthscan Publications, 2001, pp. 327

Discusses transnational civil society, its impact on financial institutions, and a range of specific campaigns, e.g. to ban landmines, Jubilee 2000, campaigns against corporations.

Feigenbaum, Anna ; Frenzl, Fabian ; McCurdy, Patrick, Protest Camps, London, Zed Press, 2013, pp. 272

Examines protest camps as key tactic of movements from Tahrir Square to Occupy Wall Street; includes Red Shirts in Thailand and teachers in Oaxaca.

Jacobsson, Kerstin ; Saxonberg, Steven, Social Movements in Post-Communist Europe and Russia, London, Routledge, 2015, pp. 128

Examines social movement strategies and how they differ to fit national circumstances and considers activism related to the environment and sustainability, animal rights, human rights, women’s rights and gay rights. Reconceptualizes the relationship between state and civil society under post-communism. Based on special issue of East European Politics.

Poggi, Isotta ; Mokslaveskas, Virginia, From Global Protests to Local Archives in the Collections of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Paper presented at: IFLA WLIC 2017 – Wrocław, Poland – Libraries. Solidarity. Society. In Session 123 - Art Libraries with Social Science Libraries, 2017

The period of sustained dissent in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s, associated particularly with the Civil Rights Movement, the rising opposition to the Vietnam War and second wave feminism, also proud forms of radical art. The Getty Research Institute Library, which was active in documenting this art in Los Angeles, helped to define this era. Drawing primarily on the holdings of the Library, such as photobooks, photographs, performance art, and art books, this presentation discusses the visual language of different types of art media used for social activism. It also illustrates the role the Getty Research Institute has played in collecting these primary materials and making them increasingly available to the public, both locally and globally, through collaborative initiatives, exhibitions and publications.

Reydams, Luc, Global Activism Reader, London, Macmillan, 2011, pp. 420

Main focus on contemporary transnational activism, including case studies of labour, environmental, human rights, women’s rights, social justice and peace campaigns. Readings include theoretical perspectives and critical views. A companion website provides information on further reading, films and documentaries and activist websites.

Shefner, Jon, Latin America: Democratization, Globalization and Protest Culture, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 9, issue 3, 2004, pp. 219-339

Special issue. See at

Snow, David A ; Della Porta, Donatella ; Klandermans, Bert ; McAdam, Doug, The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, , 3 volumespp. 1544

Covers period since the French Revolution, but also contains summary accounts of numerous contemporary movements and organizations, including many included in this volume.

Solomon, Clare ; Palmieri, Tania, Springtime: The New Student Rebellions, London, Verso, 2011, pp. 256

Focuses on the widespread student protests in Britain in 2010, but also extends to Italy, France, Greece and the USA, as well as the beginning of the Arab uprisings in Tunisia. Includes texts from the past and reminders of 1968, as well as coverage of contemporary events, and political and theoretical commentaries from established and new voices.

Weiss, Meredith Leigh ; Aspinall, Edward, Student Activism in Asia: Between Protest and Powerlessness, Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, 2012, pp. 318

Comparative examination of student-led protest challenging governments in Asia since the Second World War, with a focus on Burma, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines