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, Forging Links in Ozarow, In Notes from Nowhere, We Are Everywhere: The Irresistible Rise of Global Anticapitalism London, Verso, , 2004, pp. 450-455

On Polish worker occupation to prevent closure of a factory, supported by local community and anarchist groups.

, Fighting gender violence: what Brazil, Argentina and others are doing, Americas Quarterly, 2017

Provides information on the legal framework on femicide of most Latin American countries up to 2017.

, Colombia femicide: new exhibition aims to raise femicide awareness, 2017

TRT World journalist, Dimitri O’Donnell interviews Adriana Cely Verdadero, a women’s rights activist, and Ana Guezmes Garcia, a representative of UN Women Colombia, who provide background to the exhibition dedicated to the victims of femicide in Colombia and the gaps the social and political systems need to fill. Published on 16 December 2017 on YouTube.

, 'International Slut’ activist Li Maizi is one of China’s loudest feminist voices, Broadly, 2017

Explores the struggles and campaigns on anti-sexual harassment and gender equality led by Li Maizi in China - where she was arrested for more than a month as part of the Feminist Five – and the UK, where she came visiting on the occasion of the Million Women Rise demonstration in London.

See also https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/5050/blood-brides-feminist-activists-cracking-chinas-patriarchal-order/

, The Race Issue. Black and White, [April 2018], National Geographic, 2018, pp. 79-149

In this special issue on race in the US, Michele Morris recounts how demographic changes across the US are challenging white Americans’ perception of their majority status. She also discusses attempts to re-create a narrative that could reflect more than white Christian ethnicity as the only identity framework of US history. Michael A. Fletcher reports the personal stories of people of colour who had suffered traumatic experiences of stop-and-search by police officers on the basis of their racial profile. Clint Smith examines two major and prestigious colleges that have experienced a recent surge in enrolment of black youth and the rise of new forms of Black activism. Finally, Maurice Bergers reports on the work by photographer Omar Victor Dopi on slave revolts, independence movements, social justice quests. The events represented range from 18th century’s Queen Nanny of the Maroons, known for her ability to lead Jamaican slaves to liberation from British colonialism, to 21st century’s 12 year-old Trayvon Martin, whose shooting by a white neighborhood watch volunteer inspired the birth of the Black Lives Matter movement.

 

, Rape during conflict: The Wolves of War; the Nobel Peace Prize honours two campaigners against rape in war, The Economist, 2018, pp. 59-58

Reports on the Nobel Peace Prize jointly awarded to Nadia Murad, a Yazidi in Iraq who was made a sex slave by Isis and wrote a book, The Last Girl, on her experience, and Dr. Mukwege in the Democratic Republic of Congo who runs a hospital that has treated over 40,000 women and children, survivors of rape and mutilation by militias.  He has survived an assassination attempt in 2012.

See also: 'Nobel winner vows to use honour in fight to protect Congolese women', Observer, 7 October 2018, pp. 28-9.

, Peru: Court hands down first ever sentence for sexual harassment, TeleSur, 2018

Report on the first sentencing of a man to prison and to payment of damages to the victim for a case of aggravated sexual harassment toward a 15-year old young woman. It also recalls one controversial case that motivated the rise of the movement NiUnaMenos.

, The Big Story: Black Lives Matter, [March 2018], New Internationalist, 2018, pp. 12-25

Introductory article by Amy Hall summarises the growth of BLM in the USA, discusses its global potential and spread to other countries, and notes the relevance of BLM in the UK.  Jamilah King comments on the US movement, both on its strengths and the divisions within it. Other articles examine how BLM relates to a history of  'a policy of black extermination' in Brazil, and to the struggle by Aboriginal people in Australia.

, Bolivia revolutionises the fight against femicide, YouTube, 2018

This short video shows Bolivian President, Evo Morales announcing the creation of a Defence Cabinet specialised in tackling violence against women and in supporting grassroots efforts. This video situates Bolivia’s move within the wider international context of governments integrating women’s liberation into the executive branch, taking inspiration from countries such as Cuba and Vietnam, which have done the same. In the video, RT producer, Cale Holmes, analyses how, despite an increase in femicide, violence against women and reactionary backlash in Bolivia, the government under Evo Morales was supporting women’s struggle.

, Thousands in Argentina protest acquittal in teeneage girl’s murder, Al Jazeera, 2018

Reports on the revival of the #NiUnaMenos movement following the acquittal of two men accused of sexual violence and the murder of 16-year old Lucia Perez in the coastal city of Mar del Plata. It also provides data on femicide since 2008.

For the same event, see also http://time.com/5472053/argentina-protest-lucia-perez-ni-una-menos/.

, Argentina: Lower House approves bill against gender violence, TeleSur, 2018

Records the approval of the Micaela Law in December 2018, which made the training on gender and violence against women mandatory for all state officials and workers. It also summarises the key points of the Law.

, Sex and Power: #MeToo, one year on, Economist, 2018, pp. 16-16

Argues that movements sparked by alleged rape accusations could be the most powerful force for equality since women's suffrage' and discusses their impact and challenges in politics and business in the US.

See also more detailed articles on the same issue: ‘#MeToo and politics; Truth and Consequences', pp. 36-37, and 'American business after Weinstein: Behind closed doors', pp. 59-60.

, Australia launches national inquiry into sexual harassment, BBC, 2018

Discusses Australia’s decision to hold a national inquiry into workplace sexual harassment as part of the government’s response to the ‘Me Too’ movement.

, Beyond the hash tag: Black Lives Matter is becoming a conventional political movement, The Economist, 2018, pp. 36-36

Brief assessment of developments since shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson in 2014, quoting from Patrice Cullors, author Jamala Rogers (Ferguson is America, 2015) and Barbara Ransby (Making All Black Lives Matter) and local residents. 

, India’s #MeToo movement’ documentary, Now This World, 2018

The short documentary explores the rise of the #MeToo movement in India. It also shows how the accusations on sexual harassment extended from the media industry to academia and the political sector, alongside campaigning for women to speak up when harassment happens in the private sphere as well. Men and women in India have been speaking up against violence against women since 2012-2013, following the death of a 23 year-old young woman. This episode initiated a more grounded conversation on sexual assault against women and especially against women of lower castes. In fact, according to Indian’s Crime National Bureau, more than four Dalit women – the ‘untouchable’ - are raped every day. In 2018, India was rated the most dangerous country in the world for women by the Thompson Reuter Foundation because of high rates of sexual violence. Reports attested that in 2016, India had 338,954 reported crimes against women (38,947 were rapes).

For first hand interviews with survivors, please see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13w-CJRoi30&vl=en.

See also: India was highlighted as one of the worst country for sexual violence, human trafficking, and for cultural and religious discrimination by Thomson Reuters Foundation’s 2018 survey (http://poll2018.trust.org/country/?id=india).

, Mexicans petition Dia de Muertas, memorial to femicide victims, TeleSur, 2018

Describes Mexican activists that are collecting signatures to declare October 24 Dia de Muertas in order to create awareness of the three thousand femicides that occur every year. Human rights organizations hope the new commemorative day would draw international attention to the impunity surrounding the rising number of gender-based crimes.

, Hundreds protest femicide in Uruguay, TeleSur, 2018

Reports on one of the most infamous case of a 68-year old woman who was killed by her partner, which gave rise to widespread protests against femicide in Uruguay. Uruguay’s penal code introduced femicide only in April 2018.

, Peru: Thousands march for justice, equality, women’s rights, TeleSur, 2018

Massive demonstration in the Peruvian capital, Lima, organized by the Assembly of Women and Diversities and the NGO Ni Una Menos (Not One More), which involved 20 human rights groups demanding justice for women, following the acquittal of a man accused of rape who negotiated with the authorities for his release.

, Students lead Chile's #MeToo moment, Guardian Weekly, 2018, pp. 8-8

Describes a new generation of student activists who are waging a struggle against harassment and sexual discrimination in universities through strikes, occupations and protests. When the article was published many university buildings were still being occupied. Polls showed public support and the government promised to meet some (but not all) of the students’ demands.

, Colombia: violence against women activists, leaders and defenders, LatinAmericanPost, 2018

Under the slogan "Now is the time: Rural and urban activists transform the lives of women", UN Women draw attention to the work of the movement of women activists in Colombia and the circumstances they have to face on a daily basis.

, El Salvador’s women rise up against gender violence, femicide, TeleSur, 2018

Initiative by women’s rights organisations in El Salvador who gathered outside the Attorney General’s Office to protest against the surge in femicides, gender-based violence and a chain of unsolved crimes.

, VigiaAfro: Observatory on gender-based violence against Afro-Colombians, MADRE, 2018

Afro-Colombian women are documenting testimonies for use by the new online observatory, VigiaAfro, created to report on and raise awareness about sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against Afro-descendants. MADRE is an international women's human rights organization working in partnership with community-based women's organizations worldwide in contexts of conflict, disasters, and their aftermath. It operates within the framework of a project entitled, Afro-Colombian Community Initiative for Sustainable and Inclusive Peace in Colombia.

See also http://aapf.org/historical-invisibility-of-afrocolombian-women-english.

, Thousands of Mexican women march against femicide, kidnapping, TeleSur, 2019

Describes the march to demand President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador should take appropriate action to protect women’s lives.

, Defendants in Manresa gang-rape case escape sexual assault convictions, El Pais, 2019

Reports that five out of six men involved in a gang rape of a 14-year old girl were convicted of sexual abuse of a minor, rather than the more serious crime of sexual assault; the girl was for part of the time in an 'unconscious state'.  The report also provides an update on the Pamplona case, noting the  the Spanish Supreme Court ruled the men were guilty of rape and raised their prison sentences to 15 years. El Pais records in addition that the commission created after the Pamplona case to revise the legal definition of  sexual violence has reported, and recommended eliminating the lesser charge of  sexual abuse; but the Socialist Party government has not yet acted.

, #MeToo has changed the media landscape, but in Australia there is still much to be done, The Conversation, 2019

Report on the Australia response to the emergence of the #MeToo movement.

Abbas, Azmat ; Jasam, Saima, A Ray of Hope: The Case of the Lawyers’ Movement in Pakistan, In Heinrich Böll Foundation, Pakistan: Reality, Denial and the Complexity of its State Berlin, Heinrich Böll Foundation, , 2009, pp. 176, pp. 140-170

Abbas, Tahir, Political Culture and National Identity in Conceptualising the Gezi Park Movement, Insight Turkey, Vol. 15, no. 4 (Fall), 2013, pp. 19-28

Abernathy, Ralph D., And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, New York, Harper, 1989, pp. 638

One of King’s closest associates from 1955 onwards, Abernathy took on greater prominence after King’s assassination.

Abhery, Roy, The year when #MeToo shook India, The Economic Times, 2018

This article reviews the birth and development of the #MeToo movement in India and its protagonists – mainly members of the movie industry - one year after its widespread endorsement in the US.

Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran Between Two Revolutions, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1982, pp. 561

For the protests leading to the overthrow of the Shah, see pp. 496-537. See also , Mass Protests in the Iranian Revolution, 1977-79 In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 162-178 .

Abramsky, Kolya, Sparking a Worldwide Energy Revolution: Social Struggles in Transition to a Post-Petrol World, Edinburgh and Oakland CA, A.K. Press, 2010, pp. 480

Chapters by authors from 20 countries on developments in energy sector and struggles.

Acevedo, Nicole, For the first time, Colombia prosecutes a transgender woman’s murder as a femicide, NBCNews, 2018

Historic conviction of a 23-year old young man who murdered Anyela Ramos Claros, a transgender woman. This was the first conviction among at least 35 cases in Colombia.

Ackerman, Peter ; Duvall, Jack, A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict, New York and Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2000, pp. 554

Analysis of a selection of predominantly nonviolent struggles from Russia 1905 to Serbia 2000, arguing against ‘the mythology of violence’. Some of the case studies are standard in books on civil resistance, others – for example the 1990 movement in Mongolia – less familiar. Each chapter has a useful bibliography. The book arose out of a 1999 US documentary television series ‘A Force More Powerful’, now available on DVD, and therefore includes, in the more recent cases, information from interviews.

Ackerman, Peter ; Kruegler, Christopher, Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: The Dynamics of People Power in the Twentieth Century, Westport CT, Praeger, 1993, pp. 366

Focuses on the importance of resistance strategy in determining the outcome. Outlines 12 principles of strategic action and assesses five movements (Russia 1905, Ruhr 1923, the Indian independence campaign,, resistance in German-occupied Denmark, and Solidarity in Poland) in relation to these principles.

ACT UP, Accomplishments and Chronology in Brief: 1987-2012, Vol. 2017, New York, ACT UP New York, 2009

Lists range of nonviolent direct action protests by ACT UP since 1987, involving marches, sit-ins, blockades, political funerals, die-ins, disrupting political occasions and speeches, etc. Main targets have been pharmaceutical companies (for profiteering and failure to produce new drugs or provide adequate access to them in Africa), the medical establishment in the US, health insurance companies, the Catholic Church and President Bush Snr and President Clinton and Vice-President Gore.

Adam, Barry D., The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement, [1987], revised edn., Boston, Twayne, 1994, pp. 240

Scholarly study of world wide campaigning for gay and lesbian rights, looking at earlier history as well as the militant protests and organizations of the 1960s-1970s.

Adams, Jacqueline, Surviving Dictatorship: A Work of Visual Sociology, New York, Routledge, 2012, pp. 302

Combines extracts from interviews with photos to present varied phenomena of everyday resistance – ‘incidental’ (a by-product of being in a group), ‘reluctant’ (under group pressure) and ‘solidarity’ (helping others) – specifically of women who joined arpillera groups in Pinochet’s Chile. A web page with related resources for students and teachers is http://www.routledge.com/cw/adams-9780415998048.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi, We Should All Be Feminists, Fourth Estate, 2014, pp. 64

Adler, Glenn ; Steinberg, Jonny, From Comrades to Citizens: The South African Civics Movement and the Transition to Democracy, ed. Adler, Glenn, Steinberg, Jonny, Basingstoke and New York, Macmillan and St Martin's, in association with the Albert Einstein Institution, 2000, pp. 272

Primarily on nonviolent action in townships during apartheid. Combines a national strategic overview by Jeremy Seekings of how the concept of civic struggle evolved in the period 1977-90 with detailed local accounts.

Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Africa and the Arab Spring: A New Era of Democratic Expectations, ed. Africa Center for Strategic Studies, , ACSS Special Report No. 1, November 2011, Washington DC, ACSS, 2011, pp. 72

Agger, Inger ; Jensen, Søren Buus, Trauma and Healing Under State Terrorism, London, Zed Books, 1996, pp. 246

Agosin, Marjorie, Notes on the Poetics of the Acevedo Movement against Torture, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 10, no. 3, 1988, pp. 338-343

Agosin, Marjorie, Surviving Beyond Fear: Women, Children and Human Rights, ed. Agosin, Marjorie, Fredonia NY, White Pine Press, 1993, pp. 217

Collection of essays and documents, including materials on mothers’ resistance in Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, and Guatemala.

Agosin, Marjorie, Tapestries of Hope, Threads of Love: The Arpillera Movement in Chile 1974-1994, [1996], Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2007, pp. 240

Aguirre, Xavier ; Ajangiz, Rafael ; Ibarra, Pedro ; de Rozas, Rafael Sainz, La insumisión, un singular ciclo histórico de desobediencia civil, Madrid, Technos, 1998, pp. 171

Primarily an account of the movement of conscientious objection and ‘insumision’ in Spain, but including analysis and proposals. It was written by university teachers who joined the movement and assisted from inside. Published in the final stage of the movement, when the end of conscription was announced. but there were still objectors jailed in military prisons.

Ahmed, Leila, Feminism and Feminist Movements in the Middle East: a Preliminary Exploration, Women' Studies International Forum, Vol. 5, 1982, pp. 153-168

Ahmed, Leila, A Quiet Revolution, Newhaven CT, Yale University Press, 2012, pp. 360

Discusses reasons for the resurgence of veil-wearing among Muslim women, and the social and political implications. Argues (contrary to author’s own earlier position) that Islamists rather than secularists often prominent in struggle for social justice and women’s rights.

Ajangiz, Rafa, The European Farewell to Conscription, ed. Mjøset, Lars, van Holde, Stephen, In Mjøset, Lars ; van Holde, Stephen , The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces Oxford, JAI/Elseveer, , 2002, pp. 424, pp. 307-333

Discusses the relative impact of ‘reasons of state’ and ‘social mobilization’ (against conscription) as factors leading to the abandonment of conscription.

Akula, Vikram, Grassroots Environmental Resistance in India, In Taylor, Ecological Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism (C.1.a. General and International Studies), Albany NY, State University of New York Press, pp. 127-145

Discusses early resistance in 19th and 20th centuries and contemporary campaigns against destruction of forests, dams, pollution and over-fishing of seas, and mining. Akula also describes Jharkand separatist ‘tribal’ struggle to own their historic land and promote sustainable use of resources.

Akuno, Kali, Pillars of Change, [Feb/Mar 2018], Red Pepper, 2018, pp. 34-35

Describes the movement behind the 2017 election (by 93 per cent of the vote) of Chokwe Antar Lumumba as Mayor of Jackson, Mississippi.  He is committed to implement the 'Jackson Plan' for participatory democracy, promotion of public services and a local economy based on cooperatives and other forms of popular organization.  The Plan, which is promoted by the Jackson People's Assembly and the Malcolm X Grassroots Movement (MXGM), represents the kind of participatory local initiatives envisaged in the Black Lives Matter 2016 Platform.  A longer version of this article is available in Akuno, Kali and Ajamu Nangwaya, Jackson Rising: The Struggle for Economic Democracy and Black Self-Determination, Daraja Press, 2017, and at: www.mxgm.org

Al-Sharmani, Mulki, Feminist Activism, Women’s Rights and Legal Reform, ed. Alpizar, Lydia, Duran, Anahi, Garrido, Anali Russo, London, Zed Books, 2013, pp. 200

Explores both attempts at legal reform and those reforms achieved in Islamic countries (Palestine, Yemen, Iran and Egypt) and problems of implementing reform, for example the domestic violence law in Ghana.

Al-Taher, Sarah, Macht und Ohnmacht der Medien: der Medienkrieg in Syrien und der friedliche Widerstand, Diskussionspapier 34, Bund fuer soziale Verteidigung, 2013

Al-Taher begins by observing that, unlike in the beginning of the Syrian Spring 2011-12, the international and western press no longer reported on peaceful protests in Syria. The paper discusses two possible explanations: a problem of information (either a lack of information or an excess of news), or the absence of nonviolent protests in the region.  The author refutes the second thesis, arguing that despite the ongoing bloody civil war in Syria, large parts of the society nevertheless participate in peaceful protests.

Al-Tamini, Jumana, #MeToo offers lessons for Arabs too, Gulf News, 2018

This article describes the difficulty of talking about sexual harassment in conservative Arab societies, which have made the ‘MeToo’ movement in the Arab world less significant than in the West. However, it also points to the fact that the activism of Arab women is becoming less of a taboo and mentions the legislative reforms that took place in countries such as Morocco, Jordan, and Lebanon.

For another thorough analysis of the cultural impediments to openly discuss sexual violence and sexual harassment within Arab societies, see also http://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2017/10/22/Why-aren-t-more-Arab-women-saying-MeToo-.html and https://www.albawaba.com/loop/harvey-weinstein-scandal-and-metoo-hit-nerve-arab-women-1035238.

Alami, Aida, The Impact of #MeToo in France: An Interview with Lenaig Bredoux, New York Review of Books (NYR Daily, 2019

Bredoux is a journalist who has specialised in covering charges of sexual harassment and assault by prominent personalities since 2011, when she was shocked by the prevailing French media response to rape charges made in New York against Dominique Strauss Kahn, due to become head of the IMF. Bredoux also had to appear in court in February 2019 with six women who had accused the deputy speaker of the National Assembly of harassment, when he filed a defamation lawsuit against them. She assesses positively the impact of MeToo in France (despite evidence of opposition to it, including by women), arguing that 'the balance of power has changed' and that media coverage was more sympathetic to women making accusations. 

Albert, David H., Tell the American People: Perspectives on the Iranian Revolution, ed. Albert, David H., Philadelphia PA, Movement for a New Society, 1980, pp. 212

Albert also comments briefly on the Iranian Revolution to illustrate the dynamics of power relationships (pp. 29-36) in his booklet: , People Power: Applying Nonviolence Theory Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, , 1985, pp. 64 .

Albert, David H., People Power: Applying Nonviolence Theory, Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 1985, pp. 64

Albro, Robert, The Water is Ours, Carajo!”, Deep Citizenship in Bolivia’s water war, In Nash, June , Social Movements. An Anthropoligical Reader Oxford, Blackwell, , 2005, pp. 360, pp. 249-271

Alexander, Christopher, Tunisia: Stability and Reform in the Modern Maghreb, New York, Routledge, 2010, pp. 160

Relevant for background to the events of 2011.

Alexander, Peter ; Sinwell, Luke ; Lekgowa, Thapelo ; Mmope, Botsang ; Xezwi, Bongani, Marikana: A View from the Mountain and a Case to Answer, Johannesburg, Jacana Media, 2013, pp. 144

Interviews with strikers who took part in protests and written from their viewpoint.

Alexander, Robert I., The Tragedy of Chile, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1978, pp. 509

Alexander, Sally, The Nightcleaners, ed. Allen, Sandra, Sanders, Lee, Wallis, Jan, In Allen, Sandra ; Sanders, Lee ; Wallis, Jan , Conditions of Illusion: Papers from the Women's Movement Leeds, Feminist Books, , 1974, pp. 416, pp. 309-325

See also: ‘Striking Progress’ a list of strikes involving women 1973-74, pp. 332-48.

Ali, Tariq, Pakistan: Military Rule or People’s Power, London, Jonathan Cape, 1970, pp. 272

The first four chapters cover the period 1947-1968. Chapters 5-7 (pp. 156-216) discuss the mass revolt from November 1968 to March 1969, which the author compares to the May 1968 Events in France.

Ali, Tariq ; Bhatt, Hilal ; Chatterji, Angana P. ; Mishra, Pankaj ; Roy, Arundhati, Kashmir: the Case for Freedom, London, Verso, 2011, pp. 192

Includes Roy’s 2008 essay ‘Azadi: the only thing Kashmiris want’, previously published in the Guardian (London), Outlook (New Delhi), and her 2009 book , Listening to Grasshoppers: Field Notes on Democracy London, Hamish Hamilton, , 2009, pp. 304 .

Alieva, Leila, Azerbaijan’s frustrating elections, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 17, no. 2 (April), 2006, pp. 147-160

Analysis of background and context of elections, the regime’s role and actions of the opposition.

Alimi, Eitan Y., “Constructing Political Opportunity”: 1987 – The Palestinian Year of Discontent, Mobilization, Vol. 11, no. 1 (February), 2006, pp. 67-80

Analysing Palestinian print media in 1987 reveals a convergence in calls for action.

Allen, Sandra ; Sanders, Lee ; Wallis, Jan, Conditions of Illusion: Papers from the Women's Movement , Leeds, Feminist Books, 1974, pp. 416

Alonso, Angela ; Costa, Valeriano ; Maciel, Deborah, Environmental Activism in Brazil: The rise of a Social Movement, ed. Thompson, Lisa, Tapscott, Chris V., In Thompson, Lisa ; Tapscott, Chris V., Citizenship and Social Movements: Perspectives from the Global South London, Zed Books, , 2010, pp. 304,

Alpizar, Lydia ; Duran, Anahi ; Garrido, Anali Russo, Building Feminist Movements: Global Perspectives, London, Zed Books, 2006, pp. 288

The chapters cover a wide range of countries and issues, including: The Korean Women’s Trade Union, the feminist movement in Indonesia, the Algerian ‘Twenty Years is Enough’ campaign, widening the base of the feminist movement in Pakistan, advocacy of women’s rights in Nigeria, re-politicizing feminist activity in Argentina, new modes of organizing in Mexico, and two chapters on Israel, one on an Arab women’s organization.

Alport, Baron Charles Ja, The Sudden Assignment, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1965, pp. 255

Alport was appointed High Commisioner to the Federation from 1961-63, and gives an official British perspective on these contentious years.

Altbach, Philip G., Student Political Activism: An International Reference Handbook, ed. Altbach, Philip G., Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1989, pp. 519

Alternative Defence Commission, Defence Without the Bomb, London, Taylor and Francis, 1983

Chapter 7 ‘Strategies against occupation: 2. Defence by civil resistance’, pp. 208-48, analyses the implications and applicability of nonviolent defence and its applicability to Britain.

 

Alternatives Non-Violentes (ANV), L’Intervention Civile, Une Chance Pour La Paix, ANV no. 124, ANV, 2002, pp. 80

This special issue of the magazine Alternatives Non-Violentes, collects papers presented at a landmark conference organized at the French National Assembly in October 2001 on civil peace intervention.

Alther, Gretchen ; Lindsay-Poland, John ; Weintraub, Sarah, Building from the Inside Out: Peace Initiatives in War-Torn Colombia, Philadelphia PA, American Friends Service Committee and Fellowship of Reconciliation USA, 2006, pp. 36

Altieri, Rocco, Mohandas K., Gandhi. Guerra Senza Violenza. La Nascita Della Nonviolenza Moderna, Firenze , Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2005, pp. 307

A narration of Gandhi’s life in South Africa and his battle for the civil rights of the Indian minorities who were living there at the time. The work illustrates how Gandhi’s teaching and practice of nonviolence developed from the South African experience.

Altman, Dennis, AIDS in the Mind of America, New York, Anchor Press, 1986, pp. 240

Altman, Dennis, Homosexual: Oppression and Liberation, [1971], with new Introduction by Jeffrey Weeks and Afterword by author commenting on his book in light of developments since 1970s., New York, New York University Press, 1993, pp. 304

Key work on early period of Gay Liberation in 1960s/70s in the USA, examining different strands of movement and arguing need for struggle for common goals.

Altman, Dennis, Power and Community. Organizational and Cultural Responses to AIDS, London and Bristol PA, Taylor and Francis, 1994, pp. 179

Assessment of role of community-based organizations world-wide in responding to AIDS.

Altman, Dennis, Global Gaze/Global Gays, GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies, Vol. 3, no. 4, 1997, pp. 417-436

Altman, Dennis, Globalization, Political Economy and HIV/AIDS, Theory and Society, Vol. 28, 1999, pp. 559-584

Notes threat to developing countries but also potential of new forms of global cooperation through UN AIDS programmes, and discusses how best to analyze the spread and impact of AIDS. See also: , Aids and the Globalization of Sexuality World Politics Review, 10/08/2010

Altman, Dennis, Aids and the Globalization of Sexuality, World Politics Review, 2010

Alvarez, Sonia E., Advocating Feminism: The Latin American Feminist NGO “Boom”, ed. Al-Sharmani, Mulki, International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 2, no. 1, 1999, pp. 181-209

Alwadi, Nada, Voices of Syrian women in civil resistance, London, OpenDemocracy.net, 2013

Aman, Kenneth ; Parker, Christian, Popular Culture in Chile: Resistance and Survival, ed. Aman, Kenneth, Parker, Christian, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1991, pp. 225

Especially Isabel Donoso, ‘Human Rights and Popular Organizations’, pp. 189-200.

American Friends Service Committee, Speak Truth to Power: A Quaker Search for an Alternative to Violence, Philadelphia PA, American Friends Service Committee, 1955, pp. 71

Manifesto outlining a nonviolent approach to international politics and social change. Influenced the thinking of radical direct actionists in the US and Britain.

Amin, Samir, 2011: An Arab Springtime?, In Manji; Ekine, African Awakening: The Emerging Revolutions (E. I.2.3. Third Wave of Protests: 2011 -), Cape Town, Dakar, Nairobi and Oxford, Pambazuka Press (imprint of Fahamu), pp. 273-286

(Appeared originally in Monthly Review.)

Amnesty International, Out of the Margins: The Right to Conscientious Objection to Military Service in Europe, London, Amnesty International, 1997, pp. 61

Surveys provisions for conscientious objection to military service, and expresses particular concerns in relation to treatment of COs in some countries. Recommends the release of all COs in prison, that all member states of EU and Council of Europe re-examine their legislation regarding conscientious objection, and that the EU include in the criteria for membership the recognition of conscientious objection and provisions for alternative service ‘of non-punitive length’.

Amnesty International, USA: Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct against LGBT People in the US, London, Amnesty International, 2005, pp. 149

Amnesty International, Rights Razed: Forced Evictions in Cambodia, 11 Feb 2008, Index No ASA 23/002/2008, London, Amnesty International, 2008, pp. 64

Analysis of lack of proper consultation and of legal protection for those evicted.

Anable, David, The Role of Georgia’s Media – and Western Aid – in Georgia’s Rose Revolution, The Harvard Journal of Press/Politics, Vol. 11, no. 3, 2006, pp. 7-43

Also available online as Joan Shorenstein Center Working Paper no. 3, 2006.

Ananaba, Wogu, The Trade Union Movement in Nigeria, London, C. Hurst, 1969, pp. 336

Chapter 7 covers the 1945 general strike.

Anderson, Benedict R. O'G., Violence and the State in Suharto's Indonesia, ed. Anderson, Benedict R. O'G., Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Southeast Asia Program Publications, 2001, pp. 247

Essays exploring the institutionalised violence under Suharto and its legacy, with studies of the police and the military. (Also essay on East Timor.)

Anderson, Carol, White Rage: The Unspoken Truth Of Our Racial Divide, New York, Bllomsbury, 2016, pp. 256

White Rage, by Professor of African American Studies Carol Anderson, centres on a discussion on race, more specifically on the foregrounding of whiteness and the continuing threat that structural racism poses to US democratic aspirations. She provides an historical account of landmark moments in US history, namely the end of the Civil War and the Reconstruction; the reaction to the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954; the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965; the disenfranchisement of Black communities in the aftermath of Reagan’s War on Drugs; and the mass protests in Ferguson, Missouri, triggered by the shooting of Mike Brown in 2014. Through her analysis, Anderson argues that white rage erupts as a backlash at a moment of Black progress and therefore needs to be placed at the centre of US’s national history. In this light, White Rage is an attempt to illustrate how whiteness is positioned at the core of state power, and how it permits the reinforcement of a system that systematically disadvantages African Americans.

Anderson, Jervis, A. Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1986, pp. 398

Study of black trade union leader who played key role in pressuring presidents Roosevelt and Truman to ban discrimination in federal and defence employment. In 1963 headed the March on Washington.

Anderson, Perry, Explosion in the Arab World, New Left Review, no. 68 (March/April), 2011, pp. 5-14

Editorial reflections on the historical and social context of the revolts.

Anderson, Robert S. ; Huber, Walter, The Hour of the Fox: Tropical Forests, the World Bank and Indigenous People in Central India, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1988, pp. 173

Andoni, Ghassan ; Arraf, Huwaida ; Blincoe, Nicholas ; Khalili, Hussein ; McLaughlin, Marissa ; Sainath, Radhika ; Sandercock, Josie, Peace Under Fire: Palestine and the International Solidarity Movement, ed. Andoni, Ghassan, Arraf, Huwaida, Blincoe, Nicholas, Khalili, Hussein, McLaughlin, Marissa, Sainath, Radhika, Sandercock, Josie, London, Verso, 2004, pp. 240

Collection of news reports, web-logs and diaries of International Solidarity Movement activists engaged in nonviolent resistance to Israeli military action in the occupied territories, including contributions relating to Rachel Corrie and Tom Hurndall, who were both killed.

Andrieux, Aurelié ; Sarosi, Diana ; Moser-Puangsuwan, Yeshua, Speaking Truth to Power: The Methods of Nonviolent Struggle in Burma, Bangkok, Nonviolence International Southeast Asia, 2005, pp. 76

Antilla, Susan, Entire industries are being blacklisted by insurers over #MeToo liability, The Intercept, 2019

A short report on a rising wave of pressure that is weighing on companies that seek sexual harassment insurance in the US.

Antoine, Charles, Church and Power in Brazil, London, Sheed and Ward, 1975, pp. 275

ANV (revue Alt Non-Violentes), Une Force Entre Dans l’Histoire: Les Luttes Non-violentes Au XXeme Siècle, [2001], ANV, no. 119-120, 2001, pp. 154

This special double issue of the review Alternatives Non-Violentes presents numerous examples of nonviolent struggles and of leading figures in the field of nonviolence that have marked the 20th century.

Anyang' Nyong'o, Peter, Popular Struggles for Democracy, ed. Anyang' Nyong'o, Peter, London, Zed Books, 1987, pp. 288

Contributors provide case studies of Morocco, Uganda, People’s Republic of Congo, South Africa, Ghana, Liberia, Kenya and Swaziland.

Aouragh, Miriyam, Everyday Resistance on the Internet: The Palestinian Context, Journal of Arab and Muslim Media Research, Vol. 1, no. 2 (Nov), 2008, pp. 109-130

Explores how internet links Palestinians in Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine, creates a Palestine in cyberspace, and has an impact on manifestations of resistance, for example through street candle vigils and ‘lighting a candle’ on the internet.

AP, Palestinian-American brings #MeToo campaign to West Bank, Arab News, 2018

This article describes the initiative a young Palestinian-American took to confront patriarchy and sexism in the West Bank and the lack of protection for women, despite legal reforms formally taking place in its territories. Yasmeen Mjalli is the inventor of T-shirts, hoodies and jackets with the slogan ‘I Am Not Your Habibti (darling)’, an expression typically used for catcalling women and young girls. Sexual harassment is a taboo subject in Palestine, which is still dominated by a culture of victim blaming, like many other parts of the Arab World. It is moreover not considered a priority amongst Palestinians in comparison to the fight against Israeli occupation. The article also briefly cites minor reforms that occurred in Egypt, the Gulf Arab Region and Saudi Arabia.

Apawo Phiri, Isabel, President Frederick Chiluba and Zambia: Evangelicals and Democracy in a “Christian Nation”, In Ranger, Terence O., Evangelical Christians and Democracy in Africa Oxford, Oxford University Press, , 2008, pp. 304, pp. 93-130

Apter, David E. ; Sawa, Nagayo, Against the State: Politics and Social Protest in Japan, Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp. 271

Analysis of major campaign by agricultural community against loss of land for Narita airport.

Arat, Yeşim, Violence, Resistance and Gezi Park, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 45, no. 4 (Nov), 2013, pp. 807-809

Examination of violence from a gender perspective by academic specializing in women’s political participation in Turkey.

Arconti, Laura ; Turco, Maurizio, Marco Pannella, il Partito Radicale e la Nonviolenza, Reality Book, 2016, pp. 454

This book introduces key documents presented by the Italian Partito Radicale Nonviolento Transnazionale e Transpartito (Nonviolent Radical Party, Transnational and Transparty (PRNTT)) enunciating the core values from which nonviolence was extrapolated as the guiding principle for the party’s political action. It is also a testament defining the Party’s programme on the abolition of the death penalty; the abolition of prohibitionism, especially with regards to drugs; the abolishment of Genital Female Mutilation; freedom in scientific research, especially in relation to stem cells research; and the enabling of international jurisdiction aimed at ensuring citizens’ access to international legal institutions to advance their political and social goals.

Arditti, Rita, Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared children of Argentina, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 251

Arendt, Hannah, Crises of the Republic, New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972

The essay ‘Civil Disobedience’ discusses consent and the right to dissent in the context of the US Civil Rights Movement and Vietnam anti-war protests. It distinguishes between disobedience motivated by citizenship responsibility and that motivated primarily by individual conscience. The essay ‘On Violence’, examines the nature of power and violence (with examples from contemporary movements and politics), and argues that power (as she defines it) is not only distinct from violence but its opposite.

Arendt, Hannah, On Revolution, [1963], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1973

Explores the concept and experience of revolution, drawing on the history of the American and French revolutions in particular, but also Russia, and develops the theme of the ‘lost treasure’ of revolutionary experience, which is the upsurge of creative and organisational energy in forms of direct democracy, and the conflict between popular political cooperation and the centralising tendencies of political parties.

Argilés, Ramón Adell ; Martínez, Miguel Ángel, ¿Dónde están las llaves? El movimiento okupa: prácticas y contextos sociales, Madrid, Catarata, 2004, pp. 352

Arias, Gonzalo, El proyecto politico de la Noviolencia, [1973], Madrid, Nueva Utopía, 1995, pp. 204

(First edition was printed illegally in 1973 during the Franco dictatorship.)

This is a compilation of texts on nonviolent alternatives to accepting unjust rule, starting from the classics, e.g. Thoreau, Tolstoy, Gandhi, Gregg and Ramamurti, and providing translations of important contemporary European authors, such as Muller, Ebert, Colbere or Frognier. The second appendix of the second edition offers a summary of the nonviolent movement in Spain up to 1995.

Arias Calderon, Ricardo, Panama: Disaster or democracy?, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 66, no. Winter 1987/88, 1987, pp. 328-347

The President of the Christian Democratic Party discusses the 1987 National Civic Crusade to coordinate the protest movements and formulate its key demands: for justice, removal of Noriega and democratiization. Explains background to protests, notes the 1,500 arrests and numerous shootings of protesters, and comments on changing attitudes inside the USA.

Arielli, Emanuele ; Scotto, Giovanni, Conflitti E Mediazione: Introduzione A Una Teoria Generale, Milano, Edizioni Mondadori, 2003, pp. 212

The work touches upon general conflict theories and proposes conflict resolution techniques in relation to specific conflict resolution case samples.

Arillo, Cecilio T., Breakaway: The Inside Story of the Four Day Revolution in the Philippines, February 22-25 1986, Manila, CTA and Associates, 1986, pp. 288

Account focusing primarily on role of military and using extensive military sources, but also discusses the role of people power.

Arkles, Gabriel ; Gehi, Pooja ; Redfield, Elana, The Role of Lawyers in Trans Liberation: Building a Transformative Movement for Social Change, Seattle Journal for Social Justice, Vol. 8, no. 2 (summer), 2010, pp. 578-641

Arnold, Guy, Kenyatta and the Politics of Kenya, London, Dent, 1974, pp. 226

Study of the political figure who was central to the struggle for independence from 1928 and became head of Kenya’s first African government.

Arnold, Martin, Gütekraft – Gandhi’s Satyagraha, Overath, Bucken and Sulzer, 2011, pp. 408

One in a series of four books analysing how nonviolent resistance works, focusing on Gandhi. [See comments under Arnold in section above.]

Arnold, Martin, Gütekraft. Ein Wirkungsmodel aktiver Gewaltfreiheit nach Hildegard Goss-Mayr, Mohandas K. Gandhi und Bart de Ligt, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2011, pp. 284

Arnold, a Protestant cleric, explores the ideas of three protagonists of nonviolent resistance (Goss-Mayr, Gandhi and de Ligt) on how nonviolent action ‘works’. The author, who does not use the German translation of ‘nonviolence’ but his own term ‘the power of good’, argues that, regardless of the origin and religion of the practitioners, the effects of nonviolence are basically the same. This volume – the fourth in a series – is a summary of his conclusions from three more detailed case studies, each published as a separate book, and derives from a dissertation undertaken late in the author’s life.

Arnold, Martin, Guetekraft: Grundlage der Arbeit fuer Freiheit, Gerechtigkeit und Menschlikeit', Sicherheit und Frieden, Vol. 31, no. 3, 2013, pp. 150-156

Presents an 'ideal type' of nonviolence (the power of good) which synthesizes the approaches developed by the Catholic Hildegard Goss-Mayr, the Hindu Gandhi and the atheist de Ligt.  Attempts to describe the common core of the various traditions of nonviolence: the conception of how nonviolent action typically works.  Differentiates between nonviolence as a pattern of interaction, a model of behaviour and a human potential.  'The power of good' chiefly has an impact through action by committed individuals, 'contagion' and the evolution of both in mass noncooperation. 

Aronson, Geoffrey, Creating Facts: Israel, Palestine and the West Bank, 2nd edition, London, New York and Washington, Kegan Paul International with Institute of Palestine Studies, 1990, pp. 334

Covers the growing resistance from 1967 inside the Occupied Territories.

Arrarte, Edison, Refusal to Participate in Torture, In Pentikainen, Merja , The Right to Refuse Military Orders Geneva, International Peace Bureau, , 1994, pp. 42-45

Arrarte is the most famous of the Uruguayan soldiers who refused to torture, and served a total of 10 years in prison for his conscience. After the dictatorship, he went on to become a general and an active member of Amnesty International.

Arriagada, Genaro, Pinochet: The Politics of Power, Boston, Unwin Hyman, 1988, pp. 196

Opposition leader, active in the 1983 jornadas de protesta, and also in No campaign of 1988. Chapter 7 discusses the protests between 1983 and 1986.

Arrowsmith, Pat, To Asia in Peace: The Story of a Non-Violent Action Mission to Indo-China, London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1972, pp. 188

Account by participants in British team demonstrating opposition to US war in Vietnam and its extension to Cambodia. The team planned to share the hazards of US bombing in the hope of deterring it. They were received in Cambodia (but not North Vietnam); some later demonstrated at a US base in Thailand.

Arroyo, Lorena, Femicide: The scourge that kills 12 women a day in Latin America, Univision News, 2017

Provides data on femicide in Latin America (up to 2016). It also provides links to individual cases that advanced the protection of women in Colombia, Mexico and Paraguay, and also reports on El Salvador, Argentina and Cuba. In almost all Latin America countries, violence against women is difficult to challenge due to the pervasiveness of patriarchal and macho culture. In general, it is acknowledged that tolerance of this type of violence is due to the belief that ‘having a woman’s body’ means ‘having a sexual body’, which places women in a subordinate and objectified position. Moreover, because in many Latin American countries murder of men is frequent due to gang-related crimes, deaths of women have appeared, in comparison, unimportant.

For a general overview of high-profile cases that have helped to stimulate a debate about femicide, rape, domestic violence and other forms of abuse, and led to protests for women’s rights and against femicide prior to 2017, see https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/jun/03/brazil-argentina-unite-protest-sexual-violence-gender for Brazil and Argentina; https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2016/04/25/state-violence-against-women-mexico/83488114/ for Mexico; http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/4/30/bolivia-struggles-with-gender-based-violence.html for Bolivia; https://colombiareports.com/colombias-women-protest-against-gender-based-violence/ for Colombia; http://www.ipsnews.net/2016/08/peruvians-say-no-to-violence-against-women/ for Peru.
For factors behind the world’s highest number of female murder rates in Latin America, see https://www.opendemocracy.net/democraciaabierta/mimi-yagoub/why-does-latin-america-have-worlds-highest-female-murder-rates

Arthur, Paul, The People’s Democracy 1968-1973, Belfast, Blackstaff Press, 1974, pp. 159

Author was active in PD, but this nonetheless is a dispassionate and sometimes critical account of the movement, which had its origins among student activists at Queens University Belfast in 1968. Recounts internal debates and divisions and shows how PD moved from being a purely civil rights campaign to taking a radical socialist position, and campaigning for a workers’ republic in a re-united Ireland.

Ascherson, Neal, The Polish August: The Self-Limiting Revolution, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1981, pp. 320

Account up to mid-1981 by British journalist familiar with Eastern Europe, with text of Gdansk and Szeczecin Agreements between strikers and government and postscript on December 1981.

Asia Monitor Resource Center, A Moment of Truth: Workers Participation in China’s 1989 Democracy Movement and the Emergence of Independent Unions, Hong Kong, Asia Monitor Resource Center, 1991, pp. 254

Askanius, Tina ; Uldam, Julie, Online Social Media for Radical Politics: Climate Change Activism on You Tube, International Journal of Electronic Governance, Vol. 4, no. 2, 2011

Discusses evolution of alternative media campaigning from the 15th UN Climate Conference in December 2009.

Aslund, Anders ; McFaul, Michael, Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine’s Democratic Breakthrough, ed. Aslund, Anders, McFaul, Michael, Washington DC, Carnegie Endowment, 2006, pp. 216

Selection of essays including assessments of the role of civil society and of the youth group Pora, an examination of western influence, and a concluding analysis of the ‘revolution’ in comparative perspective.

Aspinall, Edward, Islam and Nation: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 2009, pp. 312

Aspinall, Edward ; Feith, Herb ; van Klinken, Gerry, The Last Days of Suharto, ed. Aspinall, Edward, Feith, Herb, van Klinken, Gerry, Melbourne, Monash Asia Institute, Monash University, 1999, pp. 171

Atac, Ilker ; Dursun, Ayse, Gezi Park protests in Turkey: new opportunities, old boundaries? , Oesterreichische Zeitschrift fuer Politikwissenschaft, Vol. 42, no. 4, 2013, pp. 443-450

The article deals with the Gezi Park protests against the demolition of a public park in Istanbul in May 2013, which turned into nationwide protests against the government.  One source of these protests can be located in the conservative-religious neo-liberalism of the ruling AKP. The fundamental thesis  of the authors defines the protests as an expression of a search for new spheres and forms of participatory politics, as an alternative to institutional structures.

Atack, Iain, Nonviolent Political Action and the Limits of Consent, Theoria, Vol. 53, no. 111 (December), 2006, pp. 87-97

Atack, Iain, Nonviolence in Political Theory, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2012, pp. 208

Scrutinises the theories behind nonviolence. Develops his earlier criticisms of consent theory, suggesting the relevance of Foucault’s apporach to ‘micro-resistance’ (See , Nonviolent Political Action and the Limits of Consent Theoria, 2006, pp. 87-97 ).

Athenian’, ‘, Inside the Colonels’ Greece, Translated and introduced by Richard Clogg, London, Chatto and Windus, 1972, pp. 215

The author, writing from inside Greece, covers the background to the coup, going back to the 1930s, and analyses the nature of the regime. See especially chapter 8 ‘The Great Fear’, pp. 123-31; and chapter 9, ‘The Resistance’, pp. 132-44.

Attwood, Margaret, Am I a bad feminist?, The Globe And Mail, 2018

Margaret Attwood’s argument that the #MeToo movement should not turn into ‘vigilante justice’ – i.e. condemnation without a trial. She voiced her opinion following the firing of an employee, Prof. Steven Galloway, from the University of British Columbia in Canada. Serious allegations were cited without further comments on their nature. The accusations were presumably related to allegations of sexual assaults, but the hearing found no evidence and Galloway was fired after signing a non-disclosure agreement. Attwood’s view met with a backlash of accusations that she used her power to silence less powerful victims.

For a follow-up by The Guardian, please visit: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/jan/15/margaret-atwood-feminist-backlash-metoo

Aune, Kristin ; Redfern, Catherine, Reclaiming the F Word: Feminism Today, [2010], A reprint with a new Preface of their 2010 book: Reclaiming the F Word: The New Feminist Movement, London, Zed Books, 2013, pp. 244

Based on a survey of over 1000 feminists discusses revitalized movement, the areas in which change is necessary, and how to struggle for change. International perspective but especial focus on UK.

Austin, Beatrix ; Fischer, Martina ; Giessmann, Hans J., Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, ed. Austin, Beatrix, Fischer, Martina, Giessmann, Hans J., [2004], revised and updated 2011, Berlin, Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management, 2011, pp. 599

Austin, Dennis, Politics in Ghana, 1946-1960, [1964], London, Oxford University Press, 1970, pp. 459

Regarded as classic account of this period.

Avraham, Rachel, Middle East needs its own ‘MeToo’ movement for minority women, The Hill, 2018

A brief overview of how the MeToo movement started to get support in Israel as a consequence of the release of the song ‘Toy’ by Israeli singer Netta Barzilai and her victory at the Eurovision Song Contest in Lisbon. The song points to issues around feminism and diversity, and has a strong emphasis on the harassment suffered by women. This article also addresses the lack of attention to the plight that Hindu and Christian women and girls in Pakistan suffer, the fact that they are compelled to convert to Islam and then subsequently forced to marry their captors.

Ayub, Rana, #MeToo: In India, women are no longer prepared to remain silent, Guardian Weekly, 2018, pp. 18-19

Discusses the rising momentum of accusation of harassment in the press, politics, and the film industry and implications for wider culture of rape.

See also: 'Sexual harassment in India: Pests decried; A minister's resignation boosts # MeToo in India', Economist, 20 October, 2018, p. 57; and ' Sexism in India: Nuns, pilgrims and starlets', Economist, 6 October, 2018, p.51 on women's protests in several contexts, including nuns' hunger strike against a bishop accused of harassment, which achieved his removal and trial.

Ayuero, Javier, The Moral Politics of Argentine Crowds, Mobilization, Vol. 9, no. 3, 2004, pp. 311-326

Presents two episodes in the 1990s as ‘founding events’ in the later cycle of protest.

Azcel, Tamas ; Meray, Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind: A Case History of Intellectual Resistance behind the Iron Curtain, New York, Praeger, 1959, pp. 449

Focuses on the Hungarian Writers’ Union from 1953-59.

Bachmann, Klaus ; Lyabashenko, Igor, The Maidan Uprising, Separatism and Foreign Intervention. Ukraine's Complex Transition, Frankfurt-am-Main, Peter Lang GmbH , 2014, pp. 523, hb.

Collection of 17 essays by academics, journalists, lawyers, policy makers and activists covering Euromaidan and the election of President Poroshenko in May 2014, and also developments in Crimea, from a multidisciplinary perspective. It is sponsored by the Polish National Research Institute, but inlcudes also contributions from Germany, Sweden and the USA. Thre are chapters on post-1991 Ukrainian politics, on the Orange Revolutions and Euromaidan (focusing only on Kiev).

Bacic, Roberta, Stitching together nonviolence and Movement Against Torture, Sebastian Acevedo, Nuremberg, Nürnberger Menschenrechtszentrum, 2012

See also: Rainer Huhle, ‘The dictatorship is a colossus on fragile feet”’: Remembering the movement against torture Sebastian Acevedo in Chile’; and Christopher Ney, ‘The solidarity of God’ – three presentations at the Nuremberg Menschenrechtszentum, July 2012.

Memoirs of the bold nonviolent actions taken from 1983 onwards by the Movement Against Torture Sebastian Acevedo. For other items by Bacic on this movement, see:

http://www.wri-irg.org/node/5186, and http://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/roberta-bacic/saying-no-to-pinochet’s-dictatorship-through-non-violence.

Bagguley, Paul, Protest, Poverty and Power: A Case Study of the Anti-Poll Tax Movement, Sociological Review, Vol. 43, no. 4, 1995, pp. 693-719

Examines social base, organization and tactics of the anti-poll tax movement and relates it to theoretical debates about new social movements and poor people’s movements. See also: , Anti-Poll Tax Protest In Kennedy, Paul ; Barker, Colin , To Make Another World: Studies in Protest and Collective Action Aldershot, Avebury Press, , 1996, pp. 7-24

Bagguley, Paul, Anti-Poll Tax Protest, ed. Kennedy, Paul, Barker, Colin, In Kennedy, Paul ; Barker, Colin , To Make Another World: Studies in Protest and Collective Action Aldershot, Avebury Press, , 1996, pp. 7-24

Bahro, Rudolf, Building the Green Movement, Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 1986, pp. 219

Collection of writings (from Nov. 1982 to June 1985) by former East German dissident and radical ecologist. Covers issue such as North-South relations, the peace movement and the crucial role of communes in rebuilding an ecologically sound society. Includes his statement on resigning from the German Greens, claiming that they ‘have identified themselves -critically- with the industrial system and its administration’.

Bailey, Ron, The Squatters, ed. Press, Freedom, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1973, pp. 206

Covers the London Squatters Campaign 1968-71, but notes background of the mass movement by homeless people in Britain at the end of the Second World War to occupy military bases, and later luxury flats, in 1945-46.

Baker, Colin, State of Emergency: Crisis in Central Africa, Nyasaland, 1959-1960, London, Tauris Academic Studies, 1997, pp. 299

Bakker, Karen, The “Commons” versus the “Commodity”: Alter-Globalization, Anti-Privatization and the Human Right to Water in the Global South, ed. Abramsky, Kolya, Antipode, Vol. 39, no. 3 (June), 2007, pp. 430-455

Examines different (though overlapping) alternatives to privatization developed through North-South and red-green alliances and argues concept of the ‘commons’ most effective basis for a strategy of action.

Bala, Sruti, "Unsere Waffe ist die Beharrilichkeit": Auftreten, Konzept und Aktivaeten der gewaltfreien Paschtunischen Armee der Khadi Khidmatgar (1929-1948), In Steinweg, R. ; Laubenthal, U. , Gewaltfrei Aktion - Erfahrungen und Analysen Frankfurt am Main, Brandes & Aspel, , 2011, pp. 119-125

Sruti Bala comes from the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India.  In her dissertation on nonviolent protest she discusses some significant elements of nonviolent resistance such  as 'action', 'play' and display'.  She also tries to define certain consequences of nonviolent protest for political identity.  Finally, these conclusions are related to the ideas of Gandhi and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (the 'Frontier Gandhi').

Balducci, Ernesto, L’uomo Planetario, [1989], Firenze, Giunti Editore, 2005, pp. 192

Balducci examines fundamental ethical questions from a global perspective following the fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of Cold War and the attack on the U.S. on 11th September 2001. His analysis draws upon Catholicism and the necessity of pursuing a secular, nonviolent renovation that – as he argues - all religions must face.

Balducci, Ernesto ; Grassi, Ludovico, La Pace. Realismo Di Un’utopia, Milano, Edizioni Principato , 1985, pp. 468

In this critique of both idealism and realism the authors argue that, in the atomic era, the former should incorporate some aspects of realist thinking and the latter should incorporate some idealist concepts if it is to escape the negation of itself. The work focuses on the exploration of pacifism. The authors distinguish ‘humanitarian pacifism’ - centered on the human conscience; ‘democratic pacifism’ - centered on peace as a process resulting from the exercise of popular sovereignty; and ‘socialist pacifism’ - centered on the labour movement and its main characteristic: nonviolence as a tool for achieving change. By arguing on the limits of idealism and realism the authors reach the conclusion that the only way forward is international cooperation, solidarity and the solidification of a culture of peace that focuses on faith in humankind.  

Baldwin, James, The Fire Next Time, [1963], New York, NY, The Dial Press, 1992, pp. 120

This now famous work contains two essays written on the occasion of the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation - "My Dungeon Shook. Letter to my Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of Emancipation," and "Down At The Cross. Letter from a Region of My Mind". It provides a three-point dissection on "The Negro Problem", an expression not owned by Baldwin that he refers to while discussing the roots of racial tensions of his time and how to overcome them. (To know more about the use of and debate on this expression by Baldwin himself, please see: http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,830326,00.html and https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2934484.pdf).

In the first essay, Baldwin focuses on the central role of race in American history, and specifically addresses himself to his 14 year-old nephew who was confronted with anger and outrage. Through his nephew, Baldwin aims to address any Black young Afro-American.

In the second essay, Baldwin discusses relations between race and religion. He addresses Christianity with particular regard to its meaning for US society and to its use for the oppression of Black people.

A common thread to the whole book is Baldwin’s call to both Whites and Blacks to use compassion, communication and mutual understanding to transcend tensions and overcome the legacy of racism. 

James Balwin was an iconic essayist, novelist, playwright and critic, who worked primarily about the Black American experience, racial tension, homosexuality and religion. He was active in the Civil Rights Movement, but spent his last years in the more congenial society of France.

Balfour, Sebastian, Dictatorship, Workers and the City: Labour in Greater Barcelona: Since 1939, Oxford, Clarendon, 1989, pp. 290

Ballestrem, Karl Graf, 'Widerstand Ziviler Ungehorsam, Opposition, Eine Typologie, In Enzmann, Birget, (ed.) Handbuch Politische Gewalt, Weisbaden, Springer V S, pp. 67-74

The subject of this article is the right to resistance, and in particular whether this right can exist within a liberal and democratic order, which emphasizes protection of civil rights, freedom of speech and the right to public criticism and the right to form an opposition.

Ballou, Adin, Christian Non-Resistance, [1846], Ed., with an introduction by Lynn Gordon Hughes, Providence, Blackstone Editions, 2003

 (reprinted in 1910 by the Universal Peace Union, and online at www.nonresistance.org)

Ballou distinguishes his brand of Christian moral resistance to evil from both secular interpretations and from the ‘”passive obedience and nonresistance” imperiously preached by despots to their subjects’. He was active in the Anti-Slavery campaign in the USA together with William Garrison. While Garrison changed position and ultimately supported armed struggle to free the slaves, Ballou maintained his commitment to nonresistance. He had a direct influence on Tolstoy, and is therefore part of the broad tradition of nonviolent resistance

Bamyeh, Mohammed, The Egyptian Revolution: First Impressions from the Field, Arab Studies Institute, 2011

Bamyeh, Mohammed, The Tunisian Revolution: Initial Reflections, Arab Studies Institute, 2011

Part 2 of the article, published on 21 January 2011, is available at http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/472/the-tunisian-revolution_initial-reflections_part-2.

Banerjee, Mukulika, The Pathan Unarmed: Opposition and Memory in the North West Frontier, Oxford and Karachi, Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 256

Banerjee, Subhankar, Arctic Voices: Resistance at the Tipping Point, New York, Seven Stories Press, 2012, pp. 560

Narratives and assessments by 30 activists and researchers of struggle by indigenous peoples and environmentalists to prevent proposed exploitation of oil, gas and coal in Arctic Alaska.

Banks, Andy, The Power and Promise of Community Unionism, Labor Research Review, Vol. 1, no. 18, 1991, pp. -17

Discusses the ‘Justice for Janitors’ campaign in Los Angeles from 1986-1990 and success in reaching out to the immigrant community.

Bannan, John F. ; Bannan, Rosemary, Law, Morality and Vietnam: The Peace Militants and the Courts, Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press, 1974, pp. 241

Explores the conflict between law and morality, and case for civil disobedience, with reference mainly to six well known prosecutions, including: the Fort Hood Three (GIs who refused to be posted to Vietnam); Dr Spock and others in 1967-68 charged with conspiracy to violate draft laws; and Daniel and Philip Berrigan and five other who burnt draft files at Catonsville in 1968.

Barchiesi, Franco, Transnational Capital, Urban Globalisation and Cross-Border Solidarity: The Case of the South African Municipal Workers, In Waterman, Peter ; Wills, Jane , Place, Space and the New Labour Internationalism Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, , 2001, pp. 312, pp. 80-102

Discusses problems faced by union in new global context of neoliberal economic dominance and its resistance to water privatization.

Bardacke, Frank, Trampling Out the Vintage: Cesar Chavez and the Two Souls of the United Farm Workers Union, London and New York, Verso, 2011, pp. 840

Very detailed account and analysis by former civil rights activist who also worked in the fields for six seasons 1971 and 1979, charting contradictions within the movement and the role of Chavez, based on hundreds of field reports and first hand experience.

Barghouti, Mustafa, Palestinian Defiance: Interview by Eric Hazan, New Left Review, no. 32, 2005, pp. 117-131

Barghouti is the leader of Al Mubadara (the Initiative), launched in 2000 with a petititon signed by 10,000, urging civil resistance, and formally established in 2002.

Barker, Colin, Festival of the Oppressed: Solidarity, Reform, and Revolution in Poland, 1980-81, London, Bookmarks, 1986, pp. 192

and also his essay ‘Fear, Laughter, and Collective Power: The Making of Solidarity at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland, August 1980’, pp. 175-194, Goodwin; Jasper; Polletta, Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements (A. 6. Nonviolent Action and Social Movements) .

Barnard, Kat, The Equality Illusion: The Truth about Women and Men Today, London, Faber and Faber, 2011, pp. 320

In 2012 Barnard founded UK Feminista, which gives support and training to local activists, and together with Object began the campaign in 2013 Lose the Lads’ Mags. Her book argues that feminism is still very necessary in the light of continuing inequality at work, prevalence of sexual harassment, rape and domestic violence, and treatment of women’s bodies in magazines, lap dancing clubs and on the internet. UK Feminista offers workshops for schools: http://ukfeminista.org.uk

Barnell, Peter ; Randall, Vicky, Politics in the Developing World, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 496

Barnett, Robert ; Akiner, Shirin, Resistance and Reform in Tibet, ed. Barnett, Robert, Akiner, Shirin, Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press, 1994, pp. 314

Barnett also contributes an essay to Lehman, Steve ; Barnett, Robert ; Coles, Robert , The Tibetans: A Struggle to Survive New York, Powerhouse Cultural Entertainment Books, , 2004, pp. 125 , a primarily photographic record.

Barone, Giuseppe, La Forza Della Nonviolenza. Bibliografia e Profilo Biografico Di Danilo Dolci, Napoli, Edizioni Dante & Descartes, 2004, pp. 176

This work organises Danilo Dolci’s scholarship on nonviolence and nonviolent action through a selection of his most significant experiences and works.

Barone, Giuseppe, Ciò Che Ho Imparato e Altri Scritti Di Danilo Dolci, Messina, Edizioni Mesogea, 2008, pp. 200

This work, divided in two parts, reprints in the first Danilo Dolci’s writings on his struggle for employment and democracy; the struggles he led for the construction of dams in Sicily, and nonviolent anti-mafia initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s in Sicily. The second part recalls Dolci’s work on development educational programmes, the development of democratic and participatory models and his critique of the mass consumption model.

Barone, Giuseppe ; Mazzi, Sandro, Aldo Capitini – Danilo Dolci. Lettere 1952-1968, Roma, Edizioni Carocci, 2008, pp. 279

This work contains selected letters between anti-fascist Italian philosopher Aldo Capitini and nonviolent activist Danilo Dolci, initiated by the former when Dolci was on his first hunger strike. This series of letters testifies to the close and unique relationship that developed through time between the two figures, which inspired both to develop their work and further implement insights in the field of culture, politics, education, and religion in the second half of the twentieth century in Italy.

Barros, Mercedes, Human Rights Movement and Discourse: Its Emergence and Constitution in Argentina, with prologue by Ernesto Laclau, Villa Maria, Eduvim, 2012, pp. 282

Bartkowski, Maciej J., Recovering Nonviolent History: Civil Resistance in Liberation Struggles, ed. Bartkowski, Maciej J., Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner, 2013, pp. 436

Ambitious volume in historical and geographical range (from 1765 to current struggles, and in every continent). Individual chapters feature in relevant sections of this bibliography.

Bartkowski, Maciej J. ; Kahf, Mohja, The Syrian resistance: a tale of two struggles, London, OpenDemocracy.net, 2013

Part 1 of a two part series. Part 2 is available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/civilresistance/maciej-bartkowski-mohja-kahf/syrian-resistance-tale-of-two-struggles-part-2

Bartkowski, Maciej J. ; Stephan, Maria J., How Ukraine Ousted an Autocrat: The Logic of Civil Resistance, ed. Bachmann, Klaus, Lyabashenko, Igor, Atlantic Council, 2014

This work discusses the Euromaidan movement from a perspective of nonviolent strategy, highlighting the role of ‘backfire’ when the police attacked peaceful students’ sit-ins, nonviolent tactics used to combat covert intimidation and the importance of the army’s refusal to crush the protest. It also comments on the negative impact of the ‘radical flank’ that turned to violence.

See also: Ackerman, Peter, Maciej J. Barkowski and Jack Duvall, ‘Ukraine: A Nonviolent Victory’, OpenDemocracy (3 March 2004)

Bartkowsky, Maciej, Analyse: Die Maidan-Revolution in der Ukraine - Gewaltloser Widerstand in gewaltgeladener Situation, (online), bpb, 2014

This study of the Maidan Revolution analyzes what Bartkowsky calls nonviolent resistance in violence-loaded situations. He argues that the major use of force and violence by the regime was not a sign of strength, but of the fundamental weakening of the regime and seemed to be a desperate attempt to avert its threatened defeat. Therefore Janukowytsch's fall was preceded by three months of mobilization and civil resistance that undermined the already weak defences of the regime.

Bartlett, John, Chile’s #MeToo moment: Students protest against sexual harassment, The Guardian, 2018

It explores the wave of student protests that paralysed schools and universities across Chile, demanding protection against sexual harassment and calling for gender equality.

Bashirey, Hossein, The State and Revolution in Iran 1962-1982, London, Croom Helm, 1984, pp. 203

Chapters 5-7 focus on the demonstrations.

Baskin, Jeremy, Striking Back: a history of COSATU, London, Verso, 1990, pp. 488

Authoritative account of COSATU’s early years by then National Coordinator.

Basu, Amrita, The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women’s Movements in Global Perspective, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1995, pp. 510

Worldwide overview, but with especial focus on postcolonial states in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

Bautusta, Nidia, Surviving one of Mexico’s deadliest places for women, NACLA Report on the Americas, 2019

Bautusta describes the progress Mexico has made since 2007 in the legislation related to femicide, and provides information on the prosecution of femicide and the related conviction rate. She also describes the campaign ‘Invisibles Somos Visibles’ (Invisibles We are Visible), a collective that uses performance art to denounce femicide. The collective puts on performances that dramatise the stories of local women who have been killed, seeking to generate discussion about machismo and misogyny within their communities and the legal impunity that surrounds these crimes.

Bayer, Markus ; Kusawe, Janet, Gewaltfrei Widerstand und urbaner Raum, ed. Steinweg, R., Laubenthal, U., Wissenschaft und Frieden, 2016-2: Stadt im Konflikt - Urbane Gewalttraeume, 2016, pp. 29-31

Nonviolent resistance is a mass phenomenon that can challenge corrupt and autocratic regimes.  This form of resistance and  its symbiotic relationship to cities is not at all new: the plebeians in the Roman Republic used this kind of struggle when they abandoned the city until their demands were met.  But how do modern cities as conflict spaces favour  nonviolent resistance?  The authors systematically analyse the relationship between the urban sphere and nonviolent resistance.

Bayer, Ronald, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1987, pp. 244

Account of 1973 decision by American Psychiatric Association to stop listing homosexuality as a mental disorder and attempts by some psychiatrists to overturn this decision.

Bbatia, Bela ; Dreze, Jean ; Kelly, Kathy, War and Peace in the Gulf: Testimony of the Gulf Peace Team, Nottingham, Spokesman Books, 2001, pp. 181

Account by participants of transnational team which went to Iraq to try to intervene between the two sides in the 1991 Gulf War. (See also Robert J. Burrowes, ‘The Persian Gulf War and the Gulf Peace Team’ in Moser-Puangsuwan and Weber, Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders, pp. 305-18 – 209 below.)

Beatley, Meaghan, How #Me Too changed this year's Running of the Bulls, PRI Global Post, 2018

When the five men involved in the 2017 gang rape were released from prison in June 2018, weeks before the Pamplona festival, feminists around Spain protested and called for revision of the legal definition of rape, which required 'violence or intimidation', terms that allowed many rapists to escape conviction. The new Minister for Equality, Carmen Calvo, promised to redefine rape in terms of consent.  Many feminists planned to demonstrate in relation to the Pamplona festival, either by a boycott or by dressing in black during the festival (challenging the traditional wearing of white). But they called off this plan in response to pleas from women in Pamplona, who had long campaigned to take part in the ceremonial supporting events and eventually won that right 15 years earlier. 

Beatley, Meaghan, The shocking rape trial that galvanised Spain's feminists - and the far right, The Guardian, 2019

This 'long read' article provides a detailed account of the notorious rape of an 18-year-old woman at the Pamplona bull run festival in 2016 and the five man 'wolf pack' responsible.  It assesses the impact of the trial, which in April 2018 found the men guilty of 'sexual abuse', instead of rape, because the woman had not been violently coerced. The rape and the verdict sparked widespread anger among women, who demonstrated across the country, and journalist Cristina Fallaras tweeted about her own experiences of sexual violence and launched the hashtag #Cuentalo (tell your story). The five men were released from jail in June 2018 on bail whilst appealing their prison sentences. Beatley describes the impact on the feminist movement - police estimated 350,000 demonstrated in Madrid and 200,000 in Barcelona and many thousands in other cities and towns on International Women's Day 2019.  But the case has also mobilised the far right party Vox to attack feminists and to claim that the danger of violence against women comes from non-European immigrants.

Bechev, Dimitar, Turkey, a people-power tide, OpenDemocracy.net, 2013

Beck, Sanderson, Nonviolent Action Handbook, Goleta CA, World Peace Communications, 2002, pp. 95

Introductory texts, downloadable or as print copies from: World Peace Communications, 495 Whitman St, Goleta, CA 93117, USA.

Becker, Jasper, The Lost Country: Mongolia Revealed, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1992, pp. 325

Journalist usually based in China gives his perspective on the movement and the broader context.

Becker, Marc, Ecuador: Indigenous Struggles and the Ambiguities of Electoral Power, In Webber, Jeffery R.; Carr, Barry , The New Latin American Left: Cracks in the Empire London, Pluto Press, , 2013, pp. 402, pp. 213-232

Beckett, Paul A ; Young, Crawford, Dilemmas of Democracy in Nigeria, ed. Beckett, Paul A, Young, Crawford, Rochester, University of Rochester Press, 1997, pp. 450

Multidisciplinary study by 13 Nigerian and 6 American political analysts of attempts at transition to democracy, including historical, social and economic as well as political factors.

Bedau, Adam, Civil Disobedience: Theory and Practice, ed. Bedau, Adam, Indianapolis, Bobbs Merrill, 1969, pp. 282

Wide range of contributions on case for and against civil disobedience, including classic essays by Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Bertrand Russell on civil disobedience against nuclear weapons, and Noam Chomsky and others on draft resistance to the Vietnam War. John Rawls’ ‘Justification for Civil Disobedience’ is also included (see Rawls, A Theory of Justice (A. 1.a.iii. Social and Political Writings cited in Civil Resistance Literature) below).

Beissinger, Mark, Promoting democracy: Is exporting revolution a constructive strategy?, Dissent, Vol. 53, no. 1 (Winter), 2006, pp. 18-24

A critical assessment that notes the role of neoconservatives in endorsing export of democracy, the dangers of compromising the impartiality of human rights bodies, or intensifying internal ethnic and other conflicts, and the danger of ‘packaging, exporting, and spreading democratic revolution like a module across a broad array of settings, irrespective of local circumstances’.

Beissinger, Mark, Structure and Example in Modular Political Phenomena: The Diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip Revolutions, Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 5, no. 2 (June), 2007, pp. 259-276

Bellamy, Alex, Croatia after Tudjman: The 2000 Parliamentary and Presidential Elections, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 48, no. 5 (September/October), 2001, pp. 18-31

Bello, Walden, Aquino’s elite populism: Initial reflections, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 8, no. 3 (July), 1986, pp. 1020-1030

Observes that Cory Aquino’s movement seen as a third force by the US, though author rebuts US claims to have supported her before the fall of Marcos. Describes movement as ‘a genuine populist phenomenon’ with base in urban middle class, bringing onto the streets the lower middle class, unemployed workers and shanty town residents. Aquino avoided ties to the left, and did not need them to win the election, though – Bello claims – the left had paved the way for her ultimate success.

Bello, Walden, From the ashes: The rebirth of the Philippine revolution – a review essay, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 8, no. 1 (January), 1986, pp. 258-276

Leftist academic discusses sympathetically the role of the left and armed revolution in the countryside, but also explores the ‘legal, semi-legal and clandestine mass struggles in the cities’. Notes the creation by 1975 of a militant workers’ movement and the 1975 year-long wave of over 400 strikes, as well as networks among Catholics, professionals and students.

Beltran, Elizabeth Peredo, Water, Privatization and Conflict: Women from the Cochabamba Valley, Global Issues Papers, no 4, April, Berlin, Heinrich Böll Foundation, 2004, pp. 48

Bennett, George ; Smith, Alison, Kenya: from “White Man’s Country” to Kenyatta’s state 1945-1963, In Low, D. A.; Smith, Alison , History of East Africa Oxford, Clarendon Press, , 1976, London, Clarendon Press, pp. 109-156

Summary of developing African opposition, including early ‘passive resistance’ and land protests, attempts at unionization, and links with the East African Indian National Congress, as well as role of Mau Mau.

Bennett, Scott, Aborigines and Political Power, Sydney NSW, Allen and Unwin, 1989, pp. 167

General analysis, includes some references to protest.

Bennett, Scott H., Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 2003, pp. 312

Includes CO revolts in camps and prisons in World War Two against racial segregation, and role of League members in helping to found the Congress of Racial Equality and its nonviolent direct action strategy. Also covers relations of secular and radical WRL with other pacifist bodies, such as Christian Fellowship of Reconciliation.

Benson, Mary, The African Patriots: The Story of the African National Congress of South Africa, London, Faber and Faber, 1963, pp. 310

Covers the period 1910- 60.

Bergehed, Katarina, How activists got Sweden to recognise that sex without consent is rape, Amnesty International, 2018

Following the acquittal of three men who were accused of raping a 15 year-old girl, the activist movement, FATTA, and the other related demonstrations inspired by ‘MeToo’, led Sweden to the historic declaration, following Iceland, that sex without voluntary participation is illegal.

See also: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2018/05/sweden-new-rape-law-is-historic-victory-for-metoo-campaigners/ and https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/campaigns/2018/04/eu-sex-without-consent-is-rape/.

Beristain, Carlos M., La insumisión encarcelada, Barcelona, Virus, 1992, pp. 158

A compilation of the voices and experiences of seven objectors in prison, as well as of their relatives and supporting groups, in the context of the first years of the campaign of disobedience to military service in Spain. This book arose out of the need to train activists to face jail.

Bernhard, Michael H., The Origins of Democratization in Poland: Workers, Intellectuals and Opposition Politics, 1976-1980, New York, Columbia University Press, 1994, pp. 298

Bernstein, Mary, Lavender and Blue: Attitudes About Homosexuality and Behavior Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Among Police Officers, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 18, no. 3 (Aug), 2002, pp. 302-328

Berrill, Kevin T., Anti-Gay Violence and Victimization in the United States: An Overview, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 5, no. 3, 1990, pp. 274-294

There have been significant campaigns to protect and promote LGBT rights in the USA, including a series of National Marches on Washington in 1979, 1987, 1993 and 2000, but also in many other western countries, which are not so well covered in English publications. The political, legal , religious and cultural contexts vary, however, between countries, so LGBT communities can face somewhat different problems. (For the UK see G.2.b.)

Besson-Vigo, Sarah, #MeToo in Europe, One Year Later, Courier d'Europe, 2018

(Translated by Steffi Buchier) 

Summary report by Sorbonne student newspaper on versions of MeToo hashtag and the responses in France, Sweden, Spain and UK. It then notes the political repercussions of the movement in France (positive response by President Macron), Sweden (new law on consent) and Spain (where new socialist government was discussing modification of law on consent).  The author also touches on reasons why the Balkans and Eastern Europe and (more surprisingly) Germany have been less responsive to MeToo, and notes how typical social reactions in different countries may influence the reliability of comparative statistical surveys of harassment.  

Bew, Paul ; Gibbon, Peter ; Patterson, Hnery, Northern Ireland 1921-2001, [1995], Updated edition of "1921-1994: Political Forces and Social Classes", London, Serif, 2002, pp. 274

An extended historical interpretation from a Marxist perspective, which makes use of the large volume of archive material released in the 1970s. Focuses on the interaction of class and other economic and political factors in the conflict in Northern Ireland. Maintains that the divisions in the country made some form of partition inevitable, the issue at stake being what form it would take.

Beyerle, Shaazka, Curtailing Corruption: People Power for Accountability and Justice, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 2014, pp. 261

Beynon, Huw, Digging Deeper: Issues in the Miners’ Strike, London, Verso, 1985, pp. 280

Beynon, Huw ; Cox, Andrew ; Hudson, Ray, Digging Up Trouble: The Environment, Protest and Opencast Mining, London, Rivers Oram, 1999, pp. 288

General analysis of impact of opencast (strip) mining which spread in Britain in the 1980s. Chapter 7 ‘Changing Patterns of Protest’ (pp. 167-206) looks at the collaboration between the National Union of Miners’ Support Groups and environmental groups to oppose mines creating pollution, and examines the turn from conventional protest to direct action.

Bhan, Gautam, This is No Longer the City I Once Knew. Evictions, the Urban Poor and the Right to the City in Millenial Delhi, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 21, no. 1 (April), 2009, pp. 127-142

See also the book Bhan, Gautam ; Menon-Sen, Kalyani , Swept Off the Map: Surviving Eviction and Resettlement in Delhi New Delhi, Yoda Press, , 2008

Bhan, Gautam ; Menon-Sen, Kalyani, Swept Off the Map: Surviving Eviction and Resettlement in Delhi, New Delhi, Yoda Press, 2008

Bhutto, Benazir, Daughter of the East: An Autobiography, London, Mandarin, 1989, pp. 402

A memoir by Bhutto’s daughter, who was a central figure in the campaign for democracy in the 1980s, which takes her story almost up to the November 1988 elections and her becoming Prime Minister. Although the focus is personal, includes material on the wider political context and the growing popular resistance.

Bieler, Andreas ; Lindberg, Ingemar, Global Restructuring, Labour and the Challenges for Transnational Solidarity, London, Routledge, 2011, pp. 280

A range of transnational case studies, including cooperation between unions in developing and developed countries, illustrate problems and possibilities of solidarity.

Bierley, John, Gathering Visions, Gathering Strength, Bradford and London, GVGS Publishing Group and Peace News, 1998, pp. 39

Report of conference of that title bringing together nonviolent activists from different campaigns and different generations.

Biesemans, Sam, The Right to Conscientious Objection and the European Parliament, Brussels, European Bureau for Conscientious Objection, 1995, pp. 109

Urges incorporation of right to conscientious objection in national constitutions, and the European Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Bigelow, Albert, The Voyage of the Golden Rule: An Experiment with Truth, Garden City NY, Doubleday, 1959, pp. 286

Account by former Lieutenant in the US navy of an attempt by four people to sail a ketch into the US nuclear testing zone at Eniwetok in protest against the tests. Defying an injunction, the ketch sailed 5 miles into the zone before being stopped by US navy. Their example inspired a second attempt by Earle and Barbara Reynolds (see Reynolds, The Forbidden Voyage (D.3.c. Studies of Particular Countries, Campaigns or Actions) ).

Bigio, Jamil ; Vogelstein, Rachel, Yemen peace efforts miss a critical factor, Reuters, 2018

Commentary on the role that women can play in the peace talks within the context of the Yemeni conflict that erupted in 2015. It highlights the situation of women in politics prior to and after the eruption of the conflict. It also provides data elucidating gender-based violence in the country and names of coalitions established by women to tackle it.

Biko, SteveArnold, Millard, The Testimony of Steve Biko, ed. Arnold, Millard, London, Maurice Temple Smith, 1978, pp. 298

Biko, a key figure in the move to radical black consciousness, was killed while in custody by the security services.

Bingham, Clara, Witness to the Revolution: Radicals, Resisters, Vets, Hippies, and The Year America Lost and Found its Soul, New York, Random House, 2016, pp. 655, pb

The book focuses on 'year' August 1969-1970, and explores the roots of the movement against the Vietnam War in the Civil Rights Movement, citing testimony of those involved.

Binnendijk, Anika Locke ; Marovic, Ivan, Power and persuasion: Nonviolent strategies to influence state security forces in Serbia (2000) and Ukraine (2004), Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 39, no. 3 (Special Issue ‘Democratic Revolutions in Post-Communist States’, ed. Taras Kuzio), 2006, pp. 411-429

Describes explicit strategies developed in both Serbia and Ukraine to increase costs of repression and reduce the willingness of the security forces to resort to violence. By combining deterrence and persuasion the organisers were able to avert major repression in 2000 and 2004.

Bin Sayeed, Khalid, Pakistan in 1983: Internal stress more serious than external problems, Asian Survey, Vol. 24, no. 2, 1984, pp. 219-228

Bircham, Emma ; Charlton, John, Anti-Capitalism: A Guide to the Movement, London, Bookmarks Publications, 2000, pp. 407

Collection of brief articles on key issues, protest by regions, key actors, and assessments by actors within the movement.

Birmingham, David, The Decolonisation of Africa, London, UCL Press, 1995, pp. 109

Charts the processes of nationalism, liberation and independence in the various countries of Africa between 1922, when self-government was restored to Egypt, and 1994, when a non-racial democracy was established in South Africa.

Biswas, Soulik, Why India's rape crisis shows no signs of abating, BBC News, 2018

Starts with the example of an unidentified mutilated body of a girl in Gujarat, a victim of prolonged gang rape and assault, and discusses the impact of the unnaturally high proportion of men to women (largely due to illegal sex selection abortions) on the level of rape.  Since the widely publicised 2012 gang-rape and murder of a student in Delhi, statistic suggest a doubling of rapes of children, but Biswas cautions that better reporting of rapes by police and media, and a widening of the definition of rape, may partly account for the rise. 

Bitar, Sergio, Chile, Experiment in Democracy, Philadelphia PA, Philadelphia Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1986, pp. 243

By former member of Allende’s cabinet.

Black, Women in, Women for Peace, ed. Black, Women in, Yearbook, 1994

published in English, Spanish and Serbian since 1994.

Blanchard, Simon ; Morley, David, What’s This Channel Four? An Alternative Report, London, Comedia Publishing Group, 1982, pp. 192

Bland, Ben, Generation H K: Seeking Identity in China's Shadow, London, Penguin, 2017, pp. 140

(A Penguin Special and one in a series on Hong Kong)

The author charts the attitudes of the generation who grew up since 1997, arguing that they have a distinctive Hong Kong identity, detached from Britain's legacy and far from identifying with mainland China, but aware of pressure from Beijing. He follows the stories of 'activists turned politicians', 'artists resisting censorship' and. some connected with the world of high finance, making comparisons with other Asian countries he has covered as a journalist.

Blatt, Martin ; Davis, Uri ; Kleinbaum, Paul, Dissent and Ideology in Israel: Resistance to the Draft,1948-1973, London, Ithaca Press for Housmans Bookshop, WRI, Middle East Research Group (MERAG) and Lansbury House Trust Fund, 1975, pp. 194

Accounts by Israeli conscientious objectors of their experience and the reasons for their stance. Editors relate these to a critique of Zionism.

Bleiker, Roland, Nonviolent Struggle and the Revolution in East Germany, Cambridge MA, Albert Einstein Institution, 1993, pp. 53

Bleiker, Roland, Popular Dissent, Human Agency and Global Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 289

Theorizes transnational (‘transversal’) dissent, looking back to de La Boetie’s Renaissance theory of power and tracing evolution of modern collective action. Draws on Foucault to explore a ‘discursive’ concept of power. Critiques Sharp’s theory of power, illustrated by analysis of East German political and cultural dissent culminating in the collapse of the Berlin Wall.

Blumberg, Herbert H.Hare, Paul, Liberation without Violence: A Third Party Approach, ed. Hare, Paul, London, Rex Collings, 1977, pp. 368

Covers both ‘partisan’ nonviolent action, e.g. against extension of a military camp on Larzac plateau in France, and ‘nonpartisan’ nonviolent intervention to try to prevent violent conflict, e.g. the role of the Gandhian peace brigade (Shanti Sena) in the Ahmedabad riots of 1969. Parts 3 and 4 analyse examples of partisan and nonpartisan intervention by international teams operating a transnational level. Several chapters are listed later in the bibliography. Part 5 analyses processes of change through the third party approach. With extensive bibliographical guide, pp. 288-341.

Blumenkranz, Carla ; Gessen, Keith ; Greif, Mark ; Leonard, Sarah ; Resnick, Sarah ; Saval, Nikil ; Schmitt, Eli ; Taylor, Astra, Occupy!: Scenes from Occupied America, ed. Social Movement Studies, , New York and London, Verso, 2012, pp. 224

Collection of brief accounts of events at Zuccotti Park encampment and initial assessments by writers from leftist New York media, plus extracts from speeches of visiting intellectuals and activists – Judith Butler, Slavoj Zizek, Angela Davis and Rebecca Solnit.

Boardman, Elizabeth F., Taking a Stand: A Guide to Peace Teams and Accompaniment Projects, Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 2005, pp. 177

Chapters on Christian Peacemaker Team, Voices in the Wilderness project in Iraq, Peace Brigades International and the International Solidarity Movement. Descriptions by participants of work done by these groups, who runs them and what is involved in joining them.

Boardman, Elizabeth Jellinek, The Phoenix Trip: Notes on a Quaker Mission to Haiphong, ed. Chatfield, Charles, Bournsville, Celo Press, 1985, pp. 174

Diary of a participant in this defiance of the US prohibition on taking supplies to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

Bobbio, Norberto, Il Problema Della Guerra E Le Vie Della Pace, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1979, pp. 209

Bobbio discusses the interconnection of human rights, democracy and peace as central elements for the achievement of peace. He discusses nonviolence as a tool for establishing a condition of ‘institutional pacifism’ capable of regulating violence and managing the peaceful resolution of conflict.

Boelens, Rutgerd ; Getches, David ; Gil, Armando Guevara, Out of the Mainstream: Water Rights, Politics and Identity, New York, Routledge, 2011, pp. 384

Compares struggles over water in Andean communities of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia and Native American communities in S .W. USA, noting the combined goals of cultural justice and socio-economic justice.

 

Boers, Laurence, ”After the Revolution”: Civil society and the challenges of consolidating democracy in Georgia, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 24, no. 3, 2005, pp. 335-350

Analysis of the ‘revolution’ including some mention of role of nonviolence.

Boesten, Jelke, Ni Una Menos stares down conservative reaction, NACLA, 2018

Discusses the development of a new wave of feminism in Latin America, with particular regard to the ‘Ni Una Menos’ movement, and notes its main differences from ‘Me Too’ in the US, particularly in the type of testimonies relayed, and the inclusion and diversity within the Latin American movement. Boesten also reports on the harsh backlash against the newly developing feminist movements, provoked by conservative Catholicism and pays tribute to Colombian writer Emma Reyes, who symbolises the hidden contribution to literature women in Latin America can offer, providing a different perspective on the pervasive violent misogyny in the country.

Boga, Dilnaz, Curfew in the Vale, New Internationalist, no. October, 2010, pp. 46-47

Indian journalist’s account of the continuing unarmed protests

Bohanna, John, Finally Making the Grade, Red Pepper, no. Dec/Jan, 2011, pp. 54-55

Recalls that the 1968 Ford Dagenham strike for equal pay, although it achieved a substantial pay rise and eventual parity with men on the same grade, did not recognise the skilled nature of the sewing-machinists work by upgrading them. Provides brief account of later 1984 strike by women machinists demanding upgrading, which led to an independent inquiry, which recognised their claim. A film Making the Grade by the Open Eye Film, Video and Animation Workshop documents this second struggle.

Boldt, Menno ; Long, Anthony ; Bear, Leroy Little, The Quest for Justice, Toronto, Toronto University Press, 1988, pp. 406

Over 20 contributions from a wide range of aboriginal peoples and organizations, academics and government representatives, discussing land rights and other contentious issues in an historical, legal and political framework, and from regional and international perspectives.

Bondurant, Joan V., Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict, [1958], Revised edition, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1969, pp. 271

Analysis of Gandhi’s approach to conflict and struggle and of three of his campaigns in India; the 1918 Ahmedabad textile workers strike; the 1919 resistance to the repressive Rowlatt Bills, and the 1930-31 Salt March.

Boonyarattanasoontorn, Jaturang ; Chutima, Gawin, Thai NGOs: The Continuing Struggle for Democracy, ed. Boonyarattanasoontorn, Jaturang, Chutima, Gawin, Bangkok, Thai NGO Support Project, 1995, pp. 188

Boots, Wilson T., Miracle in Bolivia: Four women confront a nation, In McManus; Schlabach, Relentless Persistence: Nonviolent Action in Latin America (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies), Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, pp. 48-62

On 1977-78 hunger strike.

Borras Jr, Saturnino Jr M. ; Edelman, Mark ; Kay, Cristobal, Transnational Agrarian Movements: Confronting Globalization, Oxford, Wiley Blackwell, 2008, pp. 376

Covers transnational farmer resistance to WTO and other global institutions and high profile global alliances such as the small farmer organization Via Campesina. Case studies include Indonesian forest dwellers chopping down rubber plants to grow rice to eat, and Mexican migrants returning home to transform their communities. Also includes information on early 20th century agrarian movements.

Bosco, Fernando, The Madres de Plaza de Mayo and Three Decades of Human Rights Activism: Embeddedness, Emotions and Social Movements, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 96, no. 2, 2006, pp. 342-365

Boserup, Anders ; Mack, Andrew, War Without Weapons: Nonviolence in National Defence,, London, Frances Pinter, 1974, pp. 194

Originally commissioned by the Danish Department of Foreign Affairs, this examines the theory of nonviolent defence, strategic and organisational issues, historical examples and the possibility of combining nonviolent and military forms of defence.

Boserup, Anders ; Mack, Andrew, Krieg ohne Waffen, [1971], Reinbek b. Hamburg, Rowohlt, 1980, pp. 156

One of the best conceptualizations of civilian-based defence, enriched with examples of civil resistance.

Botmed, Jawad, Civil Resistance in Palestine: The village of Battir in 1948, Coventry, Coventry University, 2006, pp. 47

MA dissertation by grandson of leader of village’s resistance to incorporation into Israel.

Bouchier, David, The Feminist Challenge: The Movement for Women’s Liberation in Britain and the USA, London, Macmillan, 1983, pp. 252

Traces the course of the feminist movement from its beginnings at a meeting in Seneca Falls, USA, in 1848, through the campaign for voting rights in the early 20th century to the emergence of radical feminism in the 1960s and 1970s.

Boudreau, Vincent, Resisting Dictatorship: Repression and Protest in Southeast Asia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 290

Compares democracy movements in Indonesia, Burma and the Philippines from a social movement perspective. Charts post-colonial evolution. On Indonesia, examines the Sukarno years, the 1965 coup and anti-communist massacres, initial student protests in the 1970s under Suharto, and the complexities of party politics in the 1980s and 1990s. Ch. 10 ‘Indonesia’s Democracy Protests’ (pp. 215-37) covers the build-up of resistance to Suharto, the role of the student demonstrations and the end of the Suharto regime.

Boulila, S. C. ; Carri, C., On Cologne: Gender, migration and unacknowledged racisms in Germany, European Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 24, no. 3, 2017, pp. 286-293

The authors observe that Germany in 2017 finally ratified the 2011 Istanbul Convention on preventing and combating violence against women, and also amended the law on rape to emphasise consent, not the physical violence of the rapist. But these changes were not due to decades of feminist pressure, but to the highly publicised harassment of women in Cologne on New Year's Eve 2015 by immigrants. This led to sensational media coverage invoking anti-Muslim fears, and pressure from the far right AFD party (Alternative for Germany) and extremist Pegida movement. Cologne encouraged demands for quicker deportations and restrictions on refugee numbers across the political spectrum, and there was a rise of up to three a week in arson attacks on refugee centres. The article notes the response of anti-racist feminists, for example in the internet initiative #ausnahmlos (without exception), challenging the racialisation of sexual harassment and the racial undertones of public debate. But they were in turn attacked for fuelling right wing extremism, and were compared to Holocaust deniers. 

See also: 'A Feminist View of Cologne: The current outrage is very hypocritical', Der Spiegel Online, 21 January 2016. https://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/german-feminists-debate-cologne-attacks-a-1072806.html

Debate between two leading feminists (Alice Schwarzer and Anne Wizorek) from different generations of feminists responding to Cologne. They disagree about the urgency of addressing sexism within some immigrant communities, as opposed to stressing the persistence of patriarchal attitudes throughout German society. Both seem to agree that groping and sexual harassment should become a criminal offence, a cause which Wizorek had promoted since 2013.

Bourgi, Albert ; Castern, Christian, Le Printemps de l’Afrique, Paris, Hachette, 1991, pp. 187

Bourourmand, Ladan, The Untold Story of the Fight for Human Rights, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 18, no. 4 (October), 2007, pp. 64-79

Bouvard, Marguerite Guzman, Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, Wilmington Delaware, Scholarly Resources Inc., 1994, pp. 278

Bouvier, Virginia M., Harbingers of Hope: Peace Initiatives in Colombia, Special Report 169, August 2006, Washington DC, US Institute of Peace, 2006, pp. 20

Bove, Jose, A Farmers’ International?, New Left Review, no. 12 (Nov/Dec), 2001, pp. 89-101

Discusses the Confederation Paysanne and the farmers’ international Via Campesina, but also gives account of French farmer resistance to McDonald’s.

Bové, José ; Luneau, Gilles, Pour La Désobéissance Civique, Paris, La Découverte, 2004, pp. 260

This essay by leading politician and activist Bové and journalist Luneau traces the world history of civil disobedience and explains its current relevance.

Bowen, Ceri ; García-Durán, Mauricio, Living And Resisting In The Shadow Of The Colombian Conflict: Forcibly Displaced People Seen Through A Family Therapy Lens, Peace, Conflict and Development, no. 5 (July), 2004, pp. -16

Bowman, Andy, Shell to Sea, Red Pepper, no. Dec/Jan, 2009, pp. 40-41

Discusses community campaign in County Mayo on west coast of Ireland against a planned gas pipeline and refinery. The campaign involved fasting, blockades and civil disobedience by five men who defied compulsory purchase orders and went to jail. (See also Rossport 5 and Siggins below)

Boyce, Tammy ; Lewis, Austin, Climate Change and the Media, New York, Peter Lang, 2009, pp. 261

Boyle, Richard, The Flower of the Dragon: The Breakdown of the US Army in Vietnam, San Francisco CA, Ramparts Press, 1972, pp. 283

Traces the growth of disillusionment with the war amongst American GIs and the increasingly militant opposition within the US forces. Extracts published as pamphlet ‘GI Revolts: The Breakdown of the US Army in Vietnam’, available online: https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/richard-boyle-gi-revolts-the-breakdown-of-the-u-s-army-in-vietnam

Bradshaw, Ross ; Gould, Dennis ; Jones, Chris, From Protest to Resistance, (Peace News pamphlet), Nottingham, Mushroom, 1981, pp. 64

Story of the rise of direct action against nuclear weapons in the British context. Includes diary of main protest in the 1957-1966 period, and interviews with those involved.

Braithwaite, Constance, Conscientious Objection to Compulsions Under the Law, ed. Blatt, Martin, Davis, Uri, Kleinbaum, Paul, York, William Sessions, 1995, pp. 421

History of conscientious objection to compliance with various legal provisions involving compulsion of citizens, including taking of oaths, vaccination and religious education. Chapter on ethical and political problems related to conscientious objections takes the form of imaginary dialogue between author and a critic of her thesis.

Braithwaite, John ; Braithwaite, Valerie ; Cookson, Michael ; Dunn, Leah, Anomie and Violence: Non-truth and reconciliation in Indonesian peacebuilding, Canberra, Australia National University EPress, 2010, pp. 501

Aceh, pp. 343-428, Papua, 49-146.

Branagan, Marty, Global Warming, Militarism and Nonviolence: The Art of Active Resistance, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2013, pp. 272

Explores high carbon footprint of military defence, argues for an alternative nonviolent defence, and advocates ‘active resistance’ of kind pioneered by Australian environmentalists.

Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63, Vol. 1, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1988, 3 volumes, pp. 1064

Part 1 of the trilogy. Episodes extracted from this readable narrative have been compiled into one volume – Taylor Branch, The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Simon and Schuster, pp. 256.

Branch, Taylor, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-1965, Vol. 2, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1998, 3 volumes, pp. 746

Part 2 of a trilogy. Episodes extracted from this readable narrative have been compiled into one volume – Taylor Branch, The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Simon and Schuster, pp. 256.

Branch, Taylor, At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68, Vol. 3, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2006, 3 volumes, pp. 1056

Part 3 of a trilogy. Episodes extracted from this readable narrative have been compiled into one volume – Taylor Branch, The King Years: Historic Moments in the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Simon and Schuster, pp. 256.

Brancolini, Janna, #MeToo in Italy's Mafia Culture, International Policy Digest, 2018

Assessment of why Italian media have hounded individual women who went public about sexual assault, and why the Italian MeToo hashtag, #quellavoltache, only attracted a few hundred mentions on social media.  The author cites conclusion of a panel of journalists that a major reason is the mafia culture of silence and protecting one's own.  The emphasis on personal ties (clientalism) in the workplace, and the ethos of cronyism encouraged under former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi  (1990s-2000s) are also cited as reasons for Italy's misogyny. 

Branford, Sue ; Glock, Oriel, The Last Frontier: Fighting over Land in the Amazon, ed. Borras, Saturnino M., Edelman, Mark, Kay, Cristobal, London, Zed Books, 1985, pp. 336

Branford, Sue ; Rocha, Jan, Cutting the Wire, London, Latin American Bureau, 2002, pp. 305

Well researched account of MST.

Branford, Sue ; Wainwright, Hilary, Ructions in Rio, Red Pepper, no. Aug/Sept, 2013, pp. 40-41

Brant, Stefan, The East German Rising, 17th June 1953, London, Thames and Hudson, 1955, pp. 202

Bratman, Eve Z., Contradictions of Green Development, Human Rights and Environmental Norms in light of Belo Monte Dam activities, Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 46, no. 2 (May), 2014, pp. 261-289

Bratton, Michael, Economic Crisis and Political Realignment in Zambia, In Widner, Jennifer A., Economic Change and Political Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, , 1994, pp. 320, pp. 101-128

Bratton, Michael ; van de Walle, Nicolas, Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transition in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 333

A broad-ranging analysis by two experts in the field, drawing on the democratization literature, but focused on African realities.

Bravo, Anna ; Buzzone, Anna M., In Guerra Senza Armi. Storie di Donne (1940-1945), Roma and Bari, Edizioni Laterza , 1995, pp. 236

Bravo and Buzzone collect biographical recounts and other documents that narrate women’s history in war. The authors argue that war cannot be a way to achieve progress, and debate the use of violence and on the rejection of violence. They also stress the importance of not underestimating civil and unorganised forms of struggle alongside more common forms of organised forms of resistance, and of including more on the contributions of women in the organisation and study of resistance movements.

Bregman, Ahron ; El-Tahri, Jihan, The Fifty Years War: Israel and the Arabs, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1998, pp. 301

Published in conjunction with a BBC TV series. Chapters 27 and 28 (pp. 187-199) cover the first Intifada, the impact on Israel and the initiatives taken by the PLO.

Breines, Winifred, The Trouble Between Us: An Uneasy History of White and Black Women in the Feminist Movement, ed. Offen, Karen, New York, Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 280

Brennan, Brid ; Hoedeman, Olivier ; Terhorst, Philipp ; Kishimoto, Satoko ; Balanyá, Belén, Reclaiming Public Water. Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World, Amsterdam, Transnational Institute and Corporate Europe Observatory, 2005, pp. 284

Translations: Spanish
Breyman, Steven, Why Movements Matter: The West German Peace Movement and U.S, Arms Control Policy, Albany NY, State University of New York Press, 2001, pp. 359

Charts the evolution of the movement from 1979 to deployment of missiles in Germany at the end of 1983, linking accounts of major protests in West Germany to internal political developments and US/USSR negotiations. The final chapter assesses the impact of the movement and its relation to the INF Treaty.

Brill, Harry, Why Organizers Fail: The Story of a Rent Strike, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1971, pp. 192

Examines community action by the poor; (in Californian Studies of Urbanization and Environment series).

Brinkley, Douglas, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Life of Rosa Parks, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2000, pp. 248

(published in the USA as Rosa Parks, New York, Viking, 2000)

Parks is famous for her role in sparking the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott, but had a long history of engaging in the struggle for civil rights.

Brittain, Victoria, The Gulf Between Us: The Gulf War and Beyond, London, Virago, 1991, pp. 186

Published immediately after the war to discuss key issues raised. Gives background information and comments on the conduct of the war, in particular the killing from the air of large numbers of Iraqi troops flying white flags. On opposition to the war see: Grace Paley, ‘Something about the Peace Movement: Something about the People’s Right Not to Know’, which comments on the US-based opposition, including references to soldiers refusing to support the war, pp. 64-5 and 70-71.

Broad, K.L., GLB +T?: Gender/Sexuality Movements and Transgender Collective Identity (De)Constructions, International Jorunal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, Vol. 7, no. 4 (October), 2002, pp. 341-364

Broadbent, Jeffrey, Environmental Politics in Japan: Networks of Power and Protest, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 418

Examines dilemma of growth versus environmentalism, and how Japan has resolved it, with focus on how anti-pollution protests 1960s-1973 changed government policy , using the movement in one prefecture as a case study.

Brock, Guy Clutton, Dawn in Nyasaland: The Test Case in Africa, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1959, pp. 192

Clutton Brock, a member of the African National Congress, worked with a village cooperative in Southern Rhodesia. Puts the political and economic case against the Federation, justifying strikes and ‘disorderly conduct’ in Nyasaland, because 20 years of constitutional tactics had been unsuccessful. Chronology of political events in Nyasaland from 1859 (coming of Livingstone) to proposed conference on constitution of Federation in 1960.

Brock, Peter, These Strange Criminals’: An Anthology of Prison Memoirs by Conscientious Objectors from the Great War to the Cold War, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 505

Anthology of prison memoirs by conscientious objectors from World War One to the Cold War. Contributions from Britain, Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Brock, Peter ; Young, Nigel J., Pacifism in the Twentieth Century, Syracuse NY, Syrakuse University Press, 1999, pp. 434

(Revised and updated version of Peter Brock, Twentieth Century Pacifism, 1970, Van Nostrand Reinhold.)
History of opposition to war drawing primarily on US and British experience, but including material on Gandhi and the later Gandhian movement, assessments of the position of conscientious objectors in many parts of the world, and references to transnational organizations, e.g. the War Resisters’ International. Although the focus is on pacifism, the book includes material on the role of pacifists in the nuclear disarmament and anti-Vietnam War movements.

Brockett, Charles D., Political Movements and Violence in Central America, Cambridge MA, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 404

Analyses the confrontation between popular movements – urban and rural – and repressive regimes, especially in Guatemala and El Salvador, in particular discussing the ‘repression-protest paradox’.

Brodsky, Anne E., With All Our Strength: The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan, London, Routledge, 2004, pp. 336

Account of feminist organization founded in 1977, which uses literacy classes, underground papers and pamphlets and demonstrations, based on more than 100 interviews with key activists by author, a US feminist scholar. The founder of the Association, who left university in Kabul to struggle for women’s rights, was assassinated in 1987.

Brooks, Ethel C., Unraveling the Garment Industry: Transnational Organizing and Women’s Work, Minneapolis MN, University of Minneapolis Press, 2007, pp. 304

Contrasts the necessity of local resistance – e.g. the right to unionize – with the transnational emphasis on consumer boycotts that, she argues, can unintentionally reinforce the global forces they denounce.

Brossi, Lionel ; Landa, María Inés ; de Zarate, Amalia Ortíz, The Intersex Movement: Empowering Through New Technologies, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2, no. 22 (Special Issue), 2012, pp. 64-75

Brown, Carolyn A., ‘We Were All Slaves’: African Miners, Culture and Resistance at the Enugu Government Colliery, Portsmouth, Oxford and Cape Town, Heinemann, James Currey and David Philip, 2002, pp. 354

Part 2 is on major miners’ strike organized by the militant Zikist movement. The movement became associated with riots and an assassination attempt and was banned in April 1950.

Brown, David L. ; Fox, Jonathan, The Struggle for Accountability: NGOs, Social Movements and the World Bank, Cambridge MA, MIT Press, 1998, pp. 570

See also Brown, David L.; Fox, Jonathan , Transnational Civil Society Coalitions and the World Bank: Lessons from Project and Policy Influence Campaigns In Edwards; Gaventa, Global Citizen Action (1.a. Transnational and Continent-wide Movements and Networks)London, Earthscan Publications, 2001, pp. 43-58

Brown, Judith M., Gandhi’s Rise to Power: Indian Politics 1915-1922, Cambridge MA, Cambridge University Press, 1972, pp. 382

First of three books by leading Gandhi scholar. Followed by:

Brown, Judith M., Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: The Mahatma In Indian Politics 1928-1934, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1977, pp. 414

Brown, Judith M., Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1989, pp. 440

Sympathetic yet objective biography with an emphasis on political tactics and organisation.

Brown, Judith M., The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, Oxford, James Currey/Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 464

Brown, Judith M. ; Parel, Anthony, The Cambridge Companion to Gandhi, ed. Brown, Judith M., Parel, Anthony, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 296

Brown, Louise T., The Challenge to Democracy in Nepal, New York, Routledge, 1996, pp. 239

Covers historical background, earlier attempts at democratization and the evolution of political parties. It draws on extensive interviews. See especially chapter 5 for the resistance movement.

Brown, Michael ; May, John, The Greenpeace Story, London, Dorling Kindersley, 1989, pp. 160

Covers voyages to challenge nuclear testing at Amchitka Island, Alaska and at Mururoa Atoll, but also the voyages protesting against nuclear waste disposal and pollution, and to protect marine mammals.

 

Bruckmiller, Aaron ; Scholl, Franziska, 'Blockupy - Ziviler Ungehorsam als Solidaritaet, Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegung, Vol. 29, no. 1, 2016, pp. 76-82

Numerous protests took place round the world contemporaneously with the global economic crisis, but the left in Europe as a whole failed to organize. This gap should be filled by Blockupy, a European network of activists composed of trade unionists, political parties and different social movements. The article traces the history of this organization and assesses how far Blockupy has the power to create a new left movement in Germany.

Brumberg, Abraham, Poland, Genesis of a Revolution, ed. Brumberg, Abraham, New York, Vintage Books, 1983, pp. 336

Brynen, Rex ; Moore, Pete W. ; Salloukh, Bassel F. ; Zahar, Marie-Joelle, Beyond the Arab Spring: Authoritarianism and Democratization in the Arab World, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 2013, pp. 349

Brysk, Alison, The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina: Protest, Change, and Democratization, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 1994, pp. 308

See also the recent discussion between Amy Risley and Brysk, pp. 83-113, in Goodwin; Jasper, Contention in Context: Political Opportunities and the Emergence of Protest (A. 6. Nonviolent Action and Social Movements) .

Buchan, James, Impasse in Iran, New Left Review, no. 59 (Sept./Oct.), 2009, pp. 73-87

Mostly an analysis of broader Iranian history, but discusses June 2009 protests and their aftermath.

Buckley, Kevin, Panama: The Whole Story, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1991, pp. 304

Rather sensationalist account by journalist focusing on events from the 1985 coup to the US invasion, but stressing the role of Noriega and the Panama Defence Force. Includes descriptions of popular resistance as well as elite manoeuvres.

Budiardjo, Carmel ; Liong, Liem Soei, West Papua: The obliteration of a people, [1983], Thornton Heath, TAPOL, 1988, pp. 142

TAPOL has campaigned against Indonesian human rights abuses for 40 years, for which in 1995 Budiardjo won the Right Livelihood Award.

Bugajski, Janusz ; Pollack, Maxine, East European Fault Lines: Dissent, Opposition and Social Activism, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1989, pp. 333

Buhlungu, Sakhela, The Anti-Privatisation Forum: A Profile of a Post-Apartheid Social Movement, Johannesburg, University of the Witwatersrand, 2004, pp. 22

A case study for the University of KwaZulu-Natal project Globalisation, Marginalisation and new Social Movements in post-Apartheid South Africa.

Bujosevic, Dragan ; Radovanovic, Ivan, OCTOBER 5 - A 24 - Hour Coup, Belgrade, Medija Centar Beograd, 2000, pp. 315

based on interviews with 60 people and includes photos and map of Belgrade.

Bull, Anna ; Diamond, Hanna ; Marsh, Rosalind, Feminisms and Women’s Contemporary Movements, London, Macmillan, 2000, pp. 286

Covers Europe in the 1990s, including essays on ‘Theorizing Feminism in Postcommunism’, ‘Something Unnatural: Attitudes to Feminism in Russia’, ‘New Mothers’ Campaigning Organization in Russia’, ‘”Its about Helping women to Believe in Themselves”: Grassroots Women’s Organizations in Contemporary Russian Society’ and ‘Women’s Discordant Voices in the Context of the 1998 Elections in the Ukraine’.

Bullough, Vern L., Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context, New York, Routledge, Harworth Gay and Lesbian Studies, 2002, pp. 464

Survey of gay and lesbian rights issues in USA. Part 1 covers period before 1950, Parts 2 and 3 organizational activists and national figures , and Part 4 ‘Other Voices’.

Bunce, Valerie J. ; McFaul, Michael ; Stoner-Weiss, Kathryn, Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World, ed. Bunce, Valerie J., McFaul, Michael, Stoner-Weiss, Kathryn, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 360

Examines waves of change in 11 former communist nations, from 1989-1992, and the electoral defeat of authoritarian rulers from 1996 to 2005 in Bulgaria, Slovakia, Serbia, Georgia and Ukraine. This volume looks in particular at issues of transmission and the role of transnational and international actors, with a particular focus on the role of the EU. The final section discusses the conundrum posed by political developments in Russia, and also Belarus and Kyrgyzstan. Individual chapters are also cited under particular countries.

Bunce, Valerie J. ; Wolchik, Sharon L., Favourable conditions and electoral revolutions, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 17, no. 4 (October), 2006, pp. 5-18

Analysis of ‘second wave of democratization’ in post-Communist states and why conditions in these states favourable to success, compared for example with failure of protests over fraudulent elections in Ethiopia, Zimbabwe and Cote d’Ivoire. See also by Bunce, Valerie J.; Wolchik, Sharon L., International diffusion and postcommunist electoral revolutions Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 2006, pp. 283-302 , discussing five factors in the diffusion of electoral revolutions, including the development of civil society and networks between ‘international democracy promoters’.

Bunce, Valerie J. ; Wolchik, Sharon L., International diffusion and postcommunist electoral revolutions, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 39, no. 3 (Special Issue ‘Democratic Revolutions in Post-Communist States’, ed. Taras Kuzio), 2006, pp. 283-302

Bunce, Valerie J. ; Wolchik, Sharon L., Azerbaijan’s 2005 Parliamentary Elections: A Failed Attempt at Transition, Working Paper No 89, September, Stanford CA, Center on Democracry, Development and the Rule of Law (Stanford University), 2008, pp. 52

See also Bunce; Wolchik, Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Post-Communist Countries (D. II.1. Comparative Assessments) , pp. 178-90.

Bunce, Valerie J. ; Wolchik, Sharon L., Postcommunist Ambiguities, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 20, no. 3 (July), 2009, pp. 93-107

Discusses why since 1996 some authoritarian rulers have been ousted but in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus opposition failed (in two successive elections in each case).

Bunce, Valerie J. ; Wolchik, Sharon L., Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Post-Communist Countries, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 364

Discusses electoral defeats of authoritarian leaders from 1998 to 2005 (Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan), but also unsuccessful movements in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus. Analyses local and international actors and draws comparisons with other parts of the world.

Bundy, McGeorge ; Kennan, George F. ; McNamara, Robert S. ; Smith, Gerard, Nuclear weapons and the Atlantic Alliance, ed. Thompson, Edward P., Foreign Affairs, Vol. 60, no. 4, 1982, pp. 753-766

Bunster, Ximena, The mobilization and demobilization of women in militarized Chile, In Isaksson, Eva , Women and the Military System Brighton, Harvester Wheatsheaf, , 1988, pp. 455, pp. 210-222

Discusses how Pinochet regime mobilized women to support it, but also role of women in spearheading resistance in 1979 and their role in 1986.

See also Bunster, Ximena , Surviving beyond Fear: Women and Torture in Latin America In Agosin, Surviving Beyond Fear: Women, Children and Human Rights (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies)Fredonia NY, White Pine Press, 1993, pp. 98-125 .

Burbach, Roger, Ecuador: The Popular Rebellion against the “Partidocracia” and the Neo-Liberal State, Global Alternatives, Berkeley CA, Center for the Study of the Americas, 2007

Burgmann, Verity, Power and Protest: Movements for Change in Australian Society, St Leonards NSW, Allen and Unwin, 1993, pp. 302

See also Burgmann, Verity , Power, Profit and Protest: Australian Social Movements and Globalization Crows Nest NSW, Allen and Unwin, , 2003, pp. 393 .

Burgmann, Verity, Power, Profit and Protest: Australian Social Movements and Globalization, Crows Nest NSW, Allen and Unwin, 2003, pp. 393

Burgmann, Verity ; Burgmann, M., Green Bans, Red Union: Environmentalism and the New South Wales Builders’ Labourers Federation, Sydney NSW, University of New South Wales Press, 1998

On the initiation of ‘green bans’ – work bans by unions to prevent redevelopment of working class neighbourhoods and destruction of historic buildings and urban green spaces in Sydney. Between 1971 and 1974 42 separate bans were imposed and linked unionists with middle class conservationists. See also: Mundey, Jack , Green Bans and Beyond Sydney NSW, Angus and Robertson, , 1981

Burgmann, Verity ; Lee, Jenny, Staining the Wattle, Ringwood VIC, McPhee Gribble/Penguin Books, 1988, pp. 308

Burrowes, Robert, The Strategy of Nonviolent Defense: A Gandhian Approach, Albany NY, State University of New York Press, 1996, pp. 367

Reinterprets Clausewitz’s classic work on war and discusses nature of power underlying nonviolent strategy, the concept of ‘human needs’ and the potential for social change.

Burrowes, Robert, The Persian Gulf War and the Gulf Peace Team, ed. Walgrave, Stefaan, Rucht, Dieter, In Moser-Puangsuwan; Weber, Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders: A Recurrent Vision (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment), Honolulu, Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace, pp. 305-318

Burschel, Friedrich ; Kahrs, Andreas ; Steinert, Lea, Ungehorsam! Disobedience! Theorie & Praxis kollektiver Regelversoesse, Munster, edition assemblage, 2014, pp. 144

There have been frequent examples of civil disobedience in Germany in recent years.  Protests in cities and regions such as Heiligendamm, Dresden, Stuttgart, Wendland and Frankfurt represent a kind of renaissance of civil resistance. This book examines the sources of legitimation and points of dispute, and also notes different definitions of civil disobedience and how these are discussed in the literature. Therefore this book draws on the ideas and experience of various authors.

Bush, Richard C., Hong Kong in the Shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan, Washington, DC, Brookings Institute Press, 2016, pp. 170

The Director of the Brookings Institution's Center on East Asian Policy Studies examines the conflict between the Chinese government and the protesters over the role of popular control in Hong Kong's political system in the context of the 2014 movement. Bush stresses the popular resentment about growing economic inequality and the dominance of the business sector, discusses policies which would promote 'both economic competitiveness and good governance', and examines implications of developments in Honk Kong for the USA.

Bussey, Gertrude ; Tims, Margaret, Pioneers for Peace: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom 1915-1965, London, WILPF British Section, 1980, pp. 225

History of first 50 years of transnational body campaigning against war and for disarmament, which opposed NATO and nuclear weapons, was active (especially in the US) in resisting the Vietnam War and promotes social justice and reconciliation.

Butora, Martin ; Butrova, Zora, Slovakia’s Democratic Awakening, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 10, no. 1 (January), 1999, pp. 80-93

Butora, Martin ; Meseznikov, Grigorij ; Butrova, Zora ; Fisher, Sharon, The 1998 Parliamentary Election and Democratic Rebirth in Slovakia, ed. Butora, Martin, Meseznikov, Grigorij, Butrova, Zora, Fisher, Sharon, Bratislava, Institue for Public Affairs, 1999, pp. 215

Written by protagonists and supporters of the anti-Meciar campaign. Chapters on mobilization of trade unions, Slovak churches and other civil society bodies to turn out the vote for the anti-Meciar coalition, especially among the young (10% of the electorate were first time voters).

See also: Butora, Martin ; Butrova, Zora , Slovakia’s Democratic Awakening Journal of Democracy, 1999, pp. 80-93 ; and Butora, Martin , OK’98: A Campaign of Slovak NGOs for Free and Fair Elections In Forbrig; Demes, Reclaiming Democracy: Civil Society and Electoral Change in Central and Eastern Europe (D. II.1. Comparative Assessments)Washington DC, German Marshall Fund of USA, 2007, pp. 21-52 . Butora was a founder member of Public Against Violence and a former Slovak ambassador to the USA.

Butt, Iqbal Haider, Revisiting Student Politics in Pakistan, Bargad, Gujranwala, 2009, pp. 178

Analyses ‘patterns of key student movements in Pakistan’, using historical information and interviews with 24 student leaders, plus a chronology.

Byrne, Janet, The Occupy Handbook, New York, Back Bay Books, 2012, pp. 560

Includes discussion of why the 1% have such a dominant economic position.

Büttner, Christian W., Friedenbrigaden: Zivile Konfliktbearbeitung mit gewaltfreien Methoden, Münster, Lit, 1995, pp. 147

On different peace brigade projects, including the Gandhian-inspired Shanti Sena.

Cabalin, Cristian, Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise, Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 10, no. 2, 2012, pp. 219-228

Looks at 2006 and 2011 protests.

Cahill, Petra ; Liu, Dawn, Chinese feminists push #MeToo movement amid censorship, NBCNews, 2018

The authors also attribute the outspokenness of young women activists to the one-child policy enforced in China in 1979.  They argue that parents could devote more financial resources to their only children, enabling them to become more independent and educated, and therefore able to recognise and fight against sexism'.

See also https://sensusjournal.org/2018/12/07/case-study-why-is-feminism-limited-in-china/

Cairns, Brendan, Stop the Drop, ed. Burgmann, Verity, Lee, Jenny, In Burgmann, Verity ; Lee, Jenny , Staining the Wattle Ringwood VIC, McPhee Gribble/Penguin Books, , 1988, pp. 308, pp. 243-253

On the 1980s revived movement against nuclear weapons, in particular Australia’s People for Nuclear Disarmament.

Caldecott, Leonie, At the foot of the mountain: The Shibokusa women of Mount Fuji, ed. Jones, Lynne, In Jones, Keeping the Peace (F.6. War and Women's Resistance), London, The Women's Press, pp. 98-107

Account of prolonged struggle to recover agricultural land occupied by US forces in 1945 and later retained by Japanese armed forces.

Calhoun, Craig, Occupy Wall Street in Perspective, ed. Byrne, Janet, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 64, no. 1, 2013, pp. 26-38

Argues Occupy Wall Street was ‘less an organized effective movement’ than a dramatic performance.

Callaghan, Mary, Riddle of the Tatmadaw, New Left Review, no. 60 (Nov/Dec), 2009, pp. 27-64

Stresses economic basis of original 2007 protests.

Callahan, William A., Imagining Democracy: Reading ‘The Events of May’ in Thailand, Singapore and London, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1998, pp. 199

Callinicos, Alex ; Rogers, John, Southern Africa after Soweto, 2nd edition, London, Pluto Press, 1978, pp. 246

Includes critical assessment of the 1960s campaigns and examination of trade union action in the 1970s.

Callinicos, Alex ; Simons, Mike, The Great Strike: The Miners’ Strike of 1984-5 and its Lessons, ed. Beynon, Huw, London, Socialist Worker, 1985, pp. 256

Camara, Helder, Spiral of Violence, London, Sheed and Ward, 1971, pp. 83

Statement of case for nonviolent, as opposed to violent, resistance by Archbishop known for his support for the poor and opposition to racism and militarism.

Cameron, Maxwell A. ; Lawson, Robert J. ; Tomlin, Brian W., To Walk Without Fear: The Global Movement to Ban Landmines, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 512

Camino, Elen ; Marasso, Angela Dogliotti, Il Conflitto: Rischio E Opportunità, Riflessioni E Percorsi Didattici Dal Personale Al Globale, Torre dei Nolfi (L'Aquila), Edizioni Qualevita, 2004, pp. 172

The editors, Elena Camino, researcher in Natural Sciences, and history teacher Angela Dogliotti, who are both leading nonviolence and civil resistance activists, reproduce here the contents of seminars they organised on the concept of ‘conflict’ from a Galtunghian perspective with the purpose of re-enforcing a culture on peace education.

Cammack, Paul ; O'Brien, Philip, Generals in Retreat: The Crisis of Military Rule in Latin America, ed. Cammack, Paul, O'Brien, Philip, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, pp. 208

Papers from International Conference of Americanists in 1982.

Camp, Jordan T. ; Heatherthon, Christina, Policing The Planet: Why the Policing Crisis Led to Black Lives Matter, London and New York, Verso , 2016, pp. 320

Policing the Planet extensively examines the ‘broken windows policing’, a practice through which minor crimes are pursued as a way to prevent major offences. It simultaneously offers a critique that places this particular policy at the centre of a broader neoliberal project for social order and illustrates how its application contributes to the expansion of the punitive and discriminatory capacities of the state.

Through the contributions of several authors, parallels are drawn between the enforcement of US policies against the domestically racialised and criminalised, and the “war on terror” and the use of drones and surveillance technologies abroad. The work contextualizes the Black Lives Matter movement in a wider context, and emphasises its attempts to globalise its struggle and create a new form of global solidarity by highlighting similarities between the murder of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, and the Israeli siege of Gaza in the summer of 2014.

The book offers a platform for debating alternatives to neoliberal and imperialistic policies, and provides element that might serve to foster the political imagination needed for constructing alternative futures.

Jordan T. Camp is an assistant professor of American studies at Barnard College in New York. He researches and teaches about racial capitalism, expressive culture, gentrification, political economy, policing and prisons, militarization, social reproduction, social theory, and the history of social movements in the United States.

Christina Heatherthon is an Assistant Professor of American Studies at Barnard. She is a scholar and historian of anti-racist social movements.

Campbell, Juleann, Setting the Truth Free: The Inside Story of the Bloody Sunday Justice Campaign, Dublin, Liberties Press, 2014, pp. 256

Detailed account of the campaign set up by the families of the 13 people killed, and 14 injured, on ‘Bloody Sunday’ in Derry in 1972. The campaign set up in 1992 succeeded, in the face of intransigence by the British authorities and indifference or open hostility of many others, in forcing the government to institute a new inquiry under Lord Justice Saville. This concluded in 2010 that the demonstrators had been unarmed, that no stones or petrol bombs had been thrown and that the civilians were not posing any threat. British Prime Minister David Cameron made a public apology in Parliament, describing the killings as ‘unjustified and unjustifiable.’ The book is written by the niece of one of those who was killed, and includes the testimonies of eyewitnesses, and a foreword by the leading civil rights lawyer, Garreth Pierce.

Campos, Nauro F., What drives protests in Brazil? Corruption, ineptitude and elections, VOX, 2013

Economics professor suggests three main causes of the protests.

Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Land Grabbing in Latin America, Special issue, Vol. 33, no. 4, 2012

Cannon, Barry, Coup or popular rebellion? The myth of a united Venezuela, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 23, no. 3 (July), 2004, pp. 286-302

Cansun, Şebnem, The Gezi Park protests and youth in Turkey: Perception of Hürriyet Columnists, International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, Vol. 6, no. 1, 2014, pp. 92-105

Article discusses why, despite major role of young people using social media in the first three weeks of protests, columnists in the major Turkish daily Hurriyet (Liberty) often failed to mention, or underplayed, the significance of the young demonstrators.

Capitini, Aldo, Teoria Della Nonviolenza, Perugia , Edizioni del Movimento Nonviolento, 1980

Italian philosopher Aldo Capitini expounds the principles and practices which he regards as inherent in nonviolence and explains his own ethics-based philosophy, which informs his political analysis. He evaluates the role of the United Nations, the Cold War, the relations between Italy and Europe, the arguments for economic controls versus the free market, the global role of  the USA and the confrontation between East and West.  He argues that only an individual transformation of the actors concerned will favour the implementation of new forms of politics and, therefore, lead to new realities

Capitini, Aldo, Le Tecniche Della Nonviolenza, [1967], Roma, Edizioni dell'Asino, 2009, pp. 224

This works elucidates fundamental principles of nonviolence, and proposes a toolkit of nonviolent practices and techniques with reference to some of Capitini’s lived experiences in Italy and worldwide. To develop his argument, Capitini draws connections between ethics and politics, ends and means of both politics and social action, and between the rule of law and civil disobedience.

Carawan, Candie ; Carawan, Guy, Sing for Freedom: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement through its Songs, [1992], Montgomery AL, NewSouth, 2008

Combines two earlier collections of songs and participant memoirs, We Shall Overcome (1963) and Freedom is a Constant Struggle (1968). Compiled by veterans of the Highlander Folk School (later Center), Tennessee – the adult education centre described as an ‘incubator’ for the Civil Rights movement.

Carbado, Devon W. ; Weise, Donald, Time on Two Crosses: The Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin, ed. Carbado, Devon W., Weise, Donald, San Francisco, Cleis Press, 2003, pp. 354

Rustin was an influential adviser to MLK and the coordinator of the 1963 March on Washington. These writings on civil rights and gay politics from 1942 to 1986 include his important 1964 essay ‘From Protest to Politics’ arguing for a policy shift towards mainstream politics through voter registration and involvement with trade unions. Rustin’s later attempts to achieve his goals through the Democratic Party made him a contentious figure in some radical circles.

Carmichael, Stokeley ; Hamilton, Charles V., Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America, London, Jonathan Cape, 1968, pp. 198

Makes case for black separatism in the struggle for equality, to enable black people to lead their own organisations and create their own power bases. Describes the attempts to achieve these aims through the Mississippi Freedom Democrats in 1964, and the role of SNCC in voter registration 1965-66. There is also a chapter on the northern ghettoes.

Carmin, JoAnn ; Balser, Deborah B., Selecting Repertoires of Action in Environmental Movements: An Interpretative Approach, Organization and Environment, Vol. 15, no. 4, 2002, pp. 365-386

Compares North American Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace.

Carothers, Thomas, The backlash against democracy promotion, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85, no. 2 (March/April), 2006, pp. 55-68

Carothers has written widely on US democratic assistance - see for example Carothers, Thomas , Revitalizing Democracy Assistance: The Challenge of USAID Washington DC, Carnegie Endowment, , 2009, pp. 66 - and tends to the view that such aid is positive but necessarily limited in its effects.

Carothers, Thomas, Revitalizing Democracy Assistance: The Challenge of USAID, Carnegie Report, Washington DC, Carnegie Endowment, 2009, pp. 66

Carr, Joetta L., The Slutwalk Movement: A Study in Transnational Activism, Journal of Feminist Scholarship, no. 4 (Spring), 2013, pp. 24-37

North American initiative, but taken up in Britain and transnationally.

Carr, Raymond ; Fusi, Juan Pablo, Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy, 2nd edition, London, Allen and Unwin, 1981, pp. 288

Especially chapter 7, ‘From “conformism” to confrontation’, pp. 134-67, which covers not only regional, worker and student resistance, but also changes within the Catholic Church; and chapter 9 ‘The regime in crisis: Carrero Blanco and Arras Navarro 1969-1975’, pp. 189-206.

Carrión, María, Spaniards Take On the Banks, The Progressive, no. Nov, 2012

Examines campaign against the banks’ ruthless treatment of those unable to pay mortgages and other campaigns such as defiance by doctors and health care workers of law requiring them to refuse treatment to immigrants.

Carroll, Rory, Comandante: Inside Hugo Chavez’s Venezuela, London, Canongate, 2013, pp. 320

Carson, Clayborne, In Struggle, Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press, 1981, pp. 359

Admired study of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) by an activist in the Civil Rights Movement.

Carson, Clayborne ; Garrow, David J. ; Gill, Gerald ; Harding, Vincent ; Hine, Darlene Clark, The Eyes on the Prize - Civil Rights Reader: Documents, Speeches and Firsthand Accounts from the Black Freedom Fighters, 1954-1990, ed. Carson, Clayborne, Garrow, David J., Gill, Gerald, Harding, Vincent, Hine, Darlene Clark, New York and London, Penguin, 1991, pp. 764

Comprises documents, speeches and firsthand accounts of from the black freedom struggle during this period. Published to accompany Eyes on the Prize TV series.

Carter, April, The Sahara Protest Team, In Hare; Blumberg, Liberation without Violence: A Third Party Approach (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment), London, Rex Collings, pp. 126-156

On a transnational expedition in 1959-60 attempting to prevent French nuclear tests in the Algerian Sahara.

Carter, April, Peace Movements: International Protest and World Politics Since 1945, London, Longman, 1992, pp. 283

Particular focus on European and North American movements against nuclear weapons in the 1950s-60s and 1980s and East European responses in the 1980s. But other nuclear disarmament protests, peace campaigns on other issues and nonviolent initiatives in other parts of the world are indicated more briefly.

Carter, April, Direct Action and Democracy Today, Cambridge, Polity, 2005, pp. 298

Examines a range of justifications for nonviolent direct action and civil disobedience in liberal parliamentary states, and shows the shifts in debate both within protest movements and in response to them. Also discusses unarmed resistance to corporate exploitation and neoliberal economic policies in a global context.

Carter, April, People Power and Political Change: Key Issues and Concepts, London, Routledge, 2012, pp. 207

Focuses on unarmed national movements of resistance to imperial, dictatorial or semi-authoritarian rule in relation to the theories and experience of guerrilla warfare, revolution, concepts of power and links between people power and electoral processes. The discussion, which draws on a range of literatures (including theories of nonviolent action, political thought and democratization) is then set in a global context.

Carter, April ; Hoggett, David ; Roberts, Adam, Nonviolent Action: A Selected Bibliography, London, Housmans, 1970

Carter, April ; Randle, Michael, Support Czechoslovakia, London, Housmans, 1968, pp. 64

Account of four transnational teams going to Warsaw Pact capitals to protest against the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion.

Carter, April ; Randle, Michael ; Clark, Howard, A Guide to Civil Resistance, ed. Carter, April, Randle, Michael, Clark, Howard, A Bibliography of People Power and Nonviolent Protest, With a foreword by Paul Rogers, Vol. 1, Talgarth Brecon, Merlin Press, 2013, pp. 258

Carter, April ; Stokes, Geoffrey, Democratic Theory Today: Challenges for the 21st Century, Cambridge, Polity, 2002, pp. 307

Carter, David, Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution, [2004], New York, St Martins Press, 2010, pp. 352

Detailed account of protests that erupted on 28 June 1969 when New York police raided the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village (popular among gays), when many others joined in, and demonstrations spread across the city for several days. The ‘riots’ led to the founding of the Gay Liberation Front and the first Gay Pride marches in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco a year later.

Carter, Miguel, The Origin of Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement MST: the Natalino Episode in Rio Grande do Sul (1981-84) – a case of ideal interest mobilization, Working Paper Series CBS-43-2003, Oxford, University of Oxford Centre of Brazil Studies, 2003, pp. 71

Carter, Neil, The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy, (2nd edn), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 432

Part I covers environmental philosophy and green political thought; Part II Green parties and NGOs; Part III policy making at international, national and local levels. This is a textbook, which gives guidance on other sources.

Carter Hallward, Maia, Creative Responses to Separation: Israeli and Palestinian Joint Activism in Bil’in, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 46, no. 4 (July), 2009, pp. 541-558

On a key focus of protest against the ‘Apartheid Wall’.

Carter Hallward, Maia, Struggling for a Just Peace: Israeli and Palestinian Activism in the Second Intifada, Gainesville FL, University of Florida Press, 2011, pp. 286

Carter Hallward, Maia ; Norman, Julie M., Nonviolent Resistance in the Second Intifada: Activism and Advocacy, ed. Carter Hallward, Maia, Norman, Julie M., New York, Palgrave MacMillan, 2012, pp. 196

Carty, Victoria, Transnational Mobilizing in Two Mexican Maquiladoras: The Struggle for Democratic Globalization, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 9, no. 3 (Oct), 2004, pp. 295-310

Case, Clarence Marsh, Nonviolent Coercion: A Study in Methods of Social Pressure, [1923], New York, Garland, 1972, pp. 423

Early sociological study of nonviolent action in social movements, and of Gandhian strategy.

Casquette, Jesus, The Sociopolitical Context of Mobilization: The Case of the Anti-Militarist Movement in the Basque Country, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 1, no. 2 (Sept), 1996, pp. 203-212

Castaneda, Ernesto, The Indignados of Spain: A Precedent to Occupy Wall Street, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social and Cultural Political Protest, Vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 309-319

Builds on participant observation in Barcelona in summer of 2011.

Castañar, Jesús, Teoría e Historia de la Revolución Noviolenta, Barcelona, Virus, 2012, pp. 327

This is a historical review of nonviolent ideas and movements from the first recorded strike in ancient Egypt to the 21st century. It connects the concepts of revolution and transformatión in each era with the historical movements which often inspired them. There are chapters on Tolstoy, Gandhi and other theorists of nonviolent action, e.g. Bart de Ligt and Gene Sharp, as well as chapters on conscientious objection, nonviolent resistance to Hitler and opposition to other dictatorships round the world, but no detailed examples after the 1960s. Instead it focuses on different approaches to nonviolent action, from the ‘pragmatic’ approaches of Sharp and Ackerman to the principled commitment to nonviolence of Burrowes, Martin and Lakey.

Castells, Manuel, The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements, [1983], Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1992, pp. 471

Castells, Manuel, Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age, Cambridge, Polity, 2012, pp. 200

Well known theorist of global networks examines the mass uprisings across the world in 2011, giving account of events in ‘Arab Spring’ and the reaction to the bank collapse and austerity policies in the west in Iceland, Spain, Greece and the USA, and stressing the causal role of the internet.

Castle, Ben, The Global Movement against Fracking : Lessons from Bulgaria, the UK and New York State, The Democracy Center, Climate Campaign Profiles, 2012, pp. -12

Cavadi, Augusto, Liberarsi Dal Dominio Mafioso, Bologna, Edizioni Dehoniane, 1993, pp. 47, pb

By recalling the trauma that society suffered following the homicides by the mafia organisation Cosa Nostra that took place in the Italian island of Sicily in 1992 - which involved more than 20 victims, including the judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, their security and mafia informers -, Cavadi introduces some reflections on how every part of civil society is responsible for building a different society. He discusses the importance of awareness of how mafia works, alongside the importance of adopting a particular ideological, ethical, political, economic, and pedagogic orientation to solidify a strong anti-mafia movement.

Cavadi, Augusto, Strappare Una Generazione Alla Mafia. Lineamenti Di Pedagogia Alternativa, Trapani, Edizioni Di Girolamo, 2005, pp. 191

In this work, Cavadi argues that the anti-mafia movement should be as organised as mafia organisations are. He proposes that alongside the repressive forces of police and policing institutions, a predominant and pedagogical role should be fulfilled by schools, churches and social organisations and should aim at counterposing a moral and intellectual form of resistance to the mafia phenomenon.

Cavadi, Augusto, A Scuola Di Antimafia, Trapani, Edizioni Di Girolamo, 2007, pp. 294

This work comprises a theoretical discussion and proposed methodological tools for establishing a critical and comprehensive anti-mafia educational programme. It’s divided into five parts: theoretical aspects of anti-mafia education; pedagogical approaches; practical experiences; law procedures; available bibliographies on the topic.

Cavanaugh, William T., Torture and Eucharist: Theology, Politics, and the Body of Christ, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 1998, pp. 304

Takes Chile as case study of Christian response to torture. The Catholic Church’s Vicaria de la Solidaridad (pp. 264-7) was the major human rights monitoring body in the country, while the more ecumenical Sebastian Acevedo Movement against Torture (pp. 273-7) organized lightning protests to hightlight places or institutions implicated in torture.

Cawthra, Gavin ; Kraak, Gerald ; O'Sillivan, Gerald, War and resistance: Southern Africa reports – the struggle for Southern Africa as documented by Resister magazine, ed. Cawthra, Gavin, Kraak, Gerald, O'Sillivan, Gerald, London, Macmillan, 1994, pp. 252

A compilation from the (London) Committee on South African War Resistance.

Ceadel, Martin, Thinking about Peace and War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1987, pp. 222

A frequently cited analysis and classification of different ways of thinking about war, which examines 5 ‘ideal types’ of ‘militarism’, ‘crusading’, ‘defencism’, ‘pacific-ism’ (representing many ideological and organizational strands within peace movements), and ‘pacifism’.

Cerletti, Francesca, Colombia Twinning Peace Groups, 2006

PeaceDirect has promoted twinning between British groups and those working for peace in the midst of conflict, such as in Cali, Colombia.

Cervera-Marzal, Manuel, Désobéir En Démocratie: La Pensée Désobéissante De Thoreau à Martin Luther King, Paris, Aux forges de Vulcain, 2013, pp. 170

Largely based on the author’s PhD thesis, this book analyses three historical approaches to civil disobedience, from conservative and liberal philosophies to the applied theory of disobedience derived from Gandhi and Martin Luther King.

Cervera-Marzal, Manuel, Désobeir En Démocratie:La Pénsee Désobeissante De Thoreau A Martin Luther King, Paris, Aux forges de Vulcain, 2013, pp. 170

Largely based on the author’s PhD thesis, this book analyses three historical approaches to civil disobedience, from conservatives and liberal philosophies to the applied theory of disobedience derived from Gandhi and Martin Luther King.

Chan, Johannes, Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement, The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 103, no. 6, 2014, pp. 571-580

This article was written before the occupation of areas of Hong Kong had been ended by the authorities, so it is an initial response to the protests. It examines the causes of the movement and speculates about its wider implications for politics in Hong Kong and relations with China.

Chan, Shun-hing, The Protestant Community and the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong, Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol. 16, no. 3, 2015, pp. 380-395

Examines the surprisingly high level of participation by Protestants in the movement, despite the doubts or opposition of church leaders to the Umbrella movement. The author argues this participation can be explained by Richard Wood's theory of faith-based community organizing: using biblical stories, images and symbols to create a culture of protest.

Chang, Doris, Women’s Movements in Twentieth Century Taiwan, ed. Basu, Amrita, Champaign IL, University of Illinois Press, 2009, pp. 248

Discusses mixed fortunes of women’s movement in changing political contexts, and how Taiwanese women made selective use of western feminist theory.

Chapman, Annabelle, Ukraine's Big Three: Meet the Opposition Leaders at the Helm of Euromaidan, Foreign Affairs, Snapshot, 2014

A journalist expert on Ukraine assesses the three opposition politicians - Vitaly Klitschko, Oleh Tyahnybok, and Arseniy Yatsenyuk - who, after the 2012 parliamentary elections, created a 'united opposotion' and put themselves forward as 'leaders' of the Euromaidan protests.

Charlton, Michael ; Moncrieff, Anthony, Many Reasons Why: The American Involvement in Vietnam, [1978], London, Hill and Wang, 1989, pp. 250

Based on BBC series of programmes and consisting primarily of interviews with wide range of those involved in first French and then US policy on Vietnam, and individuals prominent in opposition. Covers period 1945-1973. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss protests inside US and the leaking by Daniel Ellsberg of The Pentagon Papers, which revealed in detail secret internal policy making.

Chase, Michael S. ; Mulvenon, James C., You’ve Got Dissent! Chinese Dissident Use of the Internet and Beijing’s Counter-Strategies, Santa Monica CA, RAND, 2002, pp. 132

Chatfield, Charles, The Americanisation of Gandhi: Images of the Mahatma, New York, Garland, 1976, pp. 802

Chatfield, Charles, Ironies of Protest: Interpreting the American Anti-Vietnam War Movement, ed. Grünewald, Guido, Van den Dungen, Peter, In Grünewald, Guido ; Van den Dungen, Peter , Twentieth-century peace movements: Successes and failures Lewiston NY, Edwin Mellen Press, , 1995, pp. 254, pp. 198-208

Argues radical left never had a cohesive centre and that when movement most confrontational, its liberal wing was working most effectively with the political system. Suggests the movement became associated with social and cultural iconoclasm, which appeal to sections of middle classes, but that the broader public eventually opposed both the war and the antiwar protest, because ‘both seemed to threaten the established social order’.

Chaudhuri, Maitrayee, Feminism in India, London, Zed Books, 2005, pp. 416

Collection of essays by academics and activists on condition of women in colonial and independent India, and the challenges to Indian feminism from globalization and the Hindu Right. Indicates a vigorous if uneven women’s movement over several decades.

Chauvel, Richard, Constructing Papuan Nationalism: History, Ethnicity, and Adaptation, Washington DC, East-West Center, 2005, pp. 140

Chavkin, Samuel, Storm Over Chile: The Junta Under Seige, Westport CT, Lawrence Hill, 1985, pp. 303

Chapter 9 focuses on protests of 1983-84.

Cheng, Edmund W. ; Chan, Wai-Yin, Explaining Spontaneous Occupation: Antecedents, Contingencies and Spaces in the Umbrella Movement, Social Movement Studies, Vol. 16, no. 2, 2017, pp. 222-239

Chenoweth, Erica ; Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher, Understanding Nonviolent Resistance, ed. Chenoweth, Erica, Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher, Special Issue, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 50 no. 3 (May), 2013

After introductory essays by the editors and by Kurt Schock, there are sections on: ‘Explaining Nonviolent Resistance’, ‘Dynamics of Nonviolent Contention’ and ‘Outcomes’. Topics covered include self-determination disputes, gender ideologies and forms of mobilisation in the Middle East, role of mutiny in the Arab Spring, transitions in autocracies and transitions from armed to unarmed struggles.

Chenoweth, Erica ; Lewis, Orion A., Unpacking nonviolent campaigns: Introducing NAVCO 2.0, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 50, no. 3 (May), 2013, pp. 415-422

Chenoweth, Erica ; Stephan, Maria J., Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, International Security, Vol. 33, no. 1 (summer), 2008, pp. 7-44

Chenoweth, Erica ; Stephan, Maria J., Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, New York, Columbia University Press, 2011, pp. 296

Combines statistical analysis with case studies of unarmed resistance to argue that since 1900 nonviolent resistance campaigns have been strategically more effective than violent campaigns. Also analyses factors that promote success or failure of nonviolent campaigns. An earlier version of their overall argument was published as Chenoweth, Erica ; Stephan, Maria J., Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict International Security, 2008, pp. 7-44 , including useful case studies of East Timor, the Philippines and Burma 1988-1990.

Cherrington, Ruth, China’s Students: The Struggles for Democracy, London, Routledge, 1991, pp. 239

Cherry, Janet, Zimbabwe – Unarmed resistance, civil society and limits of international solidarity, In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), London, Pluto Press, pp. 50-63

Account written during the post-electoral negotiations in 2008, but primarily assessing the role of community-based organisations (unions, professional associations, urban community groups and women’s groups) in the broad resistance movement. Draws on extensive interviews with activists. In the same volume see: Carter, April ; Cherry, Janet , Worker solidarity and civil society cooperation: Blocking the Chinese arms shipment to Zimbabwe, April 2008 In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)London, Pluto Press, 2009, pp. 191-192 .

Chesneaux, Jean, The Chinese Labor Movement 1919-1927, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 1968

Chester, Gail ; Rigby, Andrew, Articles of Peace: celebrating fifty years of Peace News, ed. Chester, Gail, Rigby, Andrew, Bridport, Dorset, Prism, 1986

Chesterman, John ; Galligan, Brian, Citizens Without Rights, [1997], Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 288

On Australia. It includes some references to protests.

Chiavacci, David ; Obinger, Julia, Social Movements and Political Activism in Contemporary Japan: Re-emerging from Invisibility, Oxon and New York, Routledge, 2018, pp. 212

This book explores social movements and forms of political activism in contemporary Japan, arguing that the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident led to a resurgence in social and protest movements and inaugurated a new era of civic engagement. Re-examines older and recent forms of activism in Japan, as well as provides studies of specific movements that developed after Fukushima. The book considers structural challenges that activists face in contemporary Japan, and how the newly developing movements have been shaped by the neo-conservative policies of the Japanese government. The authors also considers how the Japanese experience adds to our understanding of how social movements work, and whether it might challenge prevailing theoretical frameworks.

Childress, James F., Moral Responsibility in Conflicts: Essays on Nonviolence, War and Conflict, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1982, pp. 224

Includes chapters on conscientious objection and Reinhold Niebuhr on violent and nonviolent methods.

Chinguno, Crispen, Marikana Massacre and Strike Violence Post-Apartheid, Global Labour Journal, Vol. 4, no. 2, 2013, pp. 160-166

Chinguno, Crispen, Marikana and the Post-Apartheid Workplace Order, Working Paper 1, Braamfontein, Society, Work and Development Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, 2013, pp. 40

See also: Chinguno, Crispen , Marikana Massacre and Strike Violence Post-Apartheid Global Labour Journal, 2013, pp. 160-166

Chivers, Danny, The Frack Files, New Internationalist, 2013, pp. 12-28

Report on development of fracking, its technology and implications, and the widespread resistance to it around the world. Larger coalitions of opposition listed at end.

Chomsky, Noam, Occupy, London and New York, Penguin Books and Zucotti Park Books, 2012, pp. 120

This book comprises five sections:

  1. Chomsky’s Howard Zinn Memorial Lecture given to Occupy Boston in Oct.2011;
  2. an interview with a student in Jan 2012;
  3. a question and answer session with ‘InterOccupy’;
  4. a question and answer session partly on foreign policy; and
  5. Chomsky’s brief appreciation of the life and work of radical historian Howard Zinn.

There is a short introductory note by the editor, Greg Ruggiero.

Church of England, Board of Social Responsibility, The Church and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons and Christian Conscience. The Report of the Working Party under the Chairmanship of the Bishop of Salisbury, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1982, pp. 190

Influential report which concluded that Just War principles forbid the use of nuclear weapons, and recommended that the UK should renounce its independent nuclear deterrent, followed by a phased withdrawal from other forms of reliance on nuclear weapons including, ultimately, the presence of US air and submarine bases.

Chávex, Marxa ; López, Claudia, Women in Tariquía, NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol. 50, no. 4, 2018, pp. 408-410

Explores women’s fight against oil extraction in the Bolivian Tariquía Reserve and the threat against forms of self-governance, of dispossession from the land and the environment this constitutes. The authors bring into the analysis the false division between the public and the private sphere. The threat of dispossession, in fact, is projected in daily life, as when women have to endure divisions within their families, occurrence that is considered a form of private and public violence.

Cinar, Ozgur Heval, Conscientious Objection to Military Service in International Human Rights Law, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, pp. 276

An updated overview of the recognition of the right to conscientious objection in international human rights law, with a focus on the UN and Council of Europe.

Cinar, Ozgur Heval ; Usterci, Coskun, Conscientious Objection: Resisting Militarized Society, London, Zed Books, 2009, pp. 272

Collections of essays: Part 1 comprises Turkish experience and viewpoints; Part 2 examines conscientious objection from gender perspectives; Part 3 examines C.O. struggles in different parts of the world and Part 4 looks at conscientious objection and the law.

Clark, Donald N., The Kwangju Uprising: Shadows over the Regime in South Korea, ed. Clark, Donald N., Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1987, pp. 101

Includes bibliography pp. 95-96.

Clark, Howard, Nonviolent resistance and social defence, In Chester, Gail ; Rigby, Andrew , Articles of Peace: celebrating fifty years of Peace News Bridport, Dorset, Prism, , 1986, pp. 46-49

Traces peace movement debates on social defence, including critiques.

Clark, Howard, When the Best Say No: Impressions from a Visit to South Africa in Support of War Resisters, London, War Resisters' International, 1989, pp. 27

Clark, Howard, Civil Resistance in Kosovo, London, Pluto Press, 2000, pp. 266

This study, whilst explaining the historical and political context of the civil resistance, focuses primarily on the strategy, institutions and weaknesses of the nonviolent struggle.

Also Clark, Howard , Kosovo: Civil Resistance in Defence of the Nation – 1990s In Bartkowski, Recovering Nonviolent History: Civil Resistance in Liberation Struggles (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 2013, pp. 279-296 , pp. 279-96, and Clark, Howard , The Limits of Prudence: Civil Resistance in Kosovo, 1990-98 In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 277-293 , pp. 277-94.

Clark, Howard, An Obstacle to Progress, Peace News, no. 2449, 2002

Campaign of the U’wa people of Colombia to prevent oil drilling.

Clark, Howard, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity, ed. Clark, Howard, London, Pluto Press, 2009, pp. 237

The Introduction and Afterword discuss key strategic questions and Part I consists of five case studies of nonviolent resistance from 5 continents. But the major focus is on forms of transnational support for resistance campaigns and the possible problems (as well major advantages) of not only governmental, but also nongovernmental support and intervention. Some of the main chapters in Part II and Part III are therefore listed separately under A.5.

Clark, Howard, No More Mortgage Suicides! Spain’s Social Movements Struggle for Housing Justice, Peace News, no. 2552-2553 (Dec-Jan), 2012

On the vigorous campaign to support mortgage defaulters and the wider 15M movement.

Clark, John F. ; Gardinier, David E., Political Reform in Francophone Africa, ed. Clark, John F., Gardinier, David E., Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1997, pp. 354

Chapters on all the relevant countries, but focuses on elites, parties and institutions rather than popular movements.

Clayton, Anthony ; Savage, Donald C., Government and Labour in Kenya, 1895-1963, London, Frank Cass, 1974, pp. 481

Clemens Jr., Walter Jr. C., Baltic Independence and Russian Empire, New York, St. Martins Press, 1991, pp. 346

Covers the period from 1945, including detailed discussion of 1988-90 moves towards independence (chapters 8-12) giving weight to role of nonviolent resistance.

Clements, Kevin P., Back from the Brink: The Creation of a Nuclear Free New Zealand, Wellington NZ and New York, Harper Collins, 1988, pp. 241

Account of significant popular movement in 1970s and 1980s (including local councils declaring themselves nuclear-free) that led to government action to turn New Zealand into a nuclear-free zone and to refuse to allow US warships carrying nuclear weapons to dock in its ports (although it did not remove US monitoring bases).

Cliff, Tony, Class Struggle and Women’s Liberation: 1640 to the Present Day, London, Bookmarks, 1984, pp. 271

Sweeping historical and transnational survey from a socialist standpoint, noting industrial action by working women and criticizing class base and focus of second wave American and British feminism.

Clogg, Richard ; Yannopoulos, George, Greece under Military Rule, ed. Clogg, Richard, Yannopoulos, George, London, Secker and Warburg, 1972, pp. 272

See especially: chapter 3.’The Ideology of the Revolution of 21 April 1967’, pp. 36-58; chapter 4 ‘The Colonels and the Press’. pp.59-74; chapter 8 ‘Culture and the Military’, pp. 148-62, which includes materials on censorship and repression and on forms of intellectual resistance, such as circulating ‘samizdat’, and liberal protests and manifestos; and chapter 9 ‘The State of the Opposition Forces since the Military coup’, pp. 163-90.

Cloonan, Martin ; Garafalo, Reebee, Policing Pop, ed. Cloonan, Martin, Garafalo, Reebee, Philadelphia PA, Temple University Press, 2003

Coates, Ken, Work-ins, Sit-ins and Industrial Democracy, Nottingham, Spokesman Books, 1981, pp. 175

An account of sit-ins or work-ins to prevent workplace closures in Britain in early 1970s, and an examination of subsequent experiments in workers’ control.

Cobbett, William ; Cohen, Robin, Popular Struggles in South Africa, ed. Cobbett, William, Cohen, Robin, London and Trenton NJ, James Curray and Africa World Press, 1988, pp. 234

Includes chapters on political unionism, the township revolts, student politics (school and university). Earlier version of the much-cited article  Swilling, Mark , The United Democratic Front and the township revolt Durban, South Africa, South African History Archives (SAHA), , 1987, pp. 23 , reprinted here on pp. 90-113, are available online.

Cochrane, Kira, All the Rebel Women: The Rise of the Fourth Wave of Feminism, London, Guardian Books, 2013, pp. 71

See also her article Cochrane, Kira , The fourth wave of feminism: meet the rebel women The Guardian, 10/12/2013

Describes wide range of feminist activities and groups (both established like the Fawcett Society, and new) and wider attitudes to feminism in mainstream organizations such as Girl Guides and Mumsnet.

Cochrane, Kira, The fourth wave of feminism: meet the rebel women, The Guardian, 2013

Cock, Jacklyn ; Nathan, Laurie, War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa, ed. Cock, Jacklyn, Nathan, Laurie, New York, St. Martins Press, 1989, pp. 361

See also Nathan, Laurie , Force of Arms, Force of Conscience: A Study of Militarisation, the Military and the Anti-Apartheid War Resisters’ Movement in South Africa, 1970-1988 M. Phil. ThesisBradford, University of Bradford, , 1990 .

Nathan was a leading activist in the End Conscription Campaign.

Cockburn, Cynthia, The Women’s Movement: Boundary Crossing on Terrains of Conflict, In Cohen; Rai, Global Social Movements (A. 6. Nonviolent Action and Social Movements), London, Athlone Press, pp. 46-61

Focuses on action-research project Women Building Bridges in Northern Ireland, Israel/Palestine and Bosnia Hercegovina, and comments on role of transnational women’s networks, including Women in Black.

Cockburn, Cynthia, From Where We Stand: War, Women’s Activism and Feminist Analysis, London and New York, Zed Books, 2007, pp. 288

Examines women’s resistance to war in many parts of the world, including Sierra Leone, Colombia and Gujarat, India. It also covers women’s cooperation across enemy lines in the former Yugoslavia and in Israel/Palestine, and resistance in the west to imperialist war, and develops theoretical questions about gender and militarism. See also:  Cockburn, Cynthia , Women in Black: The Stony Path to “Solidarity” In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)London, Pluto Press, 2009, pp. 156-163

Cockburn, Cynthia, Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements, London, Pluto Press, 2012, pp. 320

Feminist peace activist provides her theoretical perspective on cross-national case studies including UK peace movement, War Resisters’ International, anti-militarist campaigns in Spain, Korea and Japan, and the anti-NATO demonstrations in Strasbourg 2009.

Cockburn, David, Christian Peacemaker Teams, 2006

Describes how the Christian Peacemaker Teams function, the roles they play and their impact - especially in Hebron. One 'ppt' presentation and four images

Cohen, Fay G., Treaties on Trial: The Continuing Controversy over Northwest Indian Fishing Rights, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1986, pp. 229

Includes protest ‘fish-ins’

Cohen, Margot, The language of violence: gender-based murder and the patriarchal state. A feminist case study of femicide in Chile from 2010-2017, 2018

PowerPoint presentation where Margot Cohen briefly addresses which factors can explain institutional responses to gender-based violence; how state institutions have responded to femicide in Chile up until 2017, and what are the implications of these responses for reducing levels of femicide.

Cohen, Robin ; Rai, Shirin M., Global Social Movements, London, Athlone Press, 2000, pp. 231

Essays examining aspects of indigenous peoples’, women’s, labour, religious and Islamic movements, as well as human rights, environmental and peace movements.

Colectivo Utopía Contagiosa, Política Noviolenta y Lucha Social. Alternativa Noviolenta a la defensa militar, Madrid, Ecologistas en Acción, 2012, pp. 302

This book summarizes the long term work of the two person collective Utopía Contagiosa on defense alternatives from an antimilitarist point of view. The model of military defense is challenged from a nonviolence- cooperation paradigm which conflicts with the hegemonic paradigm of domination and violence. The authors then propose transarmament, suggesting criteria, methodological orientations and a two-phase implementation, together with several proposals for sectorial transarmament for debate.

Collectif, La lutte non-violente en 50 points, approche stratégique de la tactique quotidienne, Belgrade, Centre for Applied Non Violent Action and Strategies, 2006, pp. 185

This document was developed by the leaders of the Otpor movement, which inspired civil resistance against Milosevic in Serbia in the 1990s.  It examines a strategic approach to nonviolent struggle presented in four thematic sections: definition and analysis of the framework of nonviolent struggle; elaboration and planning of the struggle; the techniques of nonviolent combat; and measures to resist repression.

Collin, Matthew, This is Serbia Calling: Rock ’n’ Roll Radio and Belgrade’s Underground Resistance, 2nd edition, London, Five Star, 2004

Updated story of Radio B92 to 2004.

Collin, Matthew, The Time of the Rebels: Youth Resistance Movements and 21st Century Revolutions, London, Serpent's Trail, 2007, pp. 224

Interviews activists from Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Belarus, as well as Serbia.

Colson, Elizabeth, The Social Consequences of Resettlement: The Impact of the Kariba Resettlement Upon the Gwembo Tonga, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1971, pp. 288

The mass displacement caused by the Kariba Dam was a central issue for the pro-independence movement, despite the problems of organising resistance in the affected areas. Pioneer study of what is now called ‘development-induced displacement’.

Commissioner, UN Human Righ, Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, 0

Access to this link connects to the annual reports and up-to –date highlights on violence against women worldwide by the UN Special Rapporteur on gender-based violence. Includes Annual Reports; country visits; relevant publications and documents; consultations with civil society; links about cooperation between global and regional initiatives; and existing legal frameworks amongst many other information.

Cone, James H., Martin, Malcolm and America: A Dream or a Nightmare, London, Fount/Harper Collins, 1993, pp. 358

Compares two contrasting African-American leaders. Initially totally opposed, they moved closer together in the later 1960s, as King came out against the Vietnam War and Malcolm X moved away from black messianic separatism. They also worked with different constituencies: the black communities of the south and the alienated residents of the northern ghettoes.

Connors, Libby ; Hutton, Drew, A History of the Australian Environmental Movement, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 324

Survey from early concerns about conservation through the ‘second wave’ 1945-72, and the campaigns of 1973-83 up to the subsequent professionalization of the movement. Chapter 4 ‘Taking to the Streets’ covers ‘green bans’ and the anti-uranium campaigns; ‘Taking to the Bush’ looks at direct action on a number of issues, culminating in the 1982 blockade of the Franklin Dam; and Chapter 6 ‘Fighting for Wilderness’ assesses further protests around Australia. Chapter 8 considers the role of the Green Party.

Conscience and Peace Tax International, Fifth International Conference on War Tax Resistance and Peace Tax Campaigns, Founding Assembly of Conscience and Peace Tax International: Hondarribia, September 16-19 1994, Hondarribia, Spain, Asamblea de Objecion Fiscal de Navarra, 1994, pp. 111

Text of contributions, workshop reports and summaries of discussions. Conscience and Peace Tax International was established in Brussels as a non-profit association under Belgian law.

Constable, Pamela ; Valenzuela, Arturo, A Nations of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet, New York, W.W. Norton, 1991, pp. 368

Contreras, Dan, Chile’s Educational and Social Movement: Quality Education for Everyone...Now!, The Broken Rifle, no. 90 (December), 2011

Briefly explains problem in higher education and how privatization promotes gap between rich and poor. Describes wide range of nonviolent direct action used by the students, but notes wider support and activism.

Conway, Daniel, Contesting the Masculine State: White Male War Resisters in Apartheid South Africa, In Parpart, Jane L.; Zalewski, Marysia , Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations London, Zed Books, , 2008, pp. 240, pp. 127-142

Conway, Daniel, Masculinities, Militarisation and the End Conscription Campaign: War Resistance in Apartheid South Africa, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2012, pp. 176

See also Conway, Daniel , Contesting the Masculine State: White Male War Resisters in Apartheid South Africa In Parpart, Jane L.; Zalewski, Marysia , Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations London, Zed Books, , 2008, pp. 127-142 .

Cook, Alice ; Kirk, Gwyn, Greenham Women Everywhere, London, Pluto Press, 1983, pp. 127

Cook, Steven A., Turkey’s Democratic Mirage: The Powerbrokers Ankara Back, Foreign Affairs, 2014

Assessment of Turkey’s progress towards being a consolidated democracy since the Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, arguing that despite some significant gains there are still ‘profound’ problems as the corruption allegations against Erodgan illustrate.

Cooper, Joshua, The Ogoni Struggle for Human Rights and Civil Society’ in Nigeria, In Zunes; Kurtz; Asher, Nonviolent Social Movements: A Geographical Perspective (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), Oxford, Blackwell, pp. 189-202

Account of one of the best known and documented campaigns against oil drilling which damages the local environment and communities, by the Ogoni people of Nigeria against Shell.

Cooper, Karen Cody, Spirited Encounters: American Indians Protest Museum Policies and Practices, ed. Boldt, Menno, Long, Anthony, Bear, Leroy Little, Walnut Creek CA, Alta Mira Press, 2007, pp. 224

Covers cultural protests relating to presentation in museums, returning sacred objects and naming of national days in both USA and Canada. Includes discussion of call by Lubicon Lake Band of Cree in Northern Alberta for a boycott of the 1998 Winter Olympics in Canada over land claim and related boycott of exhibition on Canada’s First People.

Coote, Anna ; Campbell, Beatrix, Sweet Freedom: The Struggle for Women’s Liberation in Britain, London, Pan Books, 1982, pp. 258

Study of British movement since 1960s, legislative changes and political developments affecting women in work, the family, sex and culture. Chapter 1, pp. 9-47, charts the evolution of the movement in terms of key protests, campaigns and organization, including some examples of nonviolent action.

Copley, Antony, Gandhi Against the Tide, Oxford, Blackwell, 1987, pp. 118

Brief Historical Association study giving historical context and referring to historiographical debates, noting ‘Cambridge school’ argument that internal weaknesses of the British Administration main cause of independence, and ‘subaltern studies’ school which stresses autonomous resistance of peasants and workers.

Coppierters, Bruno ; Levgold, Robert, Statehood and Security: Georgia After the Rose Revolution, ed. Coppierters, Bruno, Levgold, Robert, Cambridge MA, MIT, 2005, pp. 406

Corr, Anders, No Trespassing: Squatting, Rent Strikes and Land Struggles Worldwide, Cambridge MA, Southend Press, 1999, pp. 256

Discusses the success of squatter movements by the homeless, addresses issues such as ‘direct action and the law’ and ‘tactics and mobilization’ and includes case studies of squatter settlements and rent strikes.

Corradi, Juan E. ; Fagen, Patricia Weiss ; Garreton, Manuel Antonio, Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America, ed. Corradi, Juan E., Fagen, Patricia Weiss, Garreton, Manuel Antonio, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1992, pp. 301

Documents impact of state terror on society in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay from 1950s to 1980s, and the emergence of resistance in various sectors.

Cortright, David, Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today, reissued as Soldiers in Revolt: GI Resistance During the Vietnam War, Haymarket, 2005, Garden City NY, Anchor Press, 1975, pp. 364

Cortright, David, Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 378

Chapters 7 and 8 cover anti-nuclear weapon campaigns, opposition to Vietnam and Iraq wars, resistance in the military and also draft resistance and conscientious objection.

Cortright, David, Gandhi and Beyond: Nonviolence for the Age of Terrorism, Boulder CO, Paradigm Publishers, 2006, pp. 265

Offers a contemporary analysis of Gandhi, while tracing how subsequent US figures and campaigns have applied and enhanced an understanding of ‘applied nonviolence’ that is an effective methodology rooted in values, including feminist values.

Cortright, David ; Watts, Max, Left Face: Soldier Unions and Resistance Movements in Modern Armies, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1991, pp. 296

The chapter ‘The Philippines: another Portugal?’, pp. 220-28, challenges the view that the Reformed Armed Forces Movement was ever a revolutionary movement, concluding ‘The primary thrust for the overthrow of Marcos and the installation of Cory Aquino came from the people themselves, notably the church and the middle classes’.

Cory, Geoffrey, Political dialogue workshops: Deepening the peace process in Northern Ireland, Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Vol. 30, no. 1, 2012, pp. 53-90

The author discusses the more than fifty residential three-day political dialogue workshops he facilitated between 1994 and 2007 at the Glencree Centre for Reconciliation near Dublin that brought together politicians from all parties in Britain and Ireland during the period of peace negotiations in Northern Ireland.

Costain, Anne N., Women’s Movements and Nonviolence, PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 33, no. 2 (June), 2000, pp. 175-180

Discusses nonviolent direct action by US feminists in both early suffrage movement and the 1970s.

Costantino, Salvatore, Raccontare Danilo Dolci. L’Immaginazione Sociologica. Il Sottosviluppo. La Costruzione Della Società Civile, Roma , Editore Riuniti, 2003, pp. 159

A collection of essays – including by Johan Galtung - on the life and work of Danilo Dolci, aimed at exploring his contribution to the practice of nonviolent civil resistance, to the project of building a resilient civil society and being an agent of change.

Cotton, James, Politics and Policy in the New Korean State, New York, St. Martins Press, 1995, pp. 246

Proceedings of conference in Melbourne, 1992.

Coulson, Meg, Looking behind the Violent Break-up of Yugoslavia, Feminist Review, no. 45, 1993, pp. 86-101

Examines post-1945 history of Yugoslavia and causes of its breakdown. Notes emerging feminist peace and ecological movement in the 1980s and the role of women in ongoing opposition to the war, including Serbian women demonstrating against the war with Croatia and demanding return of their husbands and sons.

Coulter, Jim ; Miller, Susan ; Walker, Martin, State of Siege: Miners’ Strike 1984: Politics of Policing in the Coal Fields, London, Canary Press, 1984, pp. 240

Critique of policing methods.

Coy, Patrick G., Cooperative Accompaniment in Sri Lanka with Peace Brigades International, In Smith, Jackie ; Chatfield, Charles ; Pagnucco, Ron , Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics: Solidarity Beyond the State Syracuse NJ, Syracuse University Press , , 1997, pp. 311,

Coy, Patrick G., “We Use it, but Try not to Abuse it”: Nonviolent Accompaniment and the Use of Privilege by Peace Brigades International, American Sociological Association, 2000

See also Coy, Patrick G., Cooperative Accompaniment in Sri Lanka with Peace Brigades International In Smith, Jackie ; Chatfield, Charles ; Pagnucco, Ron , Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics: Solidarity Beyond the State Syracuse NJ, Syracuse University Press , , 19971997 .

Coy, Patrick G., Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, Vol. 31, Bingley, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010, pp. 344

Crabtree, John, Patterns of Protest: Politics and Social Movements in Bolivia, London, Latin America Bureau, 2003, pp. 117

Covers other protests over land, water and coca, but the final chapter ‘El Alto and the Gas Wars’ describes and analyses 2003, including brief discussion of women’s organizations and the role of radio.

Crabtree, John ; Chaplin, Ann, A New Bolivia? Change, Resistance Protest from the Bottom Up, London, Zed Books, 2013, pp. 192

Crabtree, John ; Whitehead, Laurence, Towards Democratic Viability: The Bolivian Experience, ed. Crabtree, John, Whitehead, Laurence, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2001, pp. 356

Crawford, Vicki L. ; Rouse, Jacqueline ; Woods, Barbara, Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers – 1941-1965, ed. Crawford, Vicki L., Rouse, Jacqueline, Woods, Barbara, Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press, 1993, pp. 290

Articles presented at 1988 conference.

Crawshaw, Steve ; Jackson, John, Small Acts of Resistance: How Courage, Tenacity and Ingenuity can Change the World, Preface by Vaclav Havel, New York, Sterling Publishing Company, 2010, pp. 240

Interesting range of examples of ingenious forms of indirect or symbolic resistance at individual and group level, as well as more open defiance and protest.

Cress, Daniel M. ; Snow, David A., The Outcomes of Homeless Mobilization: The Influence of Organization, Disruption, Political Mediation and Framing, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 105, 2000, pp. 1063-1104

Analysis of how organization, tactics, political context and ‘framing’ of the issue affect outcomes, based on 15 campaigns in 8 US cities.

Cristalis, Irena, Bitter Dawn: East Timor – A People’s History, [2002], London, Zed Books, 2009, pp. 384

Crossley, Nick, Global Anti-Corporate Struggle: A Preliminary Analysis, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 53, no. 4, 2002, pp. 667-681

A preliminary sociological analysis of the ‘recent wave of anti-corporate protest’ seeking to provide a framework and highlight important themes.

Crow, Ralph E. ; Grant, Philip ; Ibrahim, Saad E., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East, ed. Crow, Ralph E., Grant, Philip, Ibrahim, Saad E., Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 1990, pp. 129

Curry, Jane Leftwich, Dissent in Eastern Europe, ed. Curry, Jane Leftwich, New York, Praeger, 1983, pp. 277

Curtis, Liz, The Cause of Ireland: From the United Irishmen to Partition, Belfast, Beyond the Pale Publications, 1994, pp. 436

A history of the period from a nationalist perspective with the stated aim of putting in context the divisions and conflict in Northern Ireland. A postscript notes briefly some of the political developments in the 1920s and 1930s including the introduction of the Special Powers Act in 1933 and the emergence of the civil rights movement in the 1960s.

D'Anieri, Paul, What has changed in Ukrainian politics? Assessing the implications of the Orange Revolution, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 52, no. 3 (September/October), 2005, pp. 82-91

D'Anieri, Paul, Explaining the success and failure of post-communist revolutions, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 39, no. 3 (Special Issue ‘Democratic Revolutions in Post-Communist States’, ed. Taras Kuzio), 2006, pp. 331-350

Argues that while most studies focus on grassroots movements, elites – especially security services – are crucial in determining whether movements reach a ‘tipping point’. Illustrates argument by comparing two ‘failed revolutions’ (Serbia 1996-97 and Ukraine 2001) with two ‘successful revolutions’ (Serbia 2000 and Ukraine 2004-2005). [Compare with Binnendijk; Marovic, Power and persuasion: Nonviolent strategies to influence state security forces in Serbia (2000) and Ukraine (2004) (D. II.1. Comparative Assessments) above.]

D'Emilio, John, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States 1940-1970, [1983], 2nd edn, with new preface and afterword, Chicago IL, Chicago University Press, 1998, pp. 282

Highly regarded book on the American Homophile movement by historian and gay activist, including biographical sketches of prominent lesbian and gay figures.

D'Emilio, John, The World Turned: Essays on Gay History and Politics and Culture, Durham NC, Duke University Press, 2002, pp. 264

A collection of diverse essays, not a comprehensive survey of LGBT history in the US, but explores the movement’s growth and activities from the 1970s to 1990s, the impact of AIDS in increasing resources and organization in the LGBT community, and the role of several organizations, including the influential National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) founded in 1973 to promote grass roots power and its role in resisting hostile referenda and promoting positive legislation. NB. NGLTF records from 1973-2008 are based in the Cornell University library: http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/EAD/htmldocs/RMM07301.html

Dabashi, Hamid, The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism, London, Zed Books, 2012, pp. 272

An ambitious attempt to explain 2011 in historical context. Starts from the Green Movement in Iran to chart the difference between ‘political modernity’ and the ‘social modernity’ which is supplanting it. Chapter 1 explores the ‘unfolding’ of the Arab Spring and other chapters include discussion of ‘A New Language of Revolt’ and ‘Race, Gender and Class in Transnational Revolutions’.

Dafis, Cynog, Cymdeithas yr Iaith – the Manifesto, Translated by Harry Web, Planet Magazine: The Welsh Internationalist, no. 26/27 (Winter), 1974

Dahl, Robert A., Regimes and Opposition, ed. Dahl, Robert A., New Haven CT, Yale University Press, 1973

Daimov, E., The Awakening: A Chronicle of the Bulgarian Uprising of January-Feburary 1997, ed. Daimov, E., Sofia, Democracy Network Program: Centre of Social Practices NBU, 1998, pp. 127

Notes that Bulgaria maintained a stable Soviet-style system until the collapse of the Soviet Union, but has made a surprisingly effective transition to parliamentary government and a market economy.

Dajani, Souad R., Eyes Without Country: Searching for a Palestinian Strategy of Liberation, Philadelphia PA, Temple University Press, 1995, pp. 238

See also Dajani, Souad R., Resistance in the occupied territories In Zunes; Kurtz; Asher, Nonviolent Social Movements: A Geographical Perspective (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Oxford, Blackwell, 1999, pp. 52-74 .

Dale, Gareth, Popular Protest in East Germany 1945-1989, London, Frank Cass, 2004, pp. 256

Dale, Gareth, The East German Revolution of 1989, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2007, pp. 252

Eye-witness stresses the role of civic groups and the increasing radicalisation of workers and technicians, and engages critically with other interpretations of the revolution. See also his earlier book, Dale, Gareth , Popular Protest in East Germany 1945-1989 London, Frank Cass, , 2004, pp. 256 .

Dalton, Dennis, Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action, New York, Columbia University Press, 1993, pp. 279

Analysis of Gandhi’s concept of satyagraha, of his political leadership and and of the 1931 Salt Satyagraha and 1947 fast, as well as covering critiques by contemporaries and making comparisons with Martin Luther King and Malcolm X.

Dalton, John Frederick, The Moral Vision of Cesar Chavez and the Farm Worker Movement, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1988, pp. 350

Dalton, Russel J. ; Kuechler, Manfred, Challenging the Political Order: New Social and Political Movements in Western Democracies, ed. Dalton, Russel J., Kuechler, Manfred, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 344

Dalton, Russell, The Green Rainbow: Environmental Groups in Western Europe, New Haven CT, Yale University Press, 1994, pp. 305

Examines development of Green movement in Western democracies. Argues that environmental interest groups are important new participants in the contemporary political process and that, if the movement is politically successful ‘it may at least partially reshape the style and structure of democratic processes in these countries’.

Daly, Tom, Unarmed resistance in Nepal, Peace News, no. 2478, 2006, pp. 5-5

Dangl, Benjamin, The Price of Fire: Resource Wars and Social Movements in Bolivia, Oakland CA, AK Press, 2007, pp. 240

Dangl is an editor of http://towardfreedom.com and http://upsidedownworld.org.

Dangl, Benjamin, Dancing with Dynamite: Social Movements and States in Latin America, Oakland CO, AK Press, 2013

Dapiran, Antony, City of Protest: A Recent History of Dissent in Hong Kong, London, Penguin, 2017, pp. 134

(Penguin Special)

Dapiran argues that Hong Kong has been 'a city shaped by civil disobedience', and he sets the 2014 movement in the historical context of protest since the 1960s. He also discusses the role of these popular protests in forging a distinctive Hong Kong identity, whilst indicating that the relationship between politics and cultural identity is complex.

Darkin, Elly, Making femicide visible, The Bogotà Post, 2017

Journalist Elly Draking interviews Isabel Agatón, human rights lawyer and director of CIJUSTICIA (Centre for Research in Justice and Critical Studies of Law) to highlight her key role in the creation and implementation of Law 1761 in 2015 in Colombia, which made femicide a legally defined crime, punishable with up to 50 years in jail. It also highlights the obstacles the Colombian government still faces in implementing this law, fully.

da Rocha, Antonio Casado, La Desobediencia Civil a partir de Thoreau, San Sebastian, Gakao Lubruak, 2002, pp. 133

This essay updates Thoreau’s thought in the light of later additions by academics and activists. Starting from Thoreau’s own context, and using extracts from his classic text and other unpublished fragments available in Spanish, the author recreates Thoreau’s thinking for today.

Darweish, Marwan ; Rigby, Andrew, Popular Protest in Palestine: The Uncertain Future of Unarmed Resistance, London, Pluto Press, 2015, pp. 215

Two experts on Palestine examine the history of Palestinian political resistance to the creation of the state of Israel from the late 19th century to 1939, and provide a balnced assessment of the phases of primarily unarmed popular resistance to Isreali domination. They cover the First Intifada and (after the mainly armed resistance of the Second Intifada) the growth of nonviolent forms of protest since the building of the Separation Wall in 2005. 

da Togboa, Edith Natuka ; Mintero, Dina Rodriguez, Gender and Peace Building in Africa, Costa Rica, University of Peace, 2005

Davenport, Christian ; Johnston, Hank ; Mueller, Carol, Repression and Mobilization, ed. Davenport, Christian, Johnston, Hank, Mueller, Carol, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2005, pp. 258

Explores varied forms of repression and means of response drawing on a wide sociological literature. Particularly relevant is Hank Johnston, ‘Talking the Walk: Speech Acts and Resistance in Authoritarian Regimes’ (pp. 108-37), exploring underground humour, graffiti, hit and run tactics, informal opposition networks, ‘duplicitous organisation’ – using official status for opposition, and role of recreational, cultural and religious groups. Johnston also notes how official political and cultural events can be subverted. (Strong overlap with ch. 4 in Johnston, States & Social Movements (A. 6. Nonviolent Action and Social Movements) .)

David, Hugh, On Queer Street: Social History of British Homosexuality, 1895-1995, ed. Bullough, Vern L., London, Harper Collins, 1997, pp. 305

David, Isabel ; Toktamis, Kumru F., Everywhere Taksim: Sowing the Seeds for a New Turkey at Gezi, Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2015, pp. 256

Davidson-Harden, Adam ; Naidoo, Anil ; Harden, Andi, The Geopolitics of the Water Justice Movement, Peace, Conflict and Development, no. 11 (Nov), 2007, pp. -33

Davis, Angela Y., Freedom Is A Constant Struggle: Ferguson, Palestine And The Foundation Of A Movement, Chicago, IL, Haymarket Books, 2016, pp. 180

In this series of interviews conducted by Frank Barat - activist for human rights and Palestinian rights -, Angela Davis reflects on the importance of Black feminism, intersectionality, and prison abolitionism for today's struggles. She discusses the legacies of previous liberation struggles and makes connection between the Black Freedom Movement and the South African anti-apartheid movement, as well as between the events in Ferguson and Palestine. The core message of the book is the emphasis on the importance of establishing transnational networks of solidarity and activism.

Angela Y. Davis is a political activist (who supported the Black Panthers in the late 1960s and became widely known in 1971 when arrested on false charges), scholar, author, and speaker. She is an outspoken advocate for the oppressed and exploited, writing on Black liberation, prison abolition, the intersections of race, gender, and class, and international solidarity with Palestine.

Davis, Michael C., Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement: Beijing's Broken Promises, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 26, no. 2 (April), 2015, pp. 101-110

The article focuses on how the 'one country, two systems' model in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration was undermined by the June 2014 Chinese White Paper and the August 2014 Chinese decision on the conduct of Hong Kong elections. These have meant that the 'one country, two systems' commitment has been broken, underlining the need for more internal democracy in Hong Kong.

Davis, Nathaniel, The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende, London, I.B. Taurus, 1985, pp. 480

Account of evolving crisis by former US ambassador to Chile.

Day, Mark, Forty Acres: Cesar Chavez and the Farm Workers, New York, Praeger, 1971, pp. 222

De Avila, Thiago, Facing domestic violence against women in Brazil: advances and challenges, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy (IJCJ&SJ),, Vol. 7, no. 2, 2018, pp. 15-29

This article offers a critical overview of the Brazilian legal framework for confronting domestic violence. Intimate partner homicides are epidemic in Brazil: there are four deaths of women per day. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law (MPL) introduced integrated polices and transformed criminal procedures to deal with the complexities of gender violence. Reforms included the establishment of The House of Brazilian Women, women‐only police stations, specialised courts, intervention orders, interdisciplinary experts, and perpetrator programs. In 2015, a new law established the crime of femicide and was designed to prevent ‘honour killings’ defences in cases of intimate partner homicides and to avoid impunity. Despite the legal reforms, the structure and articulation of the networks of services remains a challenge. The MPL led to great social change in Brazil by raising awareness of violence against women, and facilitating a broader discussion about gender equality.

De Benedetti, CharlesChatfield, Charles, The Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 1990, pp. 495

Detailed and well researched account. Final chapter by Charles Chatfield analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the movement and influence on US policy. Concludes that anti-war activists contributed to the growth of public disaffection with the war, but could not harness it, but that both Johnson and Nixon Administrations adapted their policies in response to pressure from dissenters.

de Blaye, Edouard, Franco and the Politics of Spain, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1976, pp. 576

Especially chapter 18 ‘The Oppositions’, pp. 490-513.

Decalo, Samuel, The Process, Prospects and Constraints of Democratization in Africa, African Affairs, Vol. 91, no. 362 (January), 1992, pp. 7-35

Comments on parallels with ex-Soviet bloc, noting that ‘the sudden coalescence of a “critical mass” of pro-democracy pressures in Africa’ was equally unexpected. (Decalo contributed the chapter on Benin in Clark; Gardinier, Political Reform in Francophone Africa (E. I.2.1.b. Movements for Multi-Party Democracy in Francophone Africa 1988-93) .)

de Carvalho, Jesus Mario, Firmeza Permanente: Labor holds the line Brazil, In McManus; Schlabach, Relentless Persistence: Nonviolent Action in Latin America (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies), Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, pp. 33-47

Account by labour activist of protracted struggle from 1962 in PETRUS cement factory in Sao Paolo against strikebreaking, police repression and an employer-created ‘union’.

de Figueiredo, Antonio, Fifty Years of Dictatorship, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1975, pp. 261

By journalist and political activist, who supported Delgado in his opposition to Salazar, was imprisoned in Portugal for his resistance to the regime, and campaigned against Portugal’s colonial abuses.

DeGroot, Gerald J., Student Protest: The Sixties and After, ed. DeGroot, Gerald J., London, Addison Wesley, 1998, pp. 312

Dekar, Paul, The Australian No Uranium Mining Campaign, Peace Magazine, Vol. 16, no. 3 (Jul-Sep), 2000, pp. 27-26

See also: Milburn, Caroline , Australia: Women at forefront of Jabiluka resistance The Age, 1999

de la Boetie, Etienne, The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude, [1554], Montreal, Black Rose Books, 1997

Frequently cited in discussions of the ‘consent’ theory of power. The accuracy of this ‘Gandhian paradigm’ of Boetie has been questioned (see Randle, Civil Resistance (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) , p. 31), but Boetie has been used in the past by religious dissidents and from the 20th century by exponents of unarmed resistance. For discussion of his Renaissance context, (see Bleiker, Popular Dissent, Human Agency and Global Politics (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution) pp. 51-73).

Translations: French
Delgado, Esperanza Hernández, Resistencia civil artesana de paz: Experiencias indígenas, afrodescendientes y campesinas, Bogotá, Editorial de la Universidad Javeriana, 2004, pp. 468

This is a key book about the Colombian peace communities and the civil resistance of indigenous peoples, Afro Americans and peasants in the context of a bloody civil war. It focuses in particular on the civil resistance of the Nasa people (Paez) in the Cauca department. This is not only the strongest movement (with their Indigenous Guard able to confront guerrillas, the army and paramilitaries), but also the one which has lasted longest and influenced the others. In addition there are studies of the Asociacíon Campesina Integral del Atrato (ACIA), Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos de Carare (ATCC), Comunidad de Paz de San José de Apartadó and the Asamblea Municipal Constituyente de Tarso.

de Ligt, Bart, The Conquest of Violence: An Essay on War and Revolution, [1935], New York, Garland, 1972, pp. 308

and London, Pluto Press, 1989 (with Introduction by Peter van den Dungen), pp. 306.

Classic argument for nonviolent resistance from an anarchist anti-war perspective, with a broad historical perspective, and giving more emphasis to examples of unarmed resistance in the socialist tradition (for example 1905 in Russia) than much of the early literature.

Della Porta, Donatella, Mobilizing for Democracy: Comparing 1989 and 2011, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 384

Expert on social movements combines analysis of movements with theory of democratisation, and using comparative framework discusses causes and outcomes of 1989 movements in Eastern Europe with the Middle East and North Africa from 2011. Particular, but by no means exclusive, focus on GDR and Czechoslovakia and on Tunisia and Egypt.

Della Porta, Donatella, Social Movements in Times of Austerity: Bringing Capitalism Back into Protest Analysis, Cambridge, Polity and Wiley, 2015, pp. 216

Analyzes movements since 2008 (Iceland) challenging corruption and inequality and situating them within the crisis of neoliberalism. Covers Spain, Greece and Portugal anti-austerity movements, but also Peru, Brazil, Russia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Ukraine.

Della Porta, Donatella ; Andretta, Massimiliano ; Mosca, Lorenzo ; Reiter, Herbert, Globalization from Below: Transnational Activists and Protest Networks, Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, 2006, pp. 338

An in depth look at the Genoa G.8 summit in 2001, and European Social Forum, from protesters’ point of view, based on survey of 800 activists at Genoa and 2,400 participants in 2002 Florence European Social Forum.

Della Porta, Donatella ; Tarrow, Sidney, Transnational Protest and Global Activism, ed. Della Porta, Donatella, Tarrow, Sidney, Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2005, pp. 287

Collection of essays exploring globalization and its varying impact on social movements, comparing today’s movements with earlier movements and examining specific examples.

Deloria Jr, Vine Jr, Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties: An American Indian Declaration of Independence, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 1985, pp. 296

Covers developing activism in the 1960s, the protest caravan of 1972 culminating in the occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and site occupations, including the 71 day occupation and siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota in 1973.

del Vasto, Lanza, Die Macht der Friedfertigen. Radikale Alternativen zu Elend, Knechtschaft, Krieg und Revolte, Freiberg/Heidelberg, F.H. Kerke, 1982, pp. 320

Translation from French of ‘The Power of the Peaceful’, by well known nonviolent activist and theorist who drew inspiration from Gandhi.

del Vasto, Lanza, Technique de la Nonviolence, [1974], Paris, Gallimard, 1988, pp. 280

Originally written in 1974, this essay explores the philosophy and strategy of nonviolence inspired by the author’s meeting with Gandhi in 1937, and applies it to environmental and solidarity struggles as well as in the daily life of the Arch communities, which he founded across France.

Deming, Barbara, San Francisco to Moscow: Why they walk, In Deming, Revolution and Equilibrium (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution), New York, Grossman, pp. 51-59

(Article originally published in the Nation 15 July.)

See also: Deming, Barbara , San Francisco to Moscow: Why the Russians let them in In Deming, Revolution and Equilibrium (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution)New York, Grossman, 1971, pp. 60-72

Deming, Barbara, Revolution and Equilibrium, New York, Grossman, 1971, pp. 269

The title essay confronts the case for violence made by Frantz Fanon, in his critique of colonialism (see 1a.iii), and by many US militants in the later 1960s, and argues that radical nonviolent action can be an alternative. Other essays by this feminist nonviolent activist and writer cover a wide range of protests. (The title essay is also available as a separate pamphlet from A.J. Muste Memorial Institute, New York.)

Deming, Barbara, Earle Reynolds: Stranger in This Country, In Deming, Revolution and Equilibrium (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution), New York, Grossman, pp. 124-135

On the transnational protests by the ship ‘Everyman III’ which sailed from London to Leningrad to protest against Soviet nuclear tests.

Deming, Barbara, San Francisco to Moscow: Why the Russians let them in, ed. Cameron, Maxwell A., Lawson, Robert J., Tomlin, Brian W., In Deming, Revolution and Equilibrium (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution), New York, Grossman, pp. 60-72

(Article originally published in the Nation 23 December 1961.)

Democracy, Journal of, Debating the color revolutions, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 20, no. 1 (January), 2009, pp. 69-97

including contributions from Valerie Bunce and Sharon Wolchik, Mark Beissinger, Charles Fairbanks, Vitali Silitksy and Martin Dimitrou, with reply by Lucan Way

Democracy, Journal of, China since Tiananmen, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 20, no. 3, 2009, pp. 5-40

Democracy, Journal of, Section on ‘Iran in Ferment’, ed. Democracy, Journal of, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 20, no. 3 (October), 2009, pp. 6-20

Articles by:

  • Afshan, Ali and Graham Underwood, ‘The Green Wave;
  • Milani, Abbas, ‘Cracks in the Regime’ (focusing on role of Islamic Revolutionary Guard corps and dissent in Ministry of Intelligence’;
  • Bouroumand, Ladan, ‘Civil Society’s Choice’ (stressing human rights and referring back to her article Bourourmand, Ladan , The Untold Story of the Fight for Human Rights Journal of Democracy, 2007, pp. 64-79 ).

Democracy, Journal of, The Upheavals in Egypt and Tunisia, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 22, no. 3 (July), 2011, pp. 3-48

This section includes three articles:

Schraeder, Peter J. and Hamadi Redissa, ‘Bem Ali’s Fall’, pp. 3-19;

Howard, Philip N. and Muzammil M. Hussein, ‘The role of the digital media’, pp. 35-48, compares Tunisia and Egypt;

Masoud, Tarek, ‘The Road to (and from) Liberation Square’, pp. 20-34, is primarily about Egypt.

Democracy, Journal of, Putin under Siege, ed. Democracy, Journal of, special section, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 23, no. 3 (July), 2012, pp. 19-70

Comprises 5 articles: Shevtsova, Lilia, ‘Putin Under Siege; Implosion, Atrophy or Revolution?’; Krastev, Ivan and Stephen Holmes, ‘An Autopsy of Managed Democracy’; Popescu, Nicu, ‘The Strange Alliance of Nationalists and Democrats’; Volvkov, Denis, ‘The Protesters and the Public’; Wolchick, Sharon, ‘Can There be a Color Revolution?’

Denham, Diana, Teaching Rebellion: Stories from tbe Grassroots Mobilization in Oaxaca, Oakland CA, PM Press, 2008, pp. 381

Compiles testimonies from protest organisers, teachers, unionists, religious leaders, indigenous community activists, housewives and others represented at the Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca which emerged from the 2006 movement.

Dent, Alexander S. ; Pinheiro-Machado, Rosana, Protesting Democracy in Brazil, Hot Spots. Cultural Anthropology website, 2013

Series of 22 posts covering numerous aspects of protests, their cause, and issues of policing.

Desai, Ashwin, We Are the Poors: Community Struggles in Post-Apartheid South Africa, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2002, pp. 153

On struggles against neoliberal policies and privatization in the townships, strikes, and the Durban Social Forum.

Desai, Narayan, Handbook for Satyagrahis: A Manual for Volunteers of Total Revolution, New Delhi, Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1980, pp. 57

The founder of the Institute for Total Revolution outlines a Gandhian approach to nonviolence training.

Desmarais, Annette Aurelie, La Via Campesina: Globalization and the Power of Peasants, London, Pluto, 2007, pp. 254

Examines impact of modernization and globalization on agriculture and explores alternative forms of development and the evolution of an international peasant voice in Via Campesina, formed in 1993 to challenge the neoliberal economic agenda.

Dessi, Giulia, Occupying against the patriarchy, New Internationalist, 2018

Journalist Giulia Dessi reports on the series of students’ occupations (particularly by young women) that started in Southern Chile on 17 April 2018 and prompted a new wave of feminist civil disobedience. These demonstrations were responding to a case of sexual harassment by a university professor, Carlos Carmona, former president of the Constitutional Court. He was suspended for lack of integrity for only three months after eight months of protests. The students wanted to raise awareness of the systemic character of sexism and they campaigned for the university to put in place policies against sexual harassment. In addition, the students voiced a broader theoretical challenge to free-market capitalism. Following the protest Chilean President, Sebatsian Piñera, announced the ‘Women’s Agenda’ consisting of measures that address gender inequality in the areas of harassment, childcare and health. In November 2018, Chile signed a joint agreement with Peru at the Second Binational Cabinet that established increased sanctions for gender violence and domestic abuse.

Destradi, Sandra ; Vuellers, Johannes, Gewaltfrei Widerstandsbewegungen und ihre Erfolgsbedingungen - Eine Uebersich der neueren englischsprachigen Forschungsliteratur, Zeitschrift fuer Friedens und Konfliktforschung, Vol. 4, no. 1, 2015, pp. 116-146

This article is a literature review examining the latest English literature on nonviolent resistance.  It discusses different types of  protest and delineates the characteristics of nonviolent resistance movements, and then focuses on explanations for the success of such movements.  Last but not least, the authors discuss possible new avenues for research.

Deutsch, Richard, Mairead Corrigan, Betty Williams, Foreword by Joan Baez, Woodbury NY, Barrons, 1977, pp. 204

Account of the genesis, development and programme of the Peace People by French journalist resident in Belfast at the time the movement began

Deutsch, Yvonne, Israeli women against the Occupation: Political growth and the persistence of ideology, In Mayer, Tamar , Women and the Israeli Occupation: The Politics of Change London, Routledge, , 1994, pp. 209, pp. 88-105

Describes the growing number of organizations engaged in demonstrating solidarity with the Palestinians (e.g. Women in Black), meeting with Palestinian women in the Occupied Territories, helping Palestinian women political prisoners, or proposing peace plans.

Development, The Movement of Movements, Development, Vol. 48, no. 2 (June), 2005, pp. 1-121

Analysis of Social Forum processes, the nature of the global justice movement and the Zapatista experience. NB: Development, vol. 47 no 3 (2004) is on ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’.

Devlin, Bernadette, The Price of My Soul, London, Pan, 1969, pp. 206

Autobiography of one of the most dynamic student leaders of the civil rights movement. Recounts the emergence of People’s Democracy (PD) at Queen’s University Belfast, and includes vivid first-hand accounts of the August 1968 March in Derry, and the Belfast to Derry march by PD in January 1969 which was ambushed by a loyalist mob at Burntollet. Also recounts Devlin’s election to the Westminster Parliament in April1969, her frustration at the limits to her power as an MP, and her participation in the Battle of the Bogside in August of that year.

Dhaliwal, Puneet, Public Squares and Resistance: The Politics of Space in the Indignados Movement, Interface: A Journal for and about Social Movements, Vol. 4, no. 1 (May), 2012, pp. 251-273

Diamond, Larry ; Kirk-Greene, Anthony ; Oyediran, Oyeleye, Transition Without End: Nigerian Politics and Civil Society Under Babangida, ed. Diamond, Larry, Kirk-Greene, Anthony, Oyediran, Oyeleye, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 1997, pp. 516

Comprehensive analysis of the political fault lines, corruption and repression of Nigerian politics, and the failure to achieve a transition to democracy, including the role of the military, constitutional formulas and electoral administration. Chapters on political parties, the press and ‘associational life’.

Diamond, Larry ; Plattner, Marc F., The Global Resurgence of Democracy, ed. Diamond, Larry, Plattner, Marc F., Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 1993, pp. 432

Diamond, Larry ; Plattner, Marc F., Democracy in Africa: Progress and Retreat, ed. Diamond, Larry, Plattner, Marc F., Baltimore MD, John Hopkins Press, 2010, pp. 360

Collection of relevant articles in the Journal of Democracy.

Diehl, Sophie, Is Social Media Only For White Women? From #MeToo to #Mmiw, Master Thesis, Northern Arizona University, 2019, pp. 62

This thesis scrutinises the conversation about violence against women on social media. The main research question is: ‘Does social media reproduce colonial ideologies such as racism and sexism?’ Indigenous women experience the highest rates of sexual violence in the United States: they are twice as likely to be as all other women. Social media is praised as a tool for activists and marginalized groups to raise awareness. The thesis explores whether this applies to Indigenous women and sexual violence, or whether their voices are generally overlooked.

Dieter, Anne ; Hillmer, Marianna ; Szilat, Julia, Das Verstaendnis von Wahrhaftigkeit – ein Wegweiser durch Gandhis Leben anlaesslich seines 140. Geburtstages, MenschenRechts Magazin, no. 2, 2009, pp. 252-262

On the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi’s 140th birthday the authors offer a guide to understanding Gandhi’s personality and life through different chapters in his life, for example the role of his family, his youth and the long period in South Africa.

Dimitrov, Vesselin, Bulgaria: The Uneven Transition, London, Routledge, 2001, pp. 132

Charts transition to multiparty democracy and a market economy from 1989, with a focus on party coalitions and alignments.

Dinerstein, Ana Cecilia, “Que se vayan todos!” Popular Insurrection and the Asambleas Barriales in Argentina, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 22, no. 2, 2003, pp. 187-200

See also Dinerstein, Ana Cecilia, Workers’ factory takeovers and new state policies in Argentina: towards an “institutionalisation” of non-governmental public action? Policy & Politics, 2007, pp. 529-550 .

Diogene (revue), Theories Et Practiques De La Non-violence, PUF, no. 243-244, 2014, pp. -250

This special number of Diogene (international review of the human sciences) presents diverse perspectives on different themes relating to nonviolence: the language of nonviolence; the links between nonviolence and religion; and between nonviolence and civil resistance.  It also considers the future of nonviolence.

Diuk, Nadia, Euromaidan: Ukraine’s Self-Organizing Revolution, World Affairs, no. March/April, 2014

Report by a Vice-President of Endowment for Democracy covering the developments of Ukraine's demonstrations until the end of December 2014. It stresses the creative and disciplined popular organisation; the unwillingness to rely on politicians; the breadth of support not only in Kiev but in other cities of eastern Ukraine; how provocateurs have been kept out of Maidan and how violence was avoided when responding to brutal attempts to clear the square. Available on line: http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/euromaidan-ukraine%E2%80%99s-self-organizing-revolution

Dobson, William J., The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy, New York, Harvill Secker, 2012, pp. 341

Former editor of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Policy assesses the nature of various contemporary authoritarian regimes and discusses unarmed resistance. Chapter 1 ‘The Czar’ analyses the Putin regime including its control over the media; Chapter 2 ‘Enemies of the State’ gives prominence to a campaign to preserve the Khimki forest and the effectiveness of tactics used.

Dockterman, Eliana, Survivors used #MeToo to speak up. A year later they are still fighting for meaningful change, Time, 2018

After Weinstein accusers were nominated by Time as ‘Person of the Year’, this article explores the legacy left by the movement in the US one year since #MeToo exploded globally.

Doherty, Brian, Green Parties, Nonviolence and Political Obligation, ed. Doherty, Brian, de Geus, Marius, In Doherty, Brian ; de Geus, Marius , Democracy and Green Political Thought London, Routledge, , 1996, pp. 36-55

Discusses role of nonviolence in Green thought (and in original policy of German Greens) and case for nonviolent protest.

Doherty, Brian, Paving the Way: The Rise of Direct Action against British Road Building, Political Studies, Vol. 47, 1999, pp. 275-291

Doherty, Brian ; de Geus, Marius, Democracy and Green Political Thought, London, Routledge, 1996

Dolci, Danilo, The Outlaws of Partinico, London, MacGibbon and Kee, 1960, pp. 316

Describes context of his campaigns – not much detail on the campaigns themselves.

Dolci, Danilo, Racconti Siciliani, [1963], Palermo, Sellerio Editore, 2008, pp. 428

These stories, which Dolci collected in Sicily, are the medium through which he elucidates the local dimension of the mafia – its action and influence in Sicily – and its wider impact in Italy and beyond. This is a record of how ordinary people coped with their suffering of violence, and it aims to transmit their vision of social justice. The work has an educational value.

Dolci, Danilo, Processo All’articolo 4, [1956], Palermo, Sellerio Editore, 2011, pp. 440

Dolci’s account of the ‘reverse strike’ by unemployed agricultural workers which he led in Partinico to repair a disused road, and his subsequent trial in 1956. The demonstration dramatised the extreme poverty endured in Sicily, while affirming the right to work inscribed in Article 4 of the Italian Constitution, and was supported by many of the unemployed, farmers and representatives of the labour movement. The reverse strike created a new form of nonviolent protest.

See also: Ancora del Mediterraneo (ed.) (2006), Perché L’Italia Diventi Un Paese Civile, Napoli: L’Ancora, pp. 153.

This covers the mass fast in San Cataldo, the subsequent reverse strike and the trial, and provides a chronology of the events leading to Dolci’s conviction.

Domínguez, Rosario, La Insumisión. Una forma de vida, Madrid, La Malatesta Editorial, 2012, pp. 147

Tells the story of the insumisos from the point of view of one of the mothers. It begins with a summary of the historical process and then introduces a personal narrative of the experience of trials and jail, and the struggle of the conscientious objectors’ mothers association. Includes press articles and pictures which illustrate each element of the story.

Dongfang, Han, Chinese labour struggles, New Left Review, no. 34 (July/August), 2005, pp. 65-85

Interview with a former railway worker involved in trade union activity at time of Tiananmen, who now directs the China Labour Bulletin and broadcasts from Hong Kong to promote independent union activity in China.

Donnet, Pierre-Antoine, Tibet: Survival in Question, Delhi and London, Oxford University Press and Zed Books, 1994, pp. 267

Examines Tibet from 1950 to early 1990s, including the 1959 uprising, the role of the Dalai Lama and protests in the 1980s (see chapter 4, ‘The revival of nationalism’, pp. 93-107).

Donson, Fiona ; Chesters, Graeme ; Welsh, Ian ; Tickle, Andrew, Rebels with a Cause: Folk Devils without a Panic: Press Jingoism and Policing Tactics and Anticapitalist Protest London and Prague, Internet Journal of Criminology, 2004

Doolin, Dennis, Communist China: The Politics of Student Opposition, Stanford CA, Hoover Institute, Stanford University, 1964, pp. 70

This is Doolin’s translation of a Beijing Student Union pamphlet, together with his own introduction.

Doyle, Timothy, Direct Action in Environmental Conflict in Australia: A Re-examination of Non-violent Action, Regional Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 28, 1994, pp. 1-13

Drainville, Andre C., Quebec City 2001 and the Making of Transnational Subjects, In Panitch, Leo ; Leys, Colin , A World of Contradictions: Socialist Register 2002 London, Merlin Press, , 2001, pp. 15-42

Drainville, Andre C., A History of World Order and Resistance: The Making and Unmaking of Global Subjects, ed. Development, , London, Routledge, 2011, pp. 216

Looks at Global Justice Movement in a broad historical framework and relates it to case studies of earlier struggles in the USA, UK, France, South Africa, Algeria, the Philippines and Jamaica.

Drake, Paul, Labor Movements and Dictatorships: the Southern Cone in Comparative Perspective, Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 1996, pp. 253

In addition to detailed analysis of Argentine, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, has comparative discussion with European dictatorships – Greece, Portugal, and Spain.

Drake, Paul ; Jaksic, Ivan, The Struggle for Democracy in Chile, 1982-1990, ed. Drake, Paul, Jaksic, Ivan, Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1991, pp. 321

Drewett, Michael, Music in the Struggle to End Apartheid: South Africa, In Cloonan, Martin ; Garafalo, Reebee , Policing Pop Philadelphia PA, Temple University Press, , 2003, pp. 153-165

See also Drewett, Michael , Aesopian Strategies of Textual Resistance in the Struggle to Overcome the Censorship of Popular Music in Apartheid South Africa In Müller, Beate , Censorship & Cultural Regulation in the Modern Age Amsterdam and New York, Rodopi, , 2004, pp. 189-207 .

Drexler, Elizabeth, Aceh, Indonesia: Securing the Insecure State, Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008, pp. 296

Driver, Christopher, The Disarmers: A Study in Protest, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1964, pp. 256

Account of the emergence of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War and the Committee of 100 in Britain. Describes the main actions and internal debates within the movement.

Dromey, Jack, Grunwick: The Workers’ Story, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1978, pp. 207

The author was secretary of Brent Trades Council in London when the non-unionised women strikers at the mail-order plant contacted him for help in 1976, and became a member of the strike committee. He also wrote an obituary of the inspirational leader of the strike, Jayaben Desia, when she died 23 December 2010 (Guardian, 29 Dec 2010, p.30). (For a celebration of Desia’s role and life see also Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, ‘Remembering an unsung heroine of our modern history’, Independent, 3 Jan 2011, p.5.)

Dryzek, John S. ; Downes, David ; Hunold, Christian ; Schlosberg, David ; Abstract, Hans-Kristian Hernes, Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Norway, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 238

Comparative study of successes and failures of four environmental movements since 1970, exploring implications of inclusion and exclusion from political process.

Duchen, Clare, Feminism in France from May 1968 to Mitterand, London, Routledge, 1986, pp. 165

Chapter 1, ‘Beginnings’ examines role of women in May 1968 and the emergence of the Mouvement de Liberation des Femmes in 1970, laying of a wreath on the tomb of the unknown soldier to commemorate his wife (leading to arrests), support for women strikers (e.g. in a hat factory in Troyes) and the 5th April 1971 Manifesto by 343 prominent women who had resorted to illegal abortions. Later chapters explore ideological divisions within the movement, theoretical issues and the relationship of feminists to socialist government in France.

 

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the activities of international volunteers working with Palestinians to empower them in their nonviolent struggle against the Israeli occupation.

Dudouet, Véronique, Nonviolent Resistance in Power Asymmetries, revised and updated 2011, In Austin, Beatrix ; Fischer, Martina ; Giessmann, Hans J., Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation [2004] Berlin, Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management, , 2011, pp. 599, pp. 237-264

Summarises evolution of nonviolent resistance in theory and practice and explores its role in redressing structural asymmetry and as a prelude to reconciliation and peace building.

Explores the context and conditions in which nonviolent resistance can contribute to successful and sustainable conflict transformation processes. The author introduces the concept, aims and methods of nonviolent action and explores conceptual and empirical developments throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. She illustrates its potential and limits, both in transforming asymmetric power structures and in encouraging democratic practices, using the example of the Palestinian first intifada in the Israeli/Palestinian struggle. (updated and revised for 2011 print edition)

Dudouet, Véronique, Civil Resistance and Conflict Transformation – Transitions from Armed to Nonviolent Struggle, London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 262

Chapters on: Western Sahara, West Papua, Palestine, South Africa (in 1980s), the Zapatistas. Egypt, Nepal and on indigenous armed struggle and nonviolent resistance in Colombia.

Dudouet, Véronique ; Clark, Howard, Nonviolent Civic Action in Support of Human Rights and Democracy, EXPO/B/DROI/2008/69 PE407.008, Brussels, Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, 2009, pp. 53

Scholarly study commissioned by the Human Rights Subcommittee of the European Parliament, evaluating EU practice and making recommendations on principles that should guide EU support for nonviolent action for democratization, including concrete proposals on how to make it more effective.

Dufour, Martine, Intervention Civile De Paix: Une Expérience Au Kosovo, Ed. Du MAN, 2013, pp. 98

Martine Dufour is a member of the Movement for a Non-violent Alternative. She took part in several civil missions to Kosovo between 1993 and 2011.  This book relates a pioneering experiment in civil intervention and includes elements of analysis, appreciation and assesment of the Civil Peace Intervention in a post-conflict area.

Duhamel, Philippe, Civil resistance as deterrent to fracking, OpenDemocracy.net, 2013

Translations: Spanish
Duke, Michael S., The Iron House: A Memoir of the Chinese Democracy Movement and the Tiananmen Massacre, Layton, Utah, Gibbs Smith, 1990, pp. 180

Eyewitness account from May 19 by Chinese-speaking American professor.

Dumbrell, John, Vietnam and the Antiwar Movement: An International Perspective, Aldershot, Avebury, 1989, pp. 182

Chapters include: ‘Kent State: How the War in Vietnam became a War at Home’; ‘Congress and the Anti-War Movement’; ‘US Presidential Campaigns in the Vietnamese Era’; ‘Opposing the War in Vietnam – the Australian Experience’; ‘Vietnam War Resisters in Quebec’; ‘Anger and After – Britain’s CND and the Vietnam War’.

Duncan, Emma, Breaking the Curfew: A Political Journey through Pakistan, London, Arrow Books, 1990, pp. 312

A journalist (now deputy editor of the Economist) provides her perspective on Pakistan in the 1980s.

Dunkerley, James, Rebellion in the Veins: Political Struggle in Bolivia, 1952-82, London, Verso, 1984, pp. 385

Notes that 1952 revolution is not well covered in the literature (even in Spanish). Charts changing economic and political context, giving weight to the role of the militant working class in the mines, but also notes role of Catholic Church on human rights (pp. 128-31).

Dunlop, Tessa, Rosia Montana and Romania’s Decade Long “Gold War”, BBC News, 2012

See also: Earthworks ‘No Dirty Gold: Rosia Montana’: http://nodirtygold.earthworksaction.org; Solly, Richard ‘Festival of Resistance to Romanian Gold Mine’, London Mining Network, 18 Aug . 2014: http://londonminingnetwork.org
Sources for 15 year long local resistance in Romania to open-pit gold mine (which would use cyanide), proposed by Toronto-based Gabriel Resources, and for the evolution of government policy and legal challenges. The mine became a focus of national resistance in September 2013. The local opponents propose that the site should become a UNESCO heritage area (the open cast mine would destroy the original Roman gold mine) and a centre for farming.

Dunn, James, East Timor: A Rough Passage to Independence, Double Bay NSW, Longueville, 2004, pp. 430

Dyck, Noel, Indigenous Peoples and the Nation State: ‘Fourth World’ Politics in Canada, Australia and Norway, St John’s Nfld, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1985, pp. 263

D’Emilio, John, Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin, New York, Freedom Press, 2003, pp. 568

Shows how Rustin’s gay lifestyle was repeatedly brought up by public enemies intent on discrediting the movement and by political rivals wanting to marginalize him.

Earnshaw, Helena ; Jones, Angharad Penrhyn, Here we Stand, Aberystwyth, Honno, 2014, pp. 450

Anthology of accounts by 17 British women campaigners, engaged in a range of militant direct action, including one by Welsh Language Society (Cymdeithas yr laith) activist, Angharad Thomas.

Ebert, Theodor, Soziale Verteidigung, Waldkirch, Waldkircher Verlagsgesellschaft, 1981, 2 volumes, pp. 387

  • Vol. 1: Historische Erfahrungen und Grundzuege der Strategie, 1981, 193pp;
  • Vol. 2. Formen und Bedingungen des Zivilen Widerstands, 1981, 194 pp.

Ebert has researched important examples of earlier nonviolent resistance, e.g. the 1953 East German uprising, and has been a leading theorist of nonviolent action and civilian defence since the 1960s. Both books are compilations of articles Ebert wrote on the subject in the 1970s.

Ebert, Theodor, Gewaltfreier Aufstand. Alternative zum Bürgerkrieg, (4th edition), Waldkirchen, Waldkircher Verlagsgesellschaft, 1981, pp. 253

Analysis of nonviolent resistance by leading German scholar of nonviolent uprisings, based on his dissertation. In this book Ebert outlines an often quoted series of steps in the escalation of nonviolent action.

Ebert, Theodor, Erfolg durch zivilen Ungehorsam?, Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegung, Vol. 25, no. 1, 2012, pp. 60-65

Social movements come into being due to contradictions within a society.  They create a growing  number of people that fear a social catastrophe or believe they can change the current situation.  These motives also provide legitimation for people to protest, resist or, in some circumstances, even promote a radical change in their society.

Ebert, Theodor, Macht von unten durch gewaltfreie Aktion: Neue Beitraege zur direkten Aktion in der Demokratie, Lebenshaus Schwaebischer Alb, 2017

'Power from below through nonviolent action' is the latest contribution from German's best known proponent of civilian defence and nonviolent resistance.  Aware that he is 80 years old, Ebert sums up his experiences and elaborates on new ideas for future research

Ecumenical Program on Central America (EPICA), ; Center for Human Rights Legal Action (CHRLA), Out of the Shadows: The Communities of Population in Resistance in Guatemala, Washington DC, EPICA and CHRLA, 1993

Edozie, Rita Kiki, People Power and Democracy: The Popular Movement Against Military Despotism in Nigeria 1989-1999, Trenton NJ, Africa World Press, 2002, pp. 205

Analyses critically the roles of several national pro-democracy groups in the 1990s, and their attempts to mobilize civil society to resist. Compares their strategies and activities and their role in promoting a democratic transition.

Edwards, Jeff, AIDS, Race and the Rise and Decline of a Militant Oppositional Lesbian and Gay Politics in the US, New Political Science, Vol. 22, no. 4, 2000, pp. 485-506

Edwards, Michael ; Gaventa, John, Global Citizen Action, London, Earthscan Publications, 2001, pp. 327

Discusses transnational civil society, its impact on financial institutions, and a range of specific campaigns, e.g. to ban landmines, Jubilee 2000, campaigns against corporations.

Eglitis, Olgerts, Nonviolent Action in the Liberation of Latvia, Cambridge MA, Albert Einstein Institution, 1993, pp. 72

Eguren, Luis Enrique ; Caraj, Marie, New Protection Manual for Human Rights Defenders, (supersedes 2004 edition), Brussels, Protection International, 2009, pp. 213

Einhorn, Barbara, Socialist Emancipation: The Women’s Movement in the GDR, ed. Kruks, Sonia, Rapp, Rayna, Young, Marilyn B., In Kruks, Sonia ; Rapp, Rayna ; Young, Marilyn B., Promissory Notes: Women in the Transition to Socialism New York, Monthly Review Press, , 1989, pp. 396,

Einhorn, Barbara, Feminism in Crisis: The East German Women’s Movement in the “New Europe”, Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 41, no. 1 (April), 1999, pp. 14-28

Eisenmann, Roberto, The struggle against Noriega, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 1, no. 1 (winter), 1990, pp. 41-46

Editor of La Prensa, Panama’s leading daily, looks at the role of Panama’s people and the organized opposition, in article written before US invasion.

Ekine, Sokari ; Abbas, Hakima, The Queer African Reader, Cape Town, Pambazuka Press, 2013, pp. 220

Wide ranging reader including poetry and analysis, personal testimonies, and activist accounts and discussions of strategy. Testament to resistance of LGBT communities across the continent.

El-Mahdi, Rabab, Orientalising the Egyptian uprising, Pambazuka News, 2011

suggesting a non-western interpretation of events.

El-Mahdi, Rabab ; Marfleet, Philip, Egypt: The Moment of Change, ed. El-Mahdi, Rabab, Marfleet, Philip, London, Zed Books, 2009, pp. 186

Analysis of the Mubarak regime and its policies, the nature of political Islam, and (most relevant here) a chapter on ‘The democracy movement: Cycles of protest’, pp. 87-102, which provides background to Tahrir Square.

Elbaz, Gilbert, Beyond Anger: The Activist Construction of the AIDS Crisis, Social Justice, Vol. 22, no. 4, 1995, pp. 43-76

Discusses ACT-UP in relation to two contrasting approaches in social movement theory: ‘resource mobilization’ and the ‘identity’ paradigm.

Elliott, Marianne, The Catholics of Ulster: A History, London, Allen Lane and The Penguin Press, 2000, pp. 642

A major study looking at the history of Catholics in Ulster from the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 to the signing of the Belfast agreement in 1998. The author, who defines herself an ’Ulster Catholic’, takes a fresh look at the attitudes, assumption and convictions of the Catholic community, and at some of the causes of sectarian division. She notes that there has been a return of self-confidence among Ulster Catholics since the signing of the GFA and that the overwhelming majority of them support the constitutional arrangement based on majority consent.

Ellner, Andrea ; Robinson, Paul ; Whetham, David, When Soldiers Say No: Selective Conscientious Objection in the Modern Military, ed. Cinar, Ozgur Heval, Usterci, Coskun, Farnham, Ashgate, 2014, pp. 290

Explores theoretical arguments for and against selective objection, together with case studies from US, Britain, Australia, Germany and Israel.

Ellwood, Douglas J., Philippines Revolution 1986: Model of Nonviolent Change, Quezon City, Philippines, New Day Publishers, 1986, pp. 60

Includes material on role of local peace movement, nonviolence training and a 1983 statement on ‘creative nonviolence’.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke ; Tobias, Sheila, Women, Militarism and War: Essays in History, Politics and Social Theory, [1990], 2nd edn. (with new epilogue), Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1995, pp. 318

Elster, Ellen ; Sørensen, Majken Jul, Women Conscientious Objectors: An Anthology, London, War Resisters' International, 2010, pp. 156

A collection of essays by and about women COs in USA, Europe, Turkey, Israel, Eritrea, Korea, Paraguay and Colombia.

Translations: Spanish
Engels, Bettina ; Branders, Nikolai, Social Movements in Africa, ed. Engels, Bettina, Branders, Nikolai, Stichproben, no. 20, 2011

Although mostly relevant to the second volume of this bibliography, it provides context for the movements against governments that are covered here.

Engler, Mark ; Engler, Paul, This is an Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt is Shaping the Twenty-First Century, New York, Nation Books, 2016, pp. 368

The book examines how contemporary movements are using strategic nonviolent action to promote social change, covering a range of protests including climate change, immigrant rights, gay rights, Occupy and Black Lives Matter. The authors argue that nonviolent uprisings are becoming more common than violent rebellion, and look back to twentieth century antecedents in the Indian Independence and US Civil Rights movements, examine the nature of effective strategy and discuss organizational discipline. Their analysis includes the Arab Spring, but notes its discouraging implications.

English, Richard, Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA, [2003], Oxford, Pan Books, 2012, pp. 544

The chapters in this history of the IRA which deal with the gradual shift in the position of Provisional Sinn Fein and IRA, their engagement in the political process through discussions with both the rival nationalist SDLP and the British government, and their eventual decision to end the military campaign, provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the peace process in Northern Ireland. The final chapter subjects the republican case to critical – though not unsympathetic – scrutiny but rejects the contention that the struggle was in any straightforward sense an anti-colonial one or that its religious dimension can be ignored.

Ensalaco, Mark, Chile Under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth, Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999, pp. 296

Enzmann, Birget, Handbuch Politische Gewalt, Weisbaden, Springer VS, 2013

Epprecht, Marc, Sexuality and Social Justice in Africa: Rethinking Homophobia and Forging Resistance, London, Zed Books, 2013, pp. 220

Covers activism for rights and over HIV. Notes external influences exacerbating position of lesbians, gays and trans, as well as role of some African leaders and cultural influences.

Epstein, Barbara, Political Protest and Cultural Revolution: Nonviolent Direct Action in the 1970s and 1980s, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1991, pp. 327

Covers environmental/peace/feminist protest in the USA, analysing key ideas and organising methods, as well as evolution of some major campaigns, for example against the Seabrook nuclear energy plant and the Livermore nuclear weapons laboratory.

Epstein, Barbara, Not your Parents’ Protest, Dissent, Vol. 47, no. (spring), 2000, pp. 8-11

On Seattle.

Equipo Plan Congruente de Paz y Nonviolencia, Noviolencia. La transformacion creative del conflict social, Medellín, Gobernación de Antioquia, 2004, pp. 168

This as an introductory book on nonviolence by various authors (Equipo Plan Congruente de Paz y Nonviolencia), centred on the classics: Thoreau, Gandhi and Luther King. It provides exercise sheets for students and develops the concept of ‘kingian’ nonviolence (following Martin Luther King’s approach).

Eriksen, Tor Linne, Norway and National Liberation in Southern Africa, Uppsala, Nordiska Afikrainstitutet, 2000, pp. 410

Companion to Morgenstierne and Sellstrom, below.

Erikson, Kenneth P., The Brazilian Corrporate State and Working Class Politics, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1977, pp. 225

Eschle, Catherine ; Maiguascha, Bice, Critical Theories, International Politics and the ‘Anti-Globalization Movement’: The Politics of Global Resistance, London and New York, Routledge, 2005, pp. 264

Escobar, Arturo ; Alvarez, Sonia E., The Making of Social Movements in Latin America, ed. Escobar, Arturo, Alvarez, Sonia E., Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1992, pp. 383

Essays on conceptualizing and understanding social movements in Latin American context, as well as on indigenous, peasant and urban protests, and feminist and ecology movements. See also: Oxhorn, P. , From human rights to citizenship rights: Recent trends in the study of Latin American social movements Latin American Research Review, 2001, pp. 163-182 .

Estrada, Luis ; Poire, Alejandro, Taught to protest, learning to lose, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 18, no. 1, 2007, pp. 73-87

Argues popular protests led by Obrador against election results undermined democratic process.

Evangelista, Matthew, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War, Ithaca NY, Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 406

Well-documented examination of the role of transnational civil movements in contributing to arms control and the ending of the Cold War. Includes assessment of the Pugwash Conference which brought together scientists from East and West, and also the wider anti-war movement.

Evans, Geoff ; Goodman, James ; Lansbury, Nina, Moving Mountains: Communities Confront Mining and Globalisation, London, Zed Books, 2002, pp. 284

Discusses role of corporations and governments in different parts of the world. Chapters 8-12 focus on resistance in Bougainville, the Philippines and Australia. Chapter 12 (pp. 195-206) covers the resistance to the Jabiluka uranium mine by the local Aboriginal people, supported by environmentalists.

Evans, Gwynfor, Fighting for Wales, Talybont, Y Lolfa, 1992, pp. 221

Evans, Gwynfor, The Fight for Welsh Freedom, Caernarfon, Y Lolfa, 2000, pp. 176

Covers Plaid Cymru, history and Welsh politics and government. An earlier book by Evans from the same publisher is: Evans, Gwynfor , Fighting for Wales Talybont, Y Lolfa, , 1992, pp. 221

Evans, Gwynfor, For the Sake of Wales: The Memoirs of Gwynfor Evans, ed. Earnshaw, Helena, Jones, Angharad Penrhyn, [1986], Updated edition, with Foreword by Dafydd Elis Thomas, and epilogue by Steve Dubè, Caernarfon, Welsh Academic Press, 2001, pp. 281

Memoirs of this key figure in the nationalist movement and committed advocate of nonviolence.

Evans, Jodie ; Benjamin, Medea, Stop the Next War Now: Effective Responses to Violence and Terror, Novat CA, New World Library, 2005, pp. 256

The editors were among the women who launched the campaign Code Pink: Women for Peace in November 2002, which has since undertaken a wide range of nonviolent direct action protests in the United States and forged links with women in many other countries. (For details see: http://www.codepink.org). The book is a collection of essays by peace activists and scholars exploring a range of issues but including an emphasis on dissent and movement building.

Evans, Martin, The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War 1954-1962, Oxford, Berg, 1997, pp. 250

Focuses particularly on those who actively supported the Algerian guerrilla movement the FLN (the Jeanson network), but includes references to the September 1960 ‘121 Manifesto’, in which intellectuals asserted the right to refuse to take up arms in the war. Not an overall history of opposition, but using oral reminiscences to show motivation for resistance.

Evans, Sara, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women’s Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left, New York, Vintage, 1980, pp. 288

Using her personal experience the author examines how women were dismayed by their treatment in radical movements, and how they turned their activist skills to feminist campaigning.

Evers, Tilman, Ziviler Friedendienst. Fachleute für den Frieden. Idee – Erfahrungen – Ziele, Opladen, Leske and Budrich, 2000, pp. 380

Compilation of articles on the rationale, history and practice of the Civilian Peace Service (CPS) in Germany. The CPS, which started in 2000, is a governmentally financed programme with implementers both from state and non-state organizations.

Fagan, Adam, Environment and Democracy in the Czech Republic: The Environmental Movement in the Transition Process, Aldershot, Edward Elgar, 2004, pp. 200

General analysis of movement in 1990s and case studies of individual environmental organizations.

Fair, Christine ; Levitas, Kerem ; Rauch, Collette, Nepal: Rule of Law and Human Rights Challenges, Briefing, Washington DC, US Institute of Peace, 2005

Brief analysis of gaps in 1990 Constitution and of the King’s February 2005 coup removing the Prime Minister

Fairbanks, Charles H., Georgia’s Rose Revolution, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 15, no. April, 2004, pp. 110-134

Explains background to the demonstrations, and elaborates on role of the US government in relation to the elections, and of the George Soros Open Society Foundation in funding opposition and promoting nonviolent prkotest. Comments also on the role of TV stations owned by private entrepreneurs.

Falasiri, Arash, Iran’s Green Movement: Decapitated but not Defeated, London, OpenDemocracy.net, 2011

Falk, Jim, Global Fission: The Battle over Nuclear Power, Melbourne VIC, Oxford University Press, 1982, pp. 410

Analyses anti-nuclear struggles globally, with particular attention to how each movement relates to the state promoting nuclear power.

Fallert, Nicole, Inside the fight to make the European Parliament take sexual harassment seriously, Vox, 2019

Outlines how the MeToo movement in 2017 prompted Jeanne Ponte, a French parliamentary assistant who had been keeping a record of workplace sexual harassment inside the EU parliament since 2014, to create the MeTooEP blog. Soon after the story of her recording of social harassment broke, MEPs at Strasbourg passed a resolution against sexual harassment. Over 1,000 people then signed a petition demanding enforcement of it.

Fanon, Frantz, The Wretched of the Earth, London, MacGibbon and Kee, 1965

Eloquent and influential defence of revolutionary violence as a necessary psychological reaction to the prolonged experience of structural domination by colonialism, and as a socially radicalising experience promoting the possibility of genuine political freedom.

Farhadian, Charles E., The Testimony Project: Papua – a collection of personal histories in West Papua, Jayapura, Deiyai Press, 2007, pp. 179

Narratives based on interviews with 12 Papuans.

Farmer, James, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement, New York, Arbor House and Plume, 1998, pp. 370

Central figure in CORE outlines its origins and later campaigns (chapters 9, 10 and 19).

Farnsworth, Nicole, History is Herstory Too: The History of Women in Civil Society in Kosovo, 1980-2004, ed. Farnsworth, Nicole, Prishtina, Kosova Gender Studies Centre, 2008, pp. 391

Farrell, Michael, Northern Ireland: The Orange State, [1976], London, Pluto Press, 1980, pp. 406

A history of Northern Ireland, and socialist political analysis of the causes of the conflict there, by a leading civil rights campaigner and founding member of People’s Democracy. He concludes that the choice in Ireland is ‘between, on the one hand, a semi-fascist Orange statelet in the North, matched by a pro-imperialist police state in the South, and, on the other hand, an anti-imperialist and socialist revolution’.

Farrell, Michael, Twenty Years On, Dingle, Brandon, 1988, pp. 192

Contributions by nine activists who had been involved in the Civil Rights movement in 1968. Contributors include Gerry Adams on his experiences as a republican in the civil rights campaign and the Provisionals’case for splitting with what became Official Sinn Fein and IRA; Bernadette (Devlin) McAliskey on her time in the British Parliament which she entitles ‘a peasant in the halls of the great’, and Michael Farrell on the ‘Long March’ from Belfast to Derry in January 1969 and subsequent developments. Carol Coulter describes the reverberations of the campaign in the South and Margaret Ward its influence in the development of feminism in Ireland.

Fawcett Society Briefing, #MeToo One Year On - What's Changed?, 2018

Respected and long established British feminist organisation publishes research on impact of MeToo in UK, covering the 'powerful, disruptive impact' of the movement. It analyses harassment by gender and age, provides data on the public's willingness to challenge harassment, and makes recommendations on how to change the law.

Fay, Marie Therese ; Morrissey, Mike ; Smith, Marie, Northern Ireland’s Troubles: The Human Costs, London and Stirling, Virginia and Pluto Press, 1999, pp. 229

Part I of this book sets out the context of the conflict in Northern Ireland, including a chronology of key events from the opening of the first Parliament there in 1921 to the Provisionl IRA ceasefire in September 1998, considers political, social and economic facets of the conflict, and reviews the principal interpretations of its causes. Part II examines the effects of the violence on individuals and groups and argues the need to address them if there is to be peace in the longer term.

Fayong, Shi, Social Capital and Collective Resistance in Urban China Neighborhoods: a comunity movement in Shanghai, Singapore, Dept of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2004, pp. 43

Fayong, Shi ; Cai, Yongshun, Disaggregating the State: Networks and Collective Resistance in Shanghai, The China Quarterly, Vol. 186, 2006, pp. 314-332

Study of Shanghai home owners’ resistance that suggests that fragmentation of state power at local level provides opportunities for resistance, and that its success may be helped by social networks between participants in collective action and officials or media workers.
 See also Fayong, Shi , Social Capital and Collective Resistance in Urban China Neighborhoods: a comunity movement in Shanghai Singapore, Dept of Sociology, National University of Singapore, , 2004, pp. 43 , online.

Fazackerley, Anna, #MeToo on campus: UK universities investigate sexual assaults themselves, The Guardian, 2018

Reports that universities (both student unions and the authorities) are becoming more active in trying to prevent, and taking action against, forms of harassment. But a survey published in March 2018 found 70% of female students had suffered harassment or assault and only 6% had reported it to the university. Harassment is a problem both between students and between some staff members and students.

See also: Suen, Evianne, '#MeToo movement reaches an all-time high across UK universities', 23 August 2018 https://theboar.org/2018/08/metoo-movement-sexual-uk-universities/

Fearon, Kate, Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition: institutionalizing a political voice and ensuring representation, Accord, no. 13, 2002, pp. 78-81

(Accord is published by the London-based Conciliation Resources. Issue 13 was entitled ‘Owning the process: Public Participation in Peacemaking’, edited by Catherine Barnes.)

The Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition (NIWC) was initiated by women of various political affiliations, religious beliefs and occupations. It was institutionalized as a political party in 1996 so that its members would be eligible to take part in the all-party talks that culminated in the Good Friday Agreement. It also campaigned for the acceptance of the GFA in the referendums which followed its signing.

Feigenbaum, Anna ; Frenzl, Fabian ; McCurdy, Patrick, Protest Camps, ed. Edwards, Michael, Gaventa, John, London, Zed Press, 2013, pp. 272

Examines protest camps as key tactic of movements from Tahrir Square to Occupy Wall Street; includes Red Shirts in Thailand and teachers in Oaxaca.

Feinberg, Abraham L., Hanoi Diary, Ontario, Longmans, 1968, pp. 258

Rabbi Feinberg’s account of his participation in a mission to North Vietnam in 1966-67 to investigate and publicize the effects of the US bombing. The other participants in the mission were the veteran US pacifist and socialist, A.J. Muste, Rev. Martin Niemoller, the Protestant pastor incarcerated in Dachau during part of World War II for opposing Hitler, and Rt Rev Ambrose Reeves, former Bishop of Johannesburg exiled for speaking out against apartheid.

Feinberg, Leslie, Trans Liberation: Beyond Pink or Blue, Boston MA, Beacon Press, 1998, pp. 147

Collection of speeches by Feinberg (poet and grassroots activist in US) covering range of issues including health care reform and infant genital mutilation.

Feit, Edward, African Opposition in South Africa: The Failure of Passive Resistance, Stanford CA, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, 1967, pp. 223

A critical study of the 1954-55 campaigns.

Fejto, Francois, A History of the People’s Democracies, [1969], 2nd edn, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1974, pp. 565

Examines destalinization in Poland and why the Polish 1956 uprising avoided bloodshed, making comparisons with Hungary and its 1956 Revolution, see pp. 79-80 and 87-123. These events are set in the wider context of Soviet and bloc politics.

Feldman, Herbert, From Crisis to Crisis: Pakistan 1962-1969, London, Oxford University Press, 1972, pp. 344

The main emphasis of this book is on Ayub Khan’s government, but chapter 9 ‘The last phase’ (pp. 237-71) covers the ‘132 days of uninterrupted disturbances’. Stresses the rioting and factionalised violence, but notes the importance of the urban working classes and the students.

Femen, ; Ackerman, Galia, Femen, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2014, pp. 240

Femen was founded in the Ukraine in 2008 by four women to protest against patriarchy embodied in dictatorship, religion and the sex industry. Their well publicised bare-breasted protests have included a dangerous demonstration in Belarus and opposition to President Putin. They have moved to France and this book was first published in French. A film ‘Ukraine is not a Brothel’ claimed that Femen’s protests were orchestrated and the women controlled by a male svengali. This claim is addressed in an addendum to the English version of the book.

Feminist Review, Issue on 'Post-Communism', no. 76, Feminist Review, 2004

The editorial comments on key changes for women in the transition from Communism: political representation had dropped; more women were overrepresented among the unemployed; socialist reproductive rights were being challenged; women’s domesticity promoted as a virtue; and pornography and marketing of women’s bodies seen as ‘freedom’. Women were also more vulnerable to various sorts of violence, including sexual harassment at work, domestic violence and sex trafficking.

Feminist Review, Special issue on ‘Black British Feminism’, Feminist Review, Vol. 108, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1-114

Looks back at pioneering issue 30 years earlier on black feminism (no. 17, 1984) and examines role of black feminists today and the mobilizing impact of cyber feminism.

Feng, Jiayun, Chinese university instructors sign anti-sexual harassment manifesto (Full translation), SupChina, 2018

In response to the climate set worldwide by #MeToo, this article reports on an anti-sexual harassment manifesto written by professor Xu Kaibin, following the case involving Chen Xiaowu, a former professor at Beihang University, who was stripped of all teaching duties after sexual harassment allegations from a former student. The manifesto was signed by more than 50 academics across more than 30 Universities in China.

Fenton, James, The snap revolution, Granta, no. 18, 1986, pp. 33-155

Fernandes, Tiago, Authoritarian Regimes and Democratic Semioppositions: the end of the Portuguese dictatorship (1968-74) in comparative perspective, Working Paper 5-06, Lisboa, Instituto de Ciencias Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa, 2006, pp. 30

Fernando, Aiaga Rojas, How we won democracy in Chile, In Martin, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), London, War Resisters' International, pp. 51-54

Ferris, Susan ; Sandoval, Ricardo, The Fight for the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farm Workers Movement, (Foreword by Gary Soto), New York, Harcourt Brace and Co, 1998, pp. 352

Well documented and illustrated account of movement.

Fiedler, Rachel Nyagondwe ; Hofmeyr, Johannes Wynand, The Conception of Concerned African Women Theologians: Is it African or Western?, ed. Chaudhuri, Maitrayee, Acta Theologica, Vol. 31, no. 1, 2011, pp. 39-57

Discusses origins in 1988 of an Africa-wide group that promotes theological debates between Christians, Muslims, Jews and adherents of African religions, gives African women a voice through numerous publications and has focused on social issues such as the stigma attached to HIV/AIDS. For background and current information: http://thecirclecawt.com/index.html.

Figueroa-Clark, Victor, The Meaning behind Protests in Chile, International Affairs at LSE, 2011

Discusses context of protest, the school and university education system, extent of inequality in Chilean society, and implications if movement successful.

Fillmore-Patrick, Hannah, The Iceland Experiment (2009-2013): A Participatory Approach to Constitutional Reform, Democratization Policy Council Policy Note, no. New Series 02, 2013, pp. -20

Examines the financial collapse and the popular protests in ‘the Kitchenware Revolution’ (which included banging pots and pans), which led to widespread popular involvement in changing the constitution to prevent a future financial collapse and betrayal of trust.

Finch, Henry, Democratization in Uruguay, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 2, no. 3, 1985, pp. 594-609

Analysis of evolution of opposition from 1983: from saucepan banging, one-day general strikes and 250,000 strong rally on the last Sunday of November 1983 (the traditional day for elections); the electoral politics of 1984 and public sector strike of January-February 1985.

Findlen, Barbara, Listen Up: Voices from the Next Feminist Generation, [1995], (expanded edition), Settle, Seal, 2001, pp. 300

Collection featuring writers and activists – including Rebecca Walker, Nomy Lama and Inga Musci – and editors of several women’s periodicals – discussing range of issues.

Fine, Janice, Community Unions and the Revival of the American Labor Movement, ed. Bieler, Andreas, Lindberg, Ingemar, Politics and Society, Vol. 33, no. 1, 2005, pp. 153-199

Fink, Christina, Living Silence: Burma Under Military Rule, [2001], 2nd edition, London, Zed Books, 2009, pp. 320

Comprehensive survey of regime in its internal and international context, covering protests against General Ne Win in the 1970s, the national nonviolent resistance 1988-90, subsequent opposition to military rule and campaigns by transnational bodies. Updated to include the 2007 protests. See also Fink, Christina , The Moment of the Monks: Burma, 2007 In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 354-370 .

Fischer, Louis, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi, [1950], London, Granada, 1983, pp. 593

Lively sympathetic biography used as basis for Richard Attenborough’s 1982 film.

Fisera, Vladimir, Workers’Councils in Czechslovakia: Documents and Essays 1968-69, ed. Fisera, Vladimir, London, Alison and Busby, 1978, pp. 200

Fisher, Jo, Mothers of the Disappeared, London, Zed Books, 1989, pp. 168

Fisher, Sharon, Political Change in Post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: From Nationalist to Europeanist, New York, Palgrave McMillan, 2007, pp. 272

Analyses rise of nationalist movements, how the regimes in newly independent Croatia (1991) and Slovakia (1992) promoted nationalism and the subsequent decline of nationalism and rise of democratic civil society and opposition movements.

Fisher, Simon ; Abdi, Dekha Ibrahin ; Ludin, Jawed ; Williams, Richard ; Smith, Steven ; Williams, Sue, Working With Conflict: Skills and Strategies for Action, London, Zed, 2000, pp. 185

Includes exercises and advice on active nonviolence.

Fishwick, Carmen, 'We were so naive and optimistic': Ukraine Euromaidan protesters tell us what's changed for them , The Guardian, 2014

Interviews with three protesters, two of whom were then protesting against Russian military intervention.

See also: Stelmakh and Tom Bamforth, 'Ukraine's Maidan Protests - One Year On', The Guardian, 21 November 2014

Fisk, Robert, The Point of No Return: The Strike which Broke the British in Ulster, London, Times Books: Deutsch, 1975, pp. 264

Detailed account by journalist of the strike and its political repercussions.

Flam, Helena, States and Anti-Nuclear Movements, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1994, pp. 427

Deals with the anti-nuclear power movements and government responses to them and their demands in eight West European states – Austria, Britain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and West Germany.

Flam, Helena, Mosaic of Fear: Poland and East Germany before 1989, New York and Boulder CO, Columbia University Press and East European Monographs, 1998, pp. 283

Flam draws on newly available archives and over 100 interviews with Communist officials, dissidents and ‘bystanders’. (See also Flam, Anger in Repressive Regimes: A Footnote to Domination and the Arts of Resistance by James Scott (A. 1.c. Small Scale, Hidden, Indirect and 'Everyday' Resistance) ).

Flam, Helena, Pink, Purple, Green: Women’s Religious, Environmental, and Gay/Lesbian Movements in Central Europe Today, New York, Columbia University Press, 2001, pp. 175

Covers variety of movements, but three chapters on problems of gay/lesbian groups in Hungary, Poland and the eastern part of Germany.

Flam, Helena, Anger in Repressive Regimes: A Footnote to Domination and the Arts of Resistance by James Scott, European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 7, no. 2, 2004, pp. 171-188

Argues against Scott’s thesis that long suppressed anger will one day explode, and suggests instead (drawing on Central European examples after 1980) that protest took indirect, satirical and carnivalesque forms.

Fleet, Michael ; Smith, Brian H., The Catholic Church and Democracy in Chile and Peru, [1997], Notre Dame IN, University of Notre Dame Press, 2000, pp. 379

Fleras, Augie ; Elliott, Jean Leonard, The Nations Within, ed. Dyck, Noel, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 267

Covers Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Flessati, Valerie, Pax: The History of a Catholic Peace Society in Britain 1936-1971, Bradford, University of Bradford, PhD Thesis, 1991, 2 volumes, pp. 535

Detailed historical study of both Pax and the Catholic element in the British peace movement. Pax from the outset opposed war under modern conditions as contrary to traditional just war teaching, a stance underlined by the development of nuclear weapons. Influenced Catholic thinking about modern war and the decision of the Second Vatican Council to recognize the right to conscientious objection and to call upon states to make provision for it.

Flynn, Eileen P., My Country Right or Wrong: Selective Conscientious Objection in the Nuclear Age, Chicago IL, Loyola University Press, 1985, pp. 98

Discusses varieties of conscientious objection, from pacifist objection to all wars, selective objection to particular wars considered unjust and objection to indiscriminate and, most notably, nuclear warfare. Includes a discussion of just war principles.

Fominaya, Cristina Flesher, Debunking Spontaneity: Spain’s 15-M/Indignados as Autonomous Movement, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social and Cultural Political Protest, Vol. 14, no. 2, 2015, pp. 142-163

Argues emergence of movement not ‘new’ and ‘spontaneous’ but product of evolution of a collective identity and culture stressing deliberative democracy since the 1980s.
See also her blog on the OpenDemocracy website: ‘Spain is Different: Podemos and 15-M’ on the rise of the leftist but non-ideological Podemos party in the European Parliamentary elections of June 2014, and influence of 15-M movement on the nature of the new party.

Foner, Philip S., American Labor and the Indochina War: The Growth of Union Opposition, Re-issued as US Labor and the Vietnam War, 1989., New York, International Publishers, 1971, pp. 126

Traces the emergence of (belated) trade union opposition from a November 1967 conference in Chicago, attended by 523 trade unionists from 38 states and 63 international unions, which established the trade union division of the peace organization SANE. Includes a chapter on labour-student alliances.

Fontanella-Khan, Amana, Pink Sari Revolution: A Tale of Women and Power in India, ed. Berthod, Anne, Oxford, W.W. Norton and One World Publications, 2013, pp. 304

Describes Sampat Pal and the now 20,000 strong Pink Gang she founded, which uses ‘social power’ to defend individual women treated unjustly and to challenge misogyny in general, The women carry sticks and sometimes attack corrupt politicians and policemen. See also: Pal, Sampan ; Berthod, Anne , Warrior in a Pink Sari New Delhi, Zubaan Books, , 2012, pp. 220

Food Empowerment Project, Water Usage and Privatization, Vol. 2016, Cotati CA, Food Empowerment Project, 2015

Useful summary analysis including brief case studies of corporate misuse of water and resistance to them (and further references): Nestle in US, Vivendi and Suez in Mexico, Bechtel in Bolivia and Coca Cola in India.

Foran, John, The Iranian Revolution of 1977-79: A Challenge for Social Theory, In Foran, John , A Century of Revolutions: Social Movements in Iran Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, , 1994, pp. 288,

chapter 7.

Foran, John, A Century of Revolutions: Social Movements in Iran, ed. Foran, John, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1994, pp. 288

Forbrig, Joerg ; Demes, Pavol, Reclaiming Democracy: Civil Society and Electoral Change in Central and Eastern Europe, ed. Forbrig, Joerg, Demes, Pavol, Washington DC, German Marshall Fund of USA, 2007, pp. 254

First section includes contributions from Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Georgia and the Ukraine. Second section is comparative discussion on range of issues by authors including Valerie Bunce and Sharon Wolchik, Taras Kuzio and Vitali Silitski.

Forbrig, Joerg ; Marples, David R. ; Demes, Pavol, Prospects for Democracy in Belarus, ed. Forbrig, Joerg, Marples, David R., Demes, Pavol, Washington DC, German Marshall Fund of USA and Heinrich Boell Stiftung, 2006

Foreman, Dave, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, New York, Crown Publications, Random House, 1993, pp. 95

By a founder of Earth First!

Forero, Eduardo Andrés Sa, La Guardia Indígena Nasa y el Arte de la Resistencia Pacifica, Ediciones Colección Étnica: Diálogos Interculturales, Fundación Hemera, 2008, pp. 143

This book combines an anthropological with a political approach, describing the origin, development and activities of the Indigenous Guard of the Nasa People of Cauca (Colombia) with testimonies from some of their leaders.

Forman, James, The Making of Black Revolutionaries, New York and Washington DC, MacMillan and Open Hand, 1972, pp. 568

Memoirs of SNCC Executive Secretary, 1961-65.

Forrester, Geoff ; May, R.J., The Fall of Soeharto, ed. Forrester, Geoff, May, R.J., London, Hurst, 1998, pp. 261

Produced by Australian National University Research Unit. Examines how and why Suharto was forced to step down.

See also Lee, Military Cohesion and Regime Maintenance : Explaining the Role of the Military in 1989 China and 1998 Indonesia (C. II.1.c. Tiananmen, The Mass Protests of 1989) and Lee, The Armed Forces and Transitions from Authoritarian Rule (E. II.8.a. Resisting Marcos, 1983-86) .

Forward, Roy ; Reece, Bob, Conscription, 1964-1968, In Forward, Roy ; Reece, Bob , Conscription in Australia Brisbane QLD, University of Queensland Press, , 1968, pp. 79-142

Forward, Roy ; Reece, Bob, Conscription in Australia, Brisbane QLD, University of Queensland Press, 1968

Foucault, MichelKritzman, L.D., Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings, ed. Kritzman, L.D., London, Routledge, 1990

Covers a range of issues, including Foucault’s interpretation of power and resistance, in accessible form (and also includes interesting discussion on the 1977-79 Iranian Revolution). See also Foucault. M., ‘Truth and Power’ in Rabinow, ed., The Foucault Reader: An Introduction to Foucault’s Thought, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1991. For a brief survey of Foucault’s evolving thought see Bleiker, Popular Dissent, Human Agency and Global Politics (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution) , pp. 530-73.

France, David, How To Survive A Plague: The Story Of How Activists and Scientists Tamed AIDS, London, Random House , 2016, pp. 640

Well reviewed inside account of the succesfull battle to halt the AIDS epidemic, this is the incredible story of grassroots activists whose work turned HIV from a mostly fatal infection to a mangeable disease. France gives account of bureaucratic incompetence and political cowardice in a country where in 1982, 42.6 percent of gay men in San Francisco and 26.8 gay men in New York were infected by AIDS. Almost universally ignored, these men and women learned to become their own researchres, lobbysts, and drug smugglers; established their own newspapaers and research journals, and went on to force reform in the nation's disease fighting agencies. 

Francis, Diana, People, Peace and Power: Conflict Transformation in Action, London, Pluto Press, 2002

(looking in particular at developing skilled nongovernmental leadership in nonviolent approaches to promoting justice and ending destructive conflict)

Francis, Hywel, History on Our Side – Wales and the 1984-85 Miners’ Strike, Swansea, Parthian Books, 2009, pp. 96

(new edition in preparation)
Account of how the strike developed differently in Wales from other parts of Britain, and grew into a national movement involving community groups, churches and Welsh nationalists and fostered a greater national consciousness with a lasting impact on Welsh politics.

Frayssinet, Fabiana, In Latin America ‘MeToo’ doesn’t always mean the same thing, IPS, 2018

A comprehensive article on the various demonstrations and campaigns organised in Latin America with the aim of tackling gender-based violence. It highlights differences with the ‘MeToo’ movement in North America by pointing out how feminist activism in Latin America has always been based on a political and structural analysis of violence, rather than on individual statements by mostly famous women. This analysis also assesses the violence committed against women of different race, age, class and immigration status, and highlights the institutions that in Latin America are at the forefront of this battle.

Frazer, Elizabeth ; Hutchings, Kimberly, On Politics and Violence: Arendt Contra Fanon, Contemporary Political Theory, Vol. 7, 2008, pp. 90-118

Compares views of Arendt and Fanon on the role of violence in politics.

Frazer, Lessie Jo ; Cohen, Deborah, Gender and Sexuality in 1968: Transformative Politics in the Cultural Imagination, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, pp. 264

Freedman, Estelle B., Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 416

Estelle Freedman highlights the forces that have shaped the definition of rape in the US, namely political power and social privilege. She outlines the history of how the conception of rape has evolved since the 1870s to the 1930s, when both racial segregation and the women’s suffrage movement influenced how rape was understood.

Freeman, Jo, The Politics of Women’s Liberation, New York, Longman, 1975, pp. 268

Examines the evolution of second wave feminism in the USA from the early protests.

Friedman, Edward ; Pichowicz, Paul G. ; Selden, Mark, Revolution, Resistance and Reform in Village China, New Haven CT, Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 368

Friedman, Henry ; Meredeen, Sander, The Dynamics of Industrial Conflict: Lessons from Ford, London, Croom Helm, 1980, pp. 386

This is an account and analysis of the 1968 Ford Dagenham women sewing machinists’ strike by two men on opposing sides (trade union convener of plant and Ford negotiating team) involved in the dispute. A lively semi-fictionalized account of the dispute from the women’s viewpoint is the 2010 film ‘Made in Dagenham’.

Fuhrmann, Matthew, A Tale of Two Social Capitals: Revolutionary Collective Action in Kyrgyzstan, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 53, no. 6, 2007, pp. 16-29

Fukuda, Chisako M., Peace through Nonviolent Action: The East Timorese Resistance Movement's Strategy for Engagement, Pacifica Review, Vol. 12, no. 1 (February), 2000, pp. 17-31

Funes, Samanta, The birth of feminicides in Argentina: a recognition of gender violence, Heinrich Böll Stiftung-European Union, Heinrich Böll Stiftung, 2017

Funes notes the legislative development in Argentina since 2009 to tackle femicide and the development of the #NiUnaMenos movement since 2015.

Funk, Nanette, Feminism in Former East Germany, Dissent, no. (Spring), 1992, pp. 152-156

Gadsden, Fay, Notes on the Kamba destocking controversy of 1938, International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 7, no. 4, 1974, pp. 681-687

Gagliardi, Macarena, Argentina: A pioneer in women’s rights’, Univision News, 2017

An account of the origin of #NiUnaMenos in Argentina, that arose prior to #MeToo in the USA – and of the progress the country achieved in tackling femicide. Although femicide and other forms of violence against women are still high and cruel, Argentina is the most advanced country within Latin America for the protection of women’s rights. The #NiUnaMenos movement was born in 2015 after a tweet by journalist Marcela Ojeda about the murder of Chiara Páez, 14-year old and pregnant. The young woman disappeared in May in Santa Fe province, and her body was found buried under the patio of her boyfriend's home. She had been beaten to death. Marcela Ojeda’s tweet “Women, together. Why don't we scream? THEY ARE KILLING US” gave rise to the start of #NiUnaMenos.

Gallagher, Tom ; O'Conell, James, Contemporary Irish Studies, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1983, pp. 144

Gallo, Marcia M., Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Birth of the Lesbian Rights Movement, [2006], Seattle WA, Seal Press (Avalon Publishing), 2007, pp. 274

‘DOB’ was founded in 1955 as a social group in San Francisco, but developed over two decades into a national organization. See also  Martin; Lyon, Lesbian/Woman (G.1. The 'Homophile' Movement and Rise of Gay Liberation in the West: 1950s-1970s) .

Galtung, Johan, Ci Sono Alternative! Quattro Strade Per La Sicurezza, Torino, Edizioni Gruppo Abele , 1986

In this work Johan Galtung provides a conceptualisation of peace and security, with reference to the East-West conflict, the global balance of power, the disarmament issue and security policies. The analysis founded on his own epistemological approach to conflict resolution.

Galtung, Johan, Nonviolence and Israel/Palestine, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Institute for Peace, 1989, pp. 79

Galtung, Johan, Peace by Peaceful Means, Oslo, International Peace Research Institute, 1996, pp. 280

Peace studies pioneer aspires to lay ‘theoretical foundation for peace research, peace education and peace action,’ distinguishes between a static definition of peace as ‘an absence of direct, structural, and cultural violence’ and dynamic definition as ‘the state of affairs that makes the nonviolent and creative handling of conflict possible’. More specific contributions on nonviolence are:

  • ‘On the Meaning of Nonviolence’, Journal of Peace Research, No. 3 1965, distinguishing between negative and positive sanctions, and
  • ‘Principles of Nonviolent Action: The Great Chain of Nonviolence Hypothesis’ in Nonviolence and Israel/Palestine, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Institute for Peace, 1989, p. 13-33.

The ‘chain of nonviolence’ concept addresses the problem of social and psychological distance between oppressors and oppressed, and has been taken up in the literature. For instance, Howard Clark’s ‘Afterword’, pp. 214-218, in Clark, ed., People Power (below) briefly explores the concept.

Galtung, Johan, Pace Con Mezzi Pacifici, [1996], Milano, Edizioni Esperia, 2000, pp. 499

In this study Galtung provides four major theoretical approaches to peace, including peace education and peace action. This work is divided into four parts: Peace Theory, where he elucidates the epistemological foundations of peace studies and the nature of violence; Conflict Theory, where he focuses on explaining the culture of conflict and moves onto discussing nonviolence as a tool for conflict resolution; Development Theory, where he illustrates the dynamics of structural violence (economic in particular); and Civilisation Theory, where he discusses cultural violence, cosmology, and what he terms ‘codes’ and ‘programmes’.

Galtung, Johan, La Trasformazione Nonviolenta Dei Conflitti. Il Metodo Transcend, Torino, Edizioni Gruppo Abele, 2000, pp. 198

This toolkit elucidates a method for nonviolent conflict resolution, the so-called Transcend method established by Galtung himself. The book expounds Galtung’s theory on the visible, cultural and structural aspects of violence, and includes his conflict theory. It is intended to be a resource for those that would like to benefit from training in nonviolent resolution techniques, whilst primarily focusing on dialogue as the main tool for settling disputes.

A reduced version of the book is available at: http://serenoregis.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Johan-Galtung-La-trasformazione-dei-conflitti-con-mezzi-pacifici-web.pdf

Galtung, Johan ; Ejlers, Christian, On the strategy of nonmilitary defense, In Peace, War and Defence: Essays in Peace Research,, Vol. 2, Copenhagen, pp. 378-426

Gamson, Josh, Silence, Death and the Invisible Enemy: AIDS Activism and Social Movement “Newness”, Social Problems, Vol. 36, no. 4, 1989, pp. 358-367

Gandhi, Ajay, Indigenous Resistance to New Colonialism, Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 25, no. 3 (Fall), 2001, pp. 4-3

Notes opposition by indigenous activists (at ‘People’s Summit’ in Quebec City April 2001) to Free Trade Agreement of the Americas debated at official government Summit of the Americas elsewhere in the city, and reports some of speeches.

Gandhi, Mohandas K., Satyagraha in South Africa, [1925], Ahmedabad, Navajivan, 1950, pp. 348

Gandhi’s account of the seminal civil disobedience campaigns against legislation discriminating against the Indian population, and the evolution of his strategy and theory of ‘satyagraha’.

Gandhi, Mohandas K.Narayan, Shriman, Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, ed. Narayan, Shriman, Ahmedabad, Navajivan, 1968 6 volumes,

pp. 375, 379-794, 471, 464, 514, 555

Includes Satyagraha in South Africa (vol. 3), as well as Gandhi’s highly personal Autobiography, published 1927 (vols 1-2), important pamphlets such as his translation of Ruskin’s Unto This Last (vol. 4 – influential on Gandhi’s socio-economic thinking), letters on key issues (vol. 5) and speeches on historic occasions (vol. 6).

Gandhi Informationszentrum, My Life is my message: Das Leben und Wirken von M.K. Gandhi, Kassel, Weber, Zucht und Co, 1988

This book gives an insight into Gandhi’s life (including a chronology), as well as a chronology of events in India and South Africa, plus speeches and articles by Gandhi on truth, nonviolence, civil disobedience, etc.

Ganev, Venelin I., Bulgaria’s Symphony of Hope, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 8, no. 4 (October), 1997, pp. 125-139

Ganguly, Sumit ; Diamond, Larry ; Plattner, Marc F., The State of India's Democracy, Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 2007, pp. 264

Ganz, Marshall, Why David Sometimes Wins: Leadership, Organisation, and Strategy in the California Farm Worker Movements, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 344

Uses the struggle of Latino farmworkers in California in the 1960s to illustrate the concept of ‘strategic capacity’ – how strategic resourcefulness can sometimes compensate for lack of resources.

Garcia, Ter, A Year of Small Victories for the Spanish Foreclosure Movement, Waging Nonviolence, 2011

Survey of first year of PAH.

García-Durán, Mauricio, Alternatives to War: Colombia’s Peace Processes, ed. García-Durán, Mauricio, Sepcial issue: Accord: the Journal of Conflict Resources, no. 14, London, Conciliation Resources, 2004

Introduces general and specific ways of resistance in Colombia, considering also the crucial role that international solidarity has played for the existence and sustainability of these expressions of unarmed resistance. Plus ppt presentation.

Garreton, Manual Antonio, Fear in Military Regimes, In Corradi, Weiss Fagen, and Garreton, eds., Fear at the Edge (719, E.IV.1), Berkeley CA, University of California Press, pp. 13-23

Distinguishes between phases of military regimes: the first of terror not a time for direct confrontation but for survival and assistance to others, although human rights activists may link up with international networks. In the second phase the opposition have more scope for promoting organisation and indirect forms of resistance.

Garton Ash, Timothy, The Polish Revolution: Solidarity 1980-82, London, Jonathan Cape, 1983, pp. 386

Highly regarded first hand analysis by scholar of Central Europe and commentator on other civil resistance struggles.

Garton Ash, Timothy, We the People: The Revolution of 89 Witnessed in Warsaw, Budapest, Berlin and Prague, London, Granta Books in association con Penguin, 1990, pp. 156

(Published in New York by Random House as The Magic Lantern).

Garton Ash, Timothy, Velvet Revolution: The Prospects, New York Review of Books, Vol. 56, no. 19, 2009, pp. 20-24

Essay by observer and analyst of many recent movements of unarmed resistance (see later sections). Garton Ash looks back after 20 years on 1989 in the Soviet bloc, but also other movements involving large scale unarmed resistance and culminating in negotiated agreement for a transfer of power (as in South Africa) that suggest a new model of revolution has emerged challenging older models.

Garton Ash, Timothy, Facts Are Subversive: Political Writing from a Decade Without a Name, London, Atlantic Books, 2009, pp. 464

Garton Ash, Timothy, Orange Revolution in Ukraine, In Garton Ash, Timothy , Facts Are Subversive: Political Writing from a Decade Without a Name London, Atlantic Books, , 2009, pp. 464, pp. 30-45

Places the Orange Revolution in a sequence of ‘velvet revolutions’ based on strict nonviolence.

Garvaghy Residents, Garvaghy: A Community Under Siege, Belfast, Beyond the Pale, 1999, pp. 171

Garvaghy Road, a Catholic area in mainly Protestant Portadown, has been the scene of confrontations down the years during the annual Orange Order parade on the weekend before 12 July, following a service in Drumcree Church. The Orange Order claims the right to march along the road; the residents say that they face abuse and violence when this happens and that there are alternative routes the parade could take. Resistance to the event has included sit-downs, a women’s Peace and Justice Camp and the setting up of Radio Equality. Part 1 of the book is based mainly on the diaries of residents in July 1998 when the parade was banned and police and soldiers erected barricades and dug trenches to prevent the march from entering the road. Part 2 is an edited version of the Residents’ submission in 1996 to the Parades Commission.

Gasa, Nomboniso, Women in South African History, ed. Gasa, Nomboniso, Cape Town, Human Sciences Research Council, 2007, pp. 456

Part Three – ‘War: armed and mass struggles as gendered experiences’ – includes Jacklyn Cock, ‘”Another mother for peace”: Women and peace building in South Africa, 1983-2003, pp. 257-280, and Janet Cherry ‘”We were not afraid”: The role of women in the 1980s’ township uprising in the Eastern Cape’, pp. 281-313, and Pat Gibbs, ‘Women, labour and resistance: Case studies from the Port Elizabeth/Uitenhage area, 1972-94’, pp. 315-343.

Gashi, Shkelzen, Adem Demaçi Biography: a Century of Kosova’s History through One Man’s Life, Prishtina, Rrokulia Publishing House, 210, pp. 240

Biography of long-term prisoner and human rights campaigner who was increasingly critical of Rugova’s ‘passive’ approach.

Gatehouse, Tom, Copa de Cash: saying this is a World Cup for everyone is a cruel joke, Red Pepper, no. Jun/Jul, 2014, pp. 38-39

On the negative impact of preparations for the World Cup and increasingly repressive police tactics.

Gazal, Rym T., The struggle with the stigma associated with rape, Arab News, 2019

In this comprehensive article, Rym Tina Ghazal sheds light on the difficult condition women living in the MENA region face if they fall victim to rape. She highlights the pervasive culture of blame that prevent women from reporting episodes of abuse, and the still predominant practice of ‘honour killing’ that women risk for being sexually assaulted. She also publicises the weeks-long campaign #ShameOnWho led by the Lebanese women’s rights group ABAAD in 2018, aimed at addressing the social stigma that women suffer in the aftermath of sexual violence.

For more on #ShameOnWho, please see https://www.reuters.com/article/us-lebanon-rape-rights/shameonwho-campaign-uses-art-to-change-lebanese-attitudes-to-rape-idUSKCN1NC2GK

Gedicks, Al, The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles against Multinational Corporations, ed. Evans, Geoff, Goodman, James, Lansbury, Nina, Boston MA, South End Press, 1993, pp. 270

Examines campaigns by the Ojibwa Indians against mining and over land tenure and the role of multinationals in Wisconsin.

Gedicks, Al, International Native Resistance to the New Resource Wars, ed. Taylor, Bron Raymond, In Taylor, Ecological Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism (C.1.a. General and International Studies), Albany NY, State University of New York Press, pp. 89-108

Covers resistance by Cree and Inuit, supported by Kayapo Indians in Brazil and transnational green groups, to major hydro-electric project in Quebec.

Gee, Tim, Counterpower: Making Change Happen, Oxford, New Internationalist Publications, 2011, pp. 222

Lively discussion of the strategies and methods popular movements can use to win struggles against various forms of oppression and to undermine elites. Includes brief accounts of the struggles for Indian independence, the ending of apartheid and the overthrow of Mubarak, as well the extension of the franchise in Britain, opposition to the Vietnam War, and resistance to corporate power.

Geis, Max-Emanuel, Ziviler Ungehorsam', In Hilgendorf, E. und J. Juergen, Handbuch Rechtsphilosophie, J.B . Mertzler, Stuttgart, pp. 480-484

The terms civil disobedience, resistance and the right or duty to resist are well known elements of political rhetoric.  The use of these terms often combines various dimensions of interpretation, such as religious, moral and ethical ideas, or philosophical and political approaches too. This book therefore seeks to analyze the term 'civil disobedience' from the perspective of the philosophy of law.

Gelb, Joyce, Feminism and Political Action, In Dalton, Russel J.; Kuechler, Manfred , Challenging the Political Order: New Social and Political Movements in Western Democracies Oxford, Oxford University Press, , 1990, pp. 344, pp. 137-156

Comparing the US, British and Swedish movements.

Gellner, Ernst, The Price of Velvet: Thomas Masaryk and Vaclav Havel, Czech Sociological Review, Vol. 3, no. 1, 1995, pp. 45-57

Explores the disadvantages of ‘velvet revolutions’ with a specific focus on Czechoslovakia and comparing Vaclav Havel with the earlier president and theorist Thomas Masaryk.

Gelvin, James E., The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know, New York, Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 208

Book in question and answer format by an historian – topics include the role of youth, labour and religious groups, and why in some cases the military decided not to support the ruler. Discusses also the role of monarchies in Morocco, Jordan and the Gulf.

George, Susan, Another World Is Possible If …, ed. Gray, John Scott, London, Verso, 2004, pp. 268

Committed political and economic analysis of the injustices and dangers of neoliberal globalization by a leading thinker and activist in the Global Justice Movement. Includes brief discussion of campaigns (Jubilee 2000, opposition to the Multilateral Agreement on Investment, summit protests) and ends with chapter on why the movement should be nonviolent.

George-Williams, Desmond, Bite Not One Another: Selected Accounts of Nonviolent Struggle in Africa, ed. George-Williams, Desmond, Addis Ababa, University of Peace Africa Programme, 2006, pp. 123

George-Williams, Desmond, The Ogoni Struggle, In George-Williams, Bite Not One Another: Selected Accounts of Nonviolent Struggle in Africa (E. I. Africa - Sub-Saharan), Addis Ababa, University of Peace Africa Development Programme, pp. 68-74

Gerbaudo, Paolo, Los Indignados, Red Pepper, no. Aug/Sept, 2011, pp. 33-35

On launch of movement by Real Democracy Now! on 15 May 2011 with marches and protest camp in Madrid, its spread across Spain and to Greece.

Gerlach, Allen, Indians, Oil, and Politics: A Recent History of Ecuador, Willimantic CT, Scholarly Resources Inc., 2003, pp. 286

German, Lindsey ; Murray, Andrew, Stop the War: The Story of Britain’s Biggest Mass Movement, ed. Brittain, Victoria, London, Bookmarks, 2005, pp. 286

Book by organizers of the Stop the War Coalition, created in 2001 after the September 11 attacks in the USA, which demonstrated against the Afghan War. It played a central role in mobilizing up to a million people to march in London in February 2003 and continued to demonstrate against the presence of western troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although the role of the Socialist Workers Party in the Coalition was sometimes criticized, it succeeded in mobilizing large numbers of British Muslims in peaceful protest and in drawing in people from a broad political spectrum.

Gershman, Carl ; Allen, Michael, New threats to freedom: The assault on democracy promotion, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 17, no. 2 (April), 2006, pp. 36-51

Gershman is the president of the US National Endowment for Democracy. This article lists restrictions introduced by a number of governments on receipt of democracy assistance.

Gerster, Petra ; Gleich, Michael, Die Friedensmacher, ed. Institut für Friedenspädagogik, München/Wien, Carl Hanser, 2005, pp. 260

Mit CD: Peace Counts: Die Erfolge der Friedensmacher: ed. Institut fur Friedenspaedagogik.

The ‘peace makers’ is an exhibition of people from all over the world engaged in resistance and conflict transformation. The book, which the TV journalist Petra Gerster wrote with the producer of the exhibition, Michael Gleich, gives an impression of the range of nonviolent activism world-wide.

Gessen, Masha, Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot, Riverhead Books, 2014, pp. 308

Discusses roots of the group founded in 2011 and their international support, especially among musical celebrities, after their 2012 demonstration in Moscow Cathedral, leading to imprisonment of the three involved. See also:  Pussy Riot, Pussy Riot!: A Punk Prayer For Freedom London, Feminist Press, , 2013, pp. 152 , including letters from prison, court statements, poems and tributes by international admirers.

Ghal, Yash ; Cotterell, Jill, Marginalised Communities and Access to Justice, London, Routledge, 2010, pp. 270

Gharib, Malak, #MosqueMeToo gives Muslim women a voice about sexual misconduct at Mecca, NPR, 2018

Malak Gharib reports the story of Egyptian-American activist and journalist, Mona Eltahawy, who was sexually assaulted during a pilgrimage at Mecca in 1982 when she was 15. Eltahawy initiated the hashtag #MosqueMeToo after other Arab women shared similar stories on social media. (For further reading, see also https://stepfeed.com/women-are-speaking-out-about-being-sexually-harassed-during-hajj-8156#.WnjdMR8gzo0.twitter)

Ghonim, Wael, Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People is Greater than the People in Power, London, Fourth Estate, 2012, pp. 308

Memoir of activist who works for Google and focused particularly on promoting the revolution online. He anonymously ran the Facebook page demanding justice for Khaled Said, a young man beaten to death by police in Alexandria in June 2010, and promoted brief demonstrations, for example a ‘silent stand’ by people wearing black and holding hands to express their anger at the lack of justice for Khaled. The Facebook page attracted over 350,000 members.

Gifford, Paul, African Christianity: Its Public Role, London, C. Hurst, 1998, pp. 368

Christian Churches have been important in quite a few African movements. This book analyses different churches – Catholic, Protestant (mainstream), Evangelical, Pentecostal and Independent – and their beliefs, and also assesses their role in the emerging of civil society. Case studies of four countries: Ghana, Uganda, Zambia and Cameroon.

Giles, Wenona ; de Alwis, Malathi ; Klein, Edith ; Silva, Neluka, Feminists Under Fire: Exchanges Across War Zones, Toronto, Between the Lines, 2003, pp. 238

Examines role of women’s organizations in civil wars in former Yugoslavia and Sri Lanka.

Gill, Lesley, ”Right There With You”: Coca-Cola Labor Restructuring and Political Violence in Colombia, Critique of Anthropology, Vol. 27, no. (Sept), 2007, pp. 235-260

Gillan, Audrey, I was always told I was thick. The strike taught me I wasn't, The Guardian, 2004, pp. 10-11

Gillis, Stacy ; Howie, Gillian ; Munford, Rebecca, Third Wave Feminism: A Critical Exploration, (expanded 2nd edition), New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, pp. 344

Wide range of theoretical perspectives organized in 3 parts: Generations and Genealogies; Locales and Locations; Politics and Popular Culture. Part II includes essays on ‘Imagining Feminist Futures: The Third Wave, Postfeminism and Eco/feminism’ by N. Moore, and ‘Global Feminism, Transnational Political Economies, Third World Cultural Production’ by W. Woodhull.

Gills, Barry K., Globalization and the Politics of Resistance, Basingstoke, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2000, pp. 321

Giordano, Al, Mexico’s presidential swindle, New Left Review, Vol. II, no. 41 (September/October), 2006, pp. 5-27

Analysis of fraud and manipulation of elections to favour the ruling candidate Felipe Calderon and account of opposition’s response.

Gitlin, Todd, Occupy Nation, the Roots: The Spirit and the Promise of Occupy Wall Street, New York, Harper Collins, 2012, pp. 320

Book by former radical student leader in the 1960s, providing a portrait of the movement.

Giummo, Lucio C. ; Marchese, Carlo, Danilo Dolci E La Via Della Nonviolenza, Manduria, Bari and Roma, Piero Lacaita Editore, 2005, pp. 292

Giummo and Marchese collect the major inspiring ideas that Danilo Dolci used to project a model for development based on nonviolence, which has at its core the imperative of including all the population involved.

Glazebrook, Diana, Teaching Performance Art is like Sharpening the Blade of a Knife, Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 5, no. 1, 2004, pp. 1-14

Describes the cultural project of musician Arnold Ap in the 10 years before he was killed by Indonesian troops, how at first it exploited the limited radio space granted by Indonesia and later became a more open challenge to Indonesian repression.

Goddard, Keith, Inside Out, In Ney, Chris , Nonviolence and Social Empowerment London, War Resisters' International, , 2005,

Gokay, Bulent ; Xypolia, Ilia, Reflections on Taksim – Gezi Park Protests in Turkey, Keele European Research Centre, Southeast Europe Series, Keele University, 2013, pp. 80

Includes a range of brief essays on the Taksim protests, but also includes Immanuel Wallerstein on ‘Turkey: Dilemma of the Kurds’, and chapters making comparisons with Mexico 1968 and with Brazil, plus an analysis of ‘Two Waves of Popular Protest in 2013 Bulgaria’.

Gokpinar, Ali, Neither Turkish spring nor velvet revolution, OpenDemocracy.net, 2013

Golan, Galia, The Czechoslovak Reform Movement, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1971, pp. 349

Starts with brief summary of period 1956-1962 and then analyses in detail developments both within the Party and in other social spheres up to 1968, including the role of dissent and public protest.  

Goldstein, Joshua, The Role of Digital Networked Technologies in the Ukrainian Orange Revolution, Research Publication No 2007-14 (Dec. 2007), Cambridge MA, Berkman Center for Internet and Society, 2007, pp. 20

Goldstone, Jack A ; Gurr, Ted Robert ; Moshiri, Farrokh, Revolutions of the Late Twentieth Century, ed. Goldstone, Jack A, Gurr, Ted Robert, Moshiri, Farrokh, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1991, pp. 395

Includes chapters by Moshiri on the evolving theory of revolution since Marx, including Tilly, Skocpcol and Goldstone. It also comprises Goldstone’s analytical framework for understanding revolutions, case studies of a range of violent and unarmed movements (chapters on Iran, Poland, the Philippines and the Palestinian Occupied Territories are referenced under appropriate sections later), and a concluding chapter ‘Comparison and Policy Implications’ by Gurr and Goldstone that incorporates reflections on the role of violence and nonviolence.

Good, Kenneth, Towards Popular Participation in Botswana, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 34, no. 1, 1996, pp. 101-129

Good, Kenneth, The capacities of the people versus a predominant, militarist, ethno-nationalist elite: democratisation in South Africa, Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Vol. 3, no. 2, 2011, pp. 311-358

Contends that the ANC ‘showed an increasing intolerance for the values upheld by the UDF, like criticism and self-criticism of elites and nonviolence’.

Goodman, David S.G., Beijing Street Voices: The Poetry and Politics of China’s Democracy Movement, ed. Goodman, David S.G., London and Boston, Marion Boyars, 1981, pp. 208

Goodman, Geoffrey, The Miners’ Strike, London, Pluto, 1985, pp. 224

Examines why the strike failed and the role of key institutions and the pickets. Includes a chronology.

Goodman, James, Protest and Globalisation: Prospects for Transnational Solidarity, Annandale NSW, Pluto Press, 2002, pp. 276

Analyses by both Australian and international contributors of problems posed by globalization.

Goodwin, Jeff ; Jasper, James M., The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, ed. Goodwin, Jeff, Jasper, James M., [2003], 2nd edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, pp. 472

Goodwin, Jeff ; Jasper, James M., Contention in Context: Political Opportunities and the Emergence of Protest, ed. Goodwin, Jeff, Jasper, James M., Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 2012, pp. 341

Designed as a series of ‘empirical tests’ to identify the role of political opportunities in the rise of protest movements.

Goodwin, Jeff ; Jasper, James M. ; Polletta, Francesca, Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements, ed. Goodwin, Jeff, Jasper, James M., Polletta, Francesca, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 370

Gorbachev, Mikhail, The August Coup: The Truth and the Lessons, London and New York, Harper Collins, 1991, pp. 127

Gorbachev’s own brief account of the attempted coup against him and his reformist programme in August 1991, with some appended documents.

Gorbanevskaya, Natalia, Red Square at Noon, London, Andre Deutsch, 1972, pp. 285

On the demonstration in Red Square, Moscow, against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968, and subsequent trial and sentences.

Goss-Mayr, Hildegard, Der Mensch vor dem Unrecht. Spiritualität und Praxis gewaltloser Befreiung, (4th edition), Wien/München/Zuerich, Europaverlag, 1981

Theological approach to nonviolence and what the author terms ‘nonviolent liberation’.

Goss-Mayr, Hildegard, Wie Feinde Freunde werden. Mein Leben mit Jean Goss für Gewaltlosigkeit, Gerechtigkeit und Versöhnung, Freiburg, Herder, 1996, pp. 186

Goss-Mayr and Goss played a significant role in promoting nonviolent action and training internationally. This book is Goss-Mayr’s biography and memories of their work in Latin America, Madagascar and the Philippines.

Gosse, Van, The Movements of the New Left 1950-1975: A Brief History with Documents, New York, Bedford/St. Martins, 2004, pp. 224

Uses a very broad definition of the New Left, and examines common features in Civil Rights, peace, anti-war, student, feminist and gay/lesbian movements in the USA.

Gott, Richard, Hugo Chavez and his Bolivarian Revolution, London, Verso, 2005, pp. 315

Analysis sympathetic to Chavez, includes a section on the popular uprising following the 2002 coup.

Gould, Deborah B., Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP’s Fight Against AIDS, Chicago IL, University of Chicago Press, 2009, pp. 524

Analysis of emergence, development and decline of ACT UP, highlighting emotional dimension in movement politics.

Gould, Kenneth ; Schnaiberg, Allan ; Weinberg, Adam, Local Environmental Struggles: Citizen Activism in the Treadmill of Production, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 239

A study of community power and regional planning on the environment, based on US case studies.

Graeber, David, The New Anarchists, ed. Goodman, James, New Left Review, Vol. II, no. 13 (Jan/Feb), 2002, pp. 61-73

Graeber, David, Direct Action: An Ethnography, Edinburgh and Oakland CA, A.K. Press, 2009, pp. 592

Participant observation study of Global Justice Movement, centred on case study of Summit of the Americas in Quebec City 2001.

Graeber, David, The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement, London, Allen Lane, 2013, pp. 352

Reflections on Occupy Wall Street movement and its beginning in the occupation of Zucotti Park, September 2011, from standpoint of an anarchist theorist.

Graff, Agnieszka, A Different Chronology: Reflections on Feminism in Contemporary Poland, In Gillis; Howie; Munford, Third Wave Feminism: A Critical Exploration (F.4.a. The Third Wave of the 1990s-2000s), New York, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 142-165

Argues ‘wave’ chronology does not apply to Poland.

Graham-Yool, Andrew, A State of Fear: Memories of Argentina’s Nightmare, London, Eland, 1986, pp. 180

As a journalist in Argentina the author tried to compile a day-to-day chronicle of violence and repression – he was forced into exile in 1976.

Graswurzelrevolution, Sonderheft Soziale Verteidigung, No 98/99, November, Graswurzelrevolution, 1985

‘Grassroots Revolution’ is a nonviolent-libertarian-anarchist magazine. This special issue focuses on an anarchistic approach to ‘social defence’ as opposed to proposals for governments to adopt civilian-based defence.

Gratius, Susanne, Assessing Democracy Assistance: Venezuela, Madrid, FRIDE, 2010, pp. 16

Gray, John Scott, Essays in Philosophy: A Biannual Journal, ed. Eschle, Catherine, Maiguascha, Bice, Essays in Philosophy: A Biannual Journal, Vol. 8, no. 2 (June), 2007

Includes essays related to the anti-globalization movement and on civil disobedience in context of transnational mobilization.

Gray, Mary L., ”Queer Nation is Dead/Long Live Queer Nation”: The Politics and Poetics of Social Movement and Media Representation, Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 26, no. 3, 2009, pp. 212-236

Greenwood, Ian ; McBride, Jo, Community Unionism: A Comparative Analysis of Concepts and Contexts, Basingstoke, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2009, pp. 264

Explores the diverse meanings of community unionism, provides case studies from the UK – the ‘London’s living wage’ campaign, and activism by black and minority workers and migrant workers – and from Japan, Australia and the US.

Greenwood, J., Worker Sit-ins and Job Protection: Case Studies of Union Intervention, Farnborough, Gower Press, 1977, pp. 121

Discusses sit-down strikes in Britain, the well-known occupation of the Lip factory in France in 1973 and West European sit-ins and work-ins protesting against redundancy.

Gregg, Richard B., The Power of Nonviolence, [1935], revised 3rd edition, London, James Clark, 1960, pp. 192

Classic analysis of ‘moral jiu jitsu’ as the basis of nonviolent resistance, and in particular of Gandhi’s interpretation and strategy of nonviolent action (‘satyagraha’). The updated second edition includes material on unarmed resistance during World War Two in Norway and Denmark, and on the US Civil Rights Movement.

Grenfell, Damian, Environmentalism, State Power and “National Interests, In Goodman, Protest and Globalisation: Prospects for Transnational Solidarity (A.6.a. General Titles), Annandale NSW, Pluto Press, pp. 111-115

Covers ‘Stop Jabiluka’ campaign by Aborigines and environmentalists in Kakadu National Park.

Gress, David, Peace and Survival: West Germany, the Peace Movement and European Security, Stanford CA, Hoover Institution Press, 1985, pp. 266

Griffin-Nolan, Ed, Witness for Peace: A Story of Resistance, Westminster, John Knox Press, 1991, pp. 237

Account of border and conflict monitoring in Nicaragua in 1980s (in attempt to restrain the US-backed Contras and gather evidence on impact of foreign policy), and also of accompaniment of Guatemalan refugees returning home in 1989. (Extract in Moser-Puangsuwan; Weber, Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders: A Recurrent Vision (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment) , pp. 279-304 – see 209 below). The approach adopted in Nicaragua was extended to other parts of Central America and to Colombia in the 1990s. See also: Witness for Peace, Ten Years of Accompaniment, Washington DC, Witness for Peace, 1994.

Griffith, Arthur, The Resurrection of Hungary: A Parallel for Ireland, [1904], Dublin, University College Dublin Press, 2003

(The 1918 edition, which includes references to the unarmed campaign for independence in Finland, is now online.)

This brief book – originally a series of articles – was influential in Ireland and translated into a number of Indian languages, and was almost certainly read by Gandhi. Whilst the historical accuracy is questionable, Griffith’s account was important in conveying the idea of nonviolent resistance. Csapody, Tamas and Thomas Weber, ‘Hungarian Nonviolent Resistance against Austria and its Place in the History of Nonviolence’, Peace and Change, vol. 32 no. 4 (2007), pp. 499-519, analyses the influence of Griffith’s interpretation.

Gros, Jean-Germain, The Hard Lessons of Cameroon, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6, no. 3 (July), 1995, pp. 112-127

Includes comments on the role of the French government in supporting Biya.

Gros, Jean-Germain, Democratization in Late Twentieth Century Africa: Coping with Uncertainty, ed. Gros, Jean-Germain, Westport CT and London, Greenwood Press, 1998, pp. 162

Contributors to this book include democracy activists as well as scholars, who look critically at the process of democratization in: Malawi, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Ghana and Gabon. The focus is not on institutions but on leadership, and also on the role of the military and churches in the reform process.

Gros, Philippe, Désobeir, Ed. Albin Michel/Flammarion, 2017, pp. 265

In this essay Gros reconsiders the roots of political obedience in order to understand the different forms of civic and civil disobedience, in so far as they constitute an ethical resistance to promote democracy.

Grunfeld, Tom, The Making of Modern Tibet, Revised edition, Armonk NY, M.E. Sharpe, 1996, pp. 352

Discusses the role of the Tibetan diaspora, and intrigues by the Indian government, the Chiang Kai-shek government of Taiwan and the CIA, as well as internal developments from the 1950s to 1995.

Grünewald, Guido ; Van den Dungen, Peter, Twentieth-century peace movements: Successes and failures , Lewiston NY, Edwin Mellen Press, 1995, pp. 254

Guenther, Katja, Making Their Place: Feminism after Socialism in Eastern Germany, Palo Alto CA, Stanford University Press, 2010, pp. 262

Examines feminist activism in two East German cities, Erfurt and Rostock, in context of economic and political upheaval in former socialist bloc, and the trends undermining the rights and status of women.

Gupta, Rahila, From Homebreakers to Jailbreakers: Southall Black Sisters, London, Zed Press, 2003, pp. 301

Southall Black Sisters was founded by Asian women in 1982 to campaign about issues specific to women in racial minorities in Britain. Over the years it has become the focus for racial and ethnic minorities in Britain and gained an international profile. Issues tackled include: ‘honour’ killings, domestic violence, forced marriages and resistance to deportations. See also: SBS Collective, Against the Grain London, Southall Black Sisters, , 1990 ,: a collection of essays covering the first ten years, and available from SBS. For current activities: http://www.southallblacksisters.org.uk

Gurney, Christabel, When the Boycott began to Bite, History Today, Vol. 9, no. 6, 1999

Account by a key organizer of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement.

Gurov, Boris ; Zankina, Emilia, Populism and the Construction of Political Charisma: Post-Transition Politics in Bulgaria, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 60, no. 1 (Jan/Feb), 2013, pp. 3-17

Article published just before protests erupted in February.

Gustafson, Lindsey, Kenya: The Struggle to Create a Democracy, Brigham Young University Law Review, Vol. 2, 1995, pp. 647-651

Gutman, Daniel, Women in Argentina are empowered as they speak out against gender violence, IPS, 2018

Gutman reports on the initiative of the Argentine Actresses collective, a group created by 300 artistes in April 2018, when the country mobilised for the legislative debate on the decriminalisation of abortion. The mobilisation shed light also on the abuses that occurred within the entertainment industry, followed by scandals in the politics’ and sports’ sectors. The article outlines how reported femicides have been on the rise since the birth of #NiUnaMenos, which has promoted recognition of femicide, and the legal and protective initiatives that are taking place in the country thanks to the movement. 

Gyorgy, Anna, No Nukes: Everyone’s Guide to Nuclear Power, Cambridge MA, South End Press, 1979, pp. 478

Includes large section on the transnational movement against nuclear power.

Gül, Murat ; Dee, John ; Cünük, Cahide Nur, Istanbul’s Taksim Square and Gezi Park: The Place of Protest and the Ideology of Place, Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, Vol. 38, no. 1 (March), 2014, pp. 63-72

Discusses the protests and their symbolism and the ideological conflicts evoked.

Habermas, Jürgen, Civil Disobedience: Litmus Test for the Democratic Constitutional State, Berkeley Journal of Sociology, Vol. 30, 1985, pp. 95-116

Habermas, one of today’s major social theorists, is associated with the concept of ‘new social movements’ in the 1970s, and developing the theory of ‘deliberative democracy’. Argues for the potential value of civil disobedience as a means of upholding democratic principles.
Other important essays by Habermas are: ‘Hannah Arendt’s Communicative Concept of Power’ in Steven Lukes ed., Power, Oxford, Blackwell, pp. 75-93, arguing for a structural interpretation of power.
And Habermas, Jürgen , What does Socialism Mean Today? The Rectifying Revolution and the Need for New Thinking on the Left New Left Review, 1990, pp. 3-21 , an interpretation of the nature and significance of the 1989 revolutions from a democratic socialist perspective.

Habermas, Jürgen, What does Socialism Mean Today? The Rectifying Revolution and the Need for New Thinking on the Left, New Left Review, no. I/183 (September-October), 1990, pp. 3-21

Hain, Peter, Don’t Play with Apartheid: Background to the Stop the Seventy Tour, London, Allen and Unwin, 1971, pp. 232

Halberstam, David, The Making of a Quagmire, [1965], (revised edition), London, Rowman and Littlefield, 2007, pp. 248

Includes helpful information on the Buddhist resistance in 1963, see especially pp. 194-243 in original edition.

Hale, Angela ; Shaw, Linda M., Women Workers and the Promise of Ethical Trade in the Globalised Garment Industry: A Serious Beginning?, ed. Waterman, Peter, Wills, Jane, In Waterman, Peter ; Wills, Jane , Place, Space and the New Labour Internationalism Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, , 2001, pp. 312, pp. 206-226

Discusses company codes of conduct introduced in response to ethical trade boycotts in west of products made with sweatshop labour, and analyzes the global economic conditions undercutting such codes and the right to union organization.

Hale, Henry E., Democracy, autocracy and revolution in Post-Soviet Eurasia, World Politics, Vol. 68, no. 1 (October), 2005, pp. 133-155

Includes references to Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine.

Hale, Henry E., Democracy or autocracy on the march? The colored revolution as normal dynamics of patronal presidentialism, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 39, no. 3 (Special Issue ‘Democratic Revolutions in Post-Communist States’, ed. Taras Kuzio), 2006, pp. 305-329

Argues that the ‘color revolutions’ 2003-2005 were fundamentally succession struggles in ‘patronal presidental’ regimes, rather than demoncratic breakthroughs, and therefore can result in retreat from democratic principles, as in Georgia.

Hall, David ; Lobina, Emanuele ; de la Motte, Robin, Public Resistance to Privatisation in Water and Energy, ed. Food Empowerment Project, , Development in Practice, Vol. 15, no. 3-4 (June), 2005

Examines role of different types of opposition in ‘delaying, cancelling or reversing the privatization of water and energy’, including success in Nkondobe (South Africa), Paraguay where parliament voted in 2002 to suspend indefinitely privatization of state-owned water and Poznan in Poland in 2002, and failure of campaigns in UK, Chile and Philippines.

Hall, Derek, Land, Cambridge, Polity, 2012, pp. 176

Analyzes conflicts over land in terms of its role as territory (leading to inter-state claims or wars), its status as property, and ways in which its use is regulated. The book examines the attempts of NGOs to protect property rights and environments in the Global South and the land grabs by corporations and governments, drawing on wide range of examples, including China and Honduras.

Hall, Richard, Zambia 1890-1964: The Colonial Period, London, Longman, 1976, pp. 202

Chapter 3, ‘Colonialism and the roots of African nationalism’ covers early copperbelt strikes; chapter 4 ‘Federation – genesis and exodus’, includes extensive information on developing resistance to the colour bar, to the building of the Kariba dam and eviction of local farmers, and to the Federation itself. Chapter 5 ‘The creation of Zambia’ examines final stages of resistance and political developments. His earlier book, Zambia, Pall Mall Press, 1965, pp. 375, also covered the evolving struggle in chapters 5-7.

Hall, Simon, Peace and Freedom: The Civil Rights and the Antiwar Movements in the 1960s, [2004], Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, pp. 280

Using archival research, explores both how the Civil Rights Movement reacted to the Vietnam War, and also examines relations between black groups opposed to the War and the wider peace movement, and difficulties that arose.

Halstead, Fred, Out Now! A Participant’s Account of the American Movement Against the Vietnam War, [1978], Atlanta, GA, Pathfinder, 2001, pp. 886

Traces the rise of the anti-Vietnam War movement, including accounts of the ideological and institutional rivalries between organizations, and covers all the major demonstrations and civil disobedience actions from the Students for a Democratic Society March on Washington in 1965 to US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973.

Hammond, John L., Building Popular Power: Workers’ and Neighbourhoods’ Movements in the Portuguese Revolution, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1988, pp. 320

Hammond, John L., Law and Disorder: The Brazilian Landless Farmworkers Movement, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 18, no. 4, 1991, pp. 269-289

See also Hammond, John L., The MST and the media: Competing images of the Brazilian Landless Farmworkers’ Movement Latin American Politics and Society, 2004, pp. 61-90

Hammond, John L., The MST and the media: Competing images of the Brazilian Landless Farmworkers’ Movement, Latin American Politics and Society, Vol. 4, no. 4 (Winter), 2004, pp. 61-90

Han, Minzhu, Cries for Democracy: Writings and Speeches from the 1989 Chinese Democracy Movement, ed. Han, Minzhu, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1990, pp. 401

Collection of materials from the protest movement.

Hancock, Landon E. ; Mitchell, Christopher, Zones of Peace, ed. Hancock, Landon E., Mitchell, Christopher, Bloomfield CT, Kumarian, 2007, pp. 238

Hancox, Dan, Fight Back! A Reader on the Winter of Protest, OpenDemocracy, 2011, pp. 340

Covers both student protests in late 2010 ( e.g against high tuition fees) and wider demonstrations against cuts. Edited by young protesters, but includes essay by Anthony Barnett, founder of openDemocracy reflecting on potential significance of new activism.

Hancox, Dan, Utopia and the Valley of Tears, 2012, pp. 76

Hancox, Dan, The Village Against the World, London, Verso, 2013, pp. 252

(Successor to ebook Hancox, Dan , Utopia and the Valley of Tears , 2012, pp. 76 , on same topic.)
Discusses the small village, Marinaleda, in southern Spain that has battled for decades with the state and capitalist policies, but gained international attention in 2012 when its mayor (and farmers union leader) organized the filling of ten shopping trolleys, refused to pay, and distributed them to the poor from a military base and mansion of a local large landowner.

Hanlon, Joseph, South Africa: the Sanctions Report – documents and statistics, ed. Hanlon, Joseph, London, James Currey and Commonwealth Secretariat, 1990, pp. 342

Harbison, Rob, Cambodia: indigenous protests repel dam builders - so far, The Ecologist, 2014

Hardiman, David, Gandhi in His Time and Ours: The Global Legacy of his Ideas, London, Hurst, 2003, pp. 356

Sympathetic, but not uncritical, assessment of Gandhi’s style of politics, his conflicts with the Raj and opposition groups and critics within India, and his impact on later movements. The author studied ‘subaltern’ movements in India for many years before engaging with Gandhi.

Hare, Paul ; Blumberg, Herbert H., Nonviolent Direct Action: American Cases: Social-Psychological Analyses, ed. Hare, Paul, Blumberg, Herbert H., Washington DC, Corpus Books, 1968, pp. 575

Discusses earlier and contemporary theoretical analyses of nonviolence from a social psychological standpoint, and combines this with examples of nonviolent action and peace campaigns in the USA.

Harford, Barbara ; Hopkins, Sarah, Greenham Common: Women at the Wire, ed. Giles, Wenona, de Alwis, Malathi, Klein, Edith, Silva, Neluka, London, The Women's Press, 1984, pp. 171

Hargreaves, John, Decolonization in Africa, [1988], London, Longman, 1996, pp. 298

There was a lively debate in Africa about the case for violence or nonviolence and some movements chose predominantly nonviolent tactics. There was also a close link between anti-colonialism and resistance to apartheid in South Africa, where Gandhi’s influence was still significant (see section E.I.1).

Hari, Johann, Malalai Joya: The woman who will not be silenced, The Independent, 2009, pp. 1-5

Harman, Chris, Bureaucracy and Revolution in Eastern Europe, London, Pluto Press, 1974, pp. 296

Examines the 1956 Revolution primarily from standpoint of role of the workers, with emphasis on the workers’ councils, pp. 124-87.

Harman, Chris, The Fire Last Time: 1968 and After, [1988], London, Bookmarks, 1998, pp. 410

Chapter 13 ‘Portugal: The Revolution that Wilted’ recounts from a revolutionary socialist perspective the extraordinary ferment of 1974-75, a period of ‘dual power’ between radical workers going on strike and occupying their workplaces and the provisional government, with increasing polarization between left and right.

Hart, Lindsay, In Defence of Radical Direct Action: Reflections on Civil Disobedience, Sabotage and Nonviolence, ed. Parkis, Jan, Bowen, James, In Parkis, Jan ; Bowen, James , Twenty-First Century Anarchism: Unorthodox Ideas for a New Millennium London, Cassell, , 1997, pp. 214, pp. 41-59

Defends new forms of radical direct action, including ‘ecotage’, arguing that violence should be measured by harm inflicted, not use of physical force.

Harvey, David, Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution, London, Verso, 2012, pp. 208

Harvey, Kyle, American Anti-Nuclear Activism 1975-1990: The Challenge of Peace, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 221

The Introduction examines the dynamics of anti-nuclear activism in the Second Cold War. There is a chapter on mainstream movement building, but the emphasis is on nonviolent approaches and the role of pacifists.

Harvey, Kyle, American Anti-Nuclear Actvism 1975-1990: The Challenge of Peace, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 221

The introduction examinesthe dynamics of anti-nucelar activism in the Second Cold War. There is a chapter on mainstream movement building, but the emphasis is on nonviolent approaches and the role of pacifists.

Hash-Gonzales, Kelli, Popular Mobilization and Empowerment in Georgia’s Rose Revolution, Lanham MA, Lexington, 2012, pp. 180

Hashemi, Nadar ; Postel, Danny, The People Reloaded: The Green Movement and the Struggle for Iran’s Future, ed. Hashemi, Nadar, Postel, Danny, New York, Melville House, 2011, pp. 440

Anthology exploring the nature of the movement, including expert and participant analyses, manifestos, communiques, interviews and debates. A number of the presentations, including that by co-editor Danny Postel and Charles Kurzman’s ‘Cultural Jiu-Jitsu’ can be viewed on YouTube channel ‘Iran: Politics of Resistance’.

Hastings, Tom H., Power: Nonviolent Transformation from the Transpersonal to the Transnational, Lenham, MD, Hamilton Books, 2005

(written from the perspective of an activist academic)

Hauck, Robert J-P., Symposium on Nonviolence – A Force More Powerful, ed. Hauck, Robert J-P., PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 33, no. 2 (June), 2000

Peter Ackerman and Jack Duvall, ‘Nonviolent Power in the Twentieth Century’; Doug McAdam and Sidney Tarrow, ‘Nonviolence as Contentious Politics’; Ted Robert Gurr, ‘Nonviolence in Ethnopolitics: Strategies for the Attainment of Group Rights and Autonomy’; Gay W. Seidman, ‘Blurred Lines: Nonviolence in South Africa’; Allison Calhoun-Brown, ‘Upon This Rock: The Black Church, Nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement’; Anne N. Costain, ‘Women’s Movements and Nonviolence’; Stephen Zunes, ‘Nonviolent Action and Human Rights’.

Havel, VáclavVladislav, Jan, The Power of the Powerless, ed. Vladislav, Jan, In Havel, Václav , Living in Truth: 22 Essays Published on the Occasion of the Award of the Erasmus Prize to Vaclav Havel London, Faber, , 1987, pp. 315, pp. 36-122

(Also available in other collections.)
Influential analysis of ‘post-totalitarian’ society and politics in the Soviet bloc in the 1970s and eloquent argument for individual integrity and acts of dissent by lead Czechoslovak playwright and dissident, who became President after 1989. This text inspired many activists in Eastern Europe and others round the world, including Aung San Suu Kyi, leading figure in the nonviolent resistance in Burma from 1988.

Havens, Thomas, Fire Across the Sea: The Vietnam War and Japan, 1965-1975, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1987, pp. 330

Covers growth of a major anti-war movement of rallies and marches against Japanese government support for the US in the war and the use of US bases in Japan.

Hayes, Graeme, Environmental Protest and the State in France, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2002, pp. 246

Haynes, Suyin, Author Leta Hong Fincher shows why the world should pay attention to China’s feminists, Time, 2018

Writer and academic Leta Hong Fincher discusses the feminist movement in China in connection with the development of #MeToo in the USA. She also discusses the impact of the arrest in 2015 of the Feminist Five on the struggle for Chinese women’s equality and the patriarchal authoritarianism’ of Chinese leader Xi Jinping, noting similarities with other world leaders.

Hazelhurst, Kayleen M., Political Expression and Ethnicity: Statecraft and Mobilization in the Maori World, Westport CT, Praeger, 1993, pp. 222

Includes information on demonstrations, but focus on the Mana Motukhake political party founded at beginning of 1980s which contested several elections and by-elections in that decade.

Healey, Josh, Whose Streets? Our Streets!, Red Pepper, no. Apr/May, 2012, pp. 41-43

Examines Occupy Oakland, its potential and downside.

Hedman, Eva-Lotta E., Dynamics of Conflict and Displacement in Papua, Indonesia, ed. Hedman, Eva-Lotta E., Working Paper No. 42, Oxford, Refugee Studies Paper, 2007, pp. 75

Heilbrunn, John, Social Origins of National Conferences in Benin and Togo, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 31, no. 2 (June), 1993, pp. 277-299

Stresses the role of voluntary associations in Benin.

Heine, Hartmut, La oposición al franquismo: de 1939 a 1952, Critica, 1983, pp. 502

Heinemann-Grueder, Andreas ; Bauer, Isabella, Zivile Konfliktbearbeitung. Vom Anspruch zur Wirklichkeit, Opladen/Berlin/Toronto, Barbara Budrich, 2013, pp. 246

This book, which deals with international approaches to conflict transformation, has been compiled by two researchers/practitioners with a background in the Civil Peace Service.

Heinrich Böll Foundation, Pakistan: Reality, Denial and the Complexity of its State, Berlin, Heinrich Böll Foundation, 2009, pp. 176

Hekma, Gert ; Oosterhuis, Harry, Gay Men and the Sexual History of the Political Left, New York, Harrington Press, 1995, pp. 408

Includes chapters on the often difficult relationship between socialist, anarchist or social democratic movements and homosexuality in countries such as pre-First World War Netherlands, Civil-War Spain, the German Weimar Republic and post-1945 East Germany.

Helvey, Robert L., On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: Thinking about Fundamentals, Cambridge MA, Albert Einstein Institution, 2004, pp. 178

Retired US Army colonel, now colleague of Gene Sharp, examines the basis of political power and the methods and strategy of nonviolent struggle. His guidelines for preparing a Strategic Estimate are also included in Sharp, Waging Nonviolent Struggle.

Hendricks, Cheryl ; Lushaba, Lwazi, From National Liberation to Democratic Renaissance in Southern Africa, ed. Hendricks, Cheryl, Lushaba, Lwazi, Dakar, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESIRA), 2006, pp. 212

Hennessey, Thomas, The Northern Ireland Peace Process: Ending the Troubles?, Dublin, Gill & Macmillan, 2000, pp. 256

Detailed account by an academic historian who acted as special advisor to the Unionist Party of the negotiations that led to the signing of the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. The author comments in the Introduction that ‘what complicated the Northern Ireland conflict was the range of options which the central protagonists – Unionists and Nationalists – viewed as their preferred solution.’ Historically, he states ‘the Ulster Question has been a dispute concerning sovereignty and identity. Or to put it another way, it has been a dispute between states and nations. But neither Unionists nor Nationalists could agree which states were legitimate or the legitimacy of the opposing group’s national identity’.

Hentoff, Nat, The Essays of A.J. Muste, new preface by Jo Ann O. Robinson, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2002, pp. 515

Essays on revolution, nonviolence and pacifism by a key figure on US radical/pacifist left, from 1905 to 1966, commenting in later essays on conscientious objection, opposition to French nuclear tests in Africa, the Civil Rights movement and the opposition to the Vietnam War.

Hess, David ; Martin, Brian, Repression, backfire and the theory of transformative events, Mobilization, Vol. 11, no. 1 (June), 2006, pp. 249-267

Heuer, Wolfgang, Hannah Arendt: Ein Zuhause fuer den zivilen Ungehorsam, INDES- Zeitschrift fuer Politik und Gesellschaft, no. 4, 2017, pp. 66-76

Hannah  Arendt presented her ideas about civil disobedience at a symposium of the New York Bar Association in 1970, and posed as the central question whether the law was dead.  This article explains Arendt's 'republican' philosophy and distinguishes it from the liberal approaches of  Rawls and Habermas, and from democrats like Etienne Balibar, before discussing in some detail Arendt's work On Revolution.  

Hewison, Kevin, Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, ed. Hewison, Kevin, London, Routledge, 1997, pp. 301

An overview of society and politics in Thailand. The Introduction briefly discusses the background to May 1992. Andrew Brown, ‘Locating Working Class Power’ (pp. 163-78), challenges the mainstream interpretation of May 1992 as an expression of the increased power of the middle class and civil society groups, which demonstrated the absence of working class power, suggesting commentators have an over-simplified model of united working class action.

Heywood, Leslie ; Drake, Jennifer, Third Wave Agenda: Being Feminist, Doing Feminism, Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, 1997, pp. 232

Wide range of theoretical perspectives organized in 3 parts: Generations and Genealogies; Locales and Locations; Politics and Popular Culture. Part II includes essays on ‘Imagining Feminist Futures: The Third Wave, Postfeminism and Eco/feminism’ by N. Moore, and ‘Global Feminism, Transnational Political Economies, Third World Cultural Production’ by W. Woodhull.

Hicks, Barbara, Environmental Politics in Poland: A Social Movement between Regime and Opposition, New York, Columbia University Press, 1996, pp. 263

Hilary, John, Anti-Capitalism Alive and Well, Red Pepper, no. Dec/Jan, 2010, pp. 14-15

On 10th anniversary of closing down WTO summit at Seattle, author celebrates the setbacks of the WTO since. He notes broadening of movement, illustrated by role of migrant workers and women’s rights groups from across Asia leading protests at WTO 2005 Hong Kong summit.

Hilary, John, The Poverty of Capitalism: Economic Meltdown and the Struggle for What Comes Next, London, Pluto Press, 2013, pp. 240

Analysis by War on Want director of how neoliberal elite is using the 2008 crisis to entrench its own power and impose neoliberal policies on Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland. The book ends with a sketch of the growing worldwide struggle against neoliberalism and suggesting how alternatives might be strengthened.

Hildebrandt, Rainer, The Explosion: The Uprising Behind the Iron Curtain, Boston, Little Brown, 1955, pp. 198

Hill, Lance, Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement, Chapel Hill NC, University of North Carolina Press, 2004, pp. 363

Documents emergence of armed self-defence groups in Louisiana and Mississippi in the mid-1960s to counter the Klan and enforce civil rights legislation.

Hill, Marc Lamont, Nobody: Casualties Of America’s War On The Vulnerable, From Ferguson To Flint And Beyond, ed. Camp, Jordan T., Heatherthon, Christina, New York, Atria , 2016, pp. 273

African-American Studies scholar and policy analyst Marc Lamont Hill examines the interlocking mechanisms of unregulated capitalism, public policy, and social practice in the US. His work starts recounting one of the most salient event that gave birth to the Black Lives Matter movement: the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, in 2014. More precisely, the narration spans different periods of time, starting with the grand jury testimony of Darren Wilson, the officer who killed Michael Brown, and then looks back at the 1939 World’s Fair and Le Corbusier’s lofty ideas about urban renewal. It moves forward in time again to the development of the Pruitt-Igoe public housing projects in St. Louis, completed in 1955 and demolished twenty years later, with many of the displaced residents having to move to Ferguson and face a climate of socio-cultural deprivation. Hill terminates his narration in Flint, Michigan, where the American city’s population ended up being poisoned by lead in the water.

Hill’s work is an account of the systematically disadvantaged identities - “those marked as poor, black, brown, immigrant, queer, or trans” – by a system that treats them as nobody, and makes them disposable, vulnerable and invisible. This work has been praised for enriching the contemporary canon of US civil rights literature not only because it captures the systemic nature of inequality in US society, but also because of his positive conclusion on the transformative power of organising, the most recent version of which lies in the Black Lives Matter movement.

Hill, Simon, Rethinking the American Anti-war Movement, New York, Routledge, 2011, pp. 208

Structured in sections covering key events and key individuals in movement against Vietnam War, and includes a chapter assessing strength and weaknesses of movement. Extensive footnotes and bibliography.

Hilsum, Lindsey, Sandstorm: Libya in the Time of Revolution, London, Faber and Faber, 2012, pp. 287

by Channel Four foreign editor.

Hines, Sally, TransForming Gender: Transgender Practices of Identity, Intimacy and Care, Chicago IL, University of Chicago Press, Policy Press, 2007, pp. 232

Drawing on interviews with transgender people charts impact of changing legislation in UK. Primarily about individual experience and social context, but there is a chapter on: ‘Transgender Care Networks, Social Movements and Citizenship’.

Hinsliff, Gaby, ‘The rapist is you!’: why a Chilean protest chant is being sung around the world, The Guardian, 2020

Devised by a little-known South American feminist collective, the song ‘Un Violador en Tu Camino’ (‘A rapist in your path’) has been performed by women from Washington to Istanbul. This article sheds light on the reason why the song has become the hymn of feminist movements against sexual harassment.

Hinton, James, Self-help and Socialism: The Squatters Movement of 1946, History Workshop Journal, Vol. 25, no. 1, 1988, pp. 100-126

Covers a significant movement in post-war Britain when many houses had been destroyed by bombing.

Hinton, James, Protests and Visions: Peace Politics in 20th Century Britain, London, Hutchinson Radius, 1989, pp. 248

Covers pacifist and anti-war campaigning in Britain from the ‘imperialist pacifism’ of the Victorian period, through both World Wars to the birth of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and the New Left in the 1950s and 1960s. Written from a democratic socialist perspective. Final chapters cover CND’s ‘second wave’ in the 1980s, the Gorbachev initiatives, and the role of the European Nuclear Disarmament campaign seeking to transcend the Cold War divide.

Hirsch, Philip, The Politics of Environment: Opposition and Legitimacy, In Hewison, Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation (E. II.10.a. Demanding Democracy 1973 and 1992), London, Routledge, pp. 179-194

Examines growing significance of environmental movement in Thailand since the success in stopping proposed dam in 1988.

Hirschmann, Albert O., Exit, voice and the fate of the German Democratic Republic, World Politics, Vol. 45, no. Jan., 1993, pp. 172-202

Much cited conceptual analysis contrasting the movement of emigration through Hungary to the West and the internal resistance.

Hirst, David, Beware of Small States: Lebanon, Battleground of the Middle East, New York, Nation Books, 2010, pp. 496

Analysis by the Guardian Middle East editor of Lebanese politics.

Hiscocks, Richard, Poland: Bridge for the Abyss?, London, Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. 359

Hobbs, Allyson, One year of #MeToo: the legacy of Black women’s testimonies, The New Yorker, 2018

Hobbs explores the tradition of testimony over sexual assault allegations by women of colour – from Harriet Jacobs’ case in 1861 up to now - and how that has facilitated testimony today in the US. She advocates a more inclusive narrative that can overcome the gender-only or race-only approach to telling stories of sexual abuse.

Hochberg, Gil Z., Introduction: Israelis, Palestinians and Queers: Points of Departure, GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies, Vol. 16, no. 4, 2010, pp. 493-516

Hodges, Donald ; Gandy, Ross, Mexico Under Siege: Popular Resistance to Presidential Despotism, London, Zed Books, 2002, pp. 268

Spans period from 1940 to 2000, examining urban worker protest and railway strikes, new peasant movements, school strikes, student opposition and also the rise of guerrilla struggles, including the Zapatistas.

Hoffman, Peter, The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945, [1977], 3rd edn, Montreal, McGill-Queens University Press, 1996, pp. 872

Standard work covering all aspects of the internal German resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, though with a major focus on the 1944 Generals’ Plot.

Hoggett, Paul ; Burns, Danny, The Revenge of the Poor: The Anti-Poll Tax Campaign in Britain, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 11, no. (Dec), 1991, pp. 95-110

See also reply by Lavalette, Michael ; Mooney, Gerry , The Poll Tax Struggle in Britain: A Reply to Hoggett and Burn Critical Social Policy, 1993, pp. 96-108

Holland, Barbara, Soviet Sisterhood: British Feminists on Women in the USSR, Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press and Fourth Estate, 1986, pp. 272

Includes chapter by Alix Holt, ‘The First Soviet Feminists’ on Leningrad group associated with The Almanach: ‘Women and Russia’ and their club ‘Maria’.

Hollander, Jocelyn A. ; Einwohner, Rachel L., Conceptualizing Resistance, Sociological Forum, Vol. 19, no. 4, 2004, pp. 533-554

Discusses possible confusion in meaning of ‘resistance’ in recent sociological studies and suggests a typology of intended and unintended ‘resistance’. Many references to gender-based resistance, and forms of indirect resistance by slaves, peasants, workers and the unemployed, as well as the direct resistance of the US Civil Rights Movement.

Hollings, James, It Does Become Personal: Lessons From a News Organisation’s #Metoo Campaign, Journalism Practice, Vol. 14, no. 2, 2020, pp. 225-239

This paper reports on a #MeToo campaign by a mainstream news organisation. The ‘Me Too’ campaign led to a large number of disclosures adopted a survivor-led approach to minimise potential harm. It offers lessons for reporting on #MeToo issues, including the best practice for dealing with survivors, campaign management and ultimately the implications for changing editorial news values. Journalists showed greater awareness of the feelings of survivors and were able to reconcile this with traditional journalistic norms.

Holmes, Robert L. ; Gans, Barry L., Nonviolence in Theory and Practice, ed. Holmes, Robert L., Gans, Barry L., [1990], 2nd edition, Long Grove IL, Waveland Press, 2005, pp. 381

Reader with excerpts on religious roots of nonviolence and classic writings on disobedience, including Socrates, as well as Thoreau, Tolstoy and Gandhi on nonviolent resistance.

Holroyd, Fred, Thinking about Nuclear Weapons: Analyses and Prescriptions, London, Croom Helm in association with the Open University, 1985, pp. 409

Covers a range of perspectives on nuclear weapons. Includes influential Bundy, McGeorge ; Kennan, George F.; McNamara, Robert S.; Smith, Gerard , Nuclear weapons and the Atlantic Alliance Foreign Affairs, 1982, pp. 753-766 , arguing that NATO should not use nuclear weapons in response to a conventional attack. Also includes section from the Alternative Defence Commission report on ‘The rationale for rejecting nuclear weapons’, as well as an extract from Edward P. Thompson’s 1980 pamphlet Protest and Survive (see below).

Holt, Martin, Gay Men and Ambivalence about ‘Gay Community’: from Gay Community Attachment to Personal Communities, Culture, Health and Sexuality, Vol. 13, no. 8, 2011, pp. 657-671

HongFincher, Leta, Betraying Big Brother: The Feminist Awakening in China, London, Verso, 2018, pp. 240

Story of the 'Feminist Five' who were jailed in 2015 for a protest against sexual harassment, and the art and activism of their supporters.  The book also examines the official gender equality policy of the Communist Party since 1949, and the recent suppression of dissidence and bans on foreign support for NGOs.

See also ‘Talking policy: Leta Hong Fincher on feminism in China’, World Policy, 2 June 2017: https://worldpolicy.org/2017/06/02/talking-policy-leta-hong-fincher-on-feminism-in-china/

Leta Hong discusses her book Leftover Women: The Resurgence of gender Inequality in China and the development of feminism in China from the post- socialist era up to today.

To read the first-hand account on the arrest of one activist of the ‘Feminist Five’ and other initiatives to free them, see this comprehensive article https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/mar/08/feminist-stickers-china-backash-women-activists

See also https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2093973/fight-against-gender-violence-goes-chinas-feminist-five and https://chinadigitaltimes.net/2018/02/people-week-feminist-five/

Hope, Marjorie ; Young, James, The South African Churches in a Revolutionary Situation, New York, Orbis Books, 1981, pp. 268

Horeman, Bart ; Stolwijk, Marc, Refusing to Bear Arms: A World Survey of Conscription and Conscientious Objection to Military Service, Foreword by Devid Prasad, London, War Resisters' International, 1998, pp. 310

The most authoritative country by country survey of the position on conscription and conscientious objection in all member states of the UN, following the same formula in each case and setting out legal possibilities for avoiding military service. Historical overview of the evolution of conscription and conscientious objection appended to many country reports. There are also often additional sections on forced recruitment by non-governmental armed groups. Each report is dated. The online version includes updates, especially 2008, on all the countries (and then candidate countries) in the Council of Europe, see http://www.wri-irg.org/co/rtba/index.html. The 2008 update also published separately as: War Resisters' International, Professional soldiers and the right to conscientious objection in the European Union Brussels, Tobias Pfluger MEP, European Parliamentary Group European United Left/Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL), , 2008, pp. 60

Horn, Gerd-Rainer, The Spirit of ‘68: Rebellion in Western Europe and North America, 1956-1976, ed. Horn, Gerd-Rainer, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 264

Hornig, James P., Social and Environmental Impacts of the James Bay Hydroelectric Project, Montreal, McGill-Queens University Press, 1999, pp. 187

Hosking, Geoffrey, The Awakening of the Soviet Union, [1990], Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press, 1991, pp. 256

Hosseini, Sayed Abdolhamed, Alternative Globalizations: An Integrative Approach to Studying Dissident Knowledge in the Global Justice Movement, London and New York, Routledge, 2010, pp. 288

Discusses whether growing popular opposition to neoliberalism, especially since 2008, can develop coherent alternative ideologies.

Howard, Marc Morje ; Roessler, Philip G., Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 50, no. April, 2006, pp. 365-381

Makes comparisons between post-communist regimes and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Howorth, Jolyon ; Chilton, Patricia, Defence and Dissent in Contemporary France, London, Croom Helm, 1984, pp. 264

Part 1 covers France’s defence policy since 1945 – including the wars in Indo-China and Algeria, and De Gaulle’s decision (supported by the major political parties) to develop a French nuclear bomb. Part 2 focuses on anti-nuclear critiques and movements in the 1980s, including a military critique of French defence policy by Admiral Sanguinetti and Claude Bourdet on the ‘The rebirth of the peace movement’.

Howys, Sian, Breaking the law to make change, ed. Bierley, John, In Bierley, John , Gathering Visions, Gathering Strength Bradford and London, GVGS Publishing Group and Peace News, , 1998, pp. 39, pp. 13-15

Hudson, Kate, Now More than Ever, London, Vision Paperbacks, Satin Publishers, Sheena Dewan, 2005, pp. 278

Up to date account of British nuclear disarmament movement since the 1950s by chair of CND, giving some weight to direct action.

Hudson, Michael C., Palestinians: New Directions, Washington DC, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, 1990, pp. 268

Includes analysis of the role of the labour movement (chapter 3), of traders (chapter 2) and of women in the Intifada.

Hui, Victoria Tin-Bor, Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement : The Protests and Beyond, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 26, no. 2 (April), 2015, pp. 111-121

This article (following on the previous article by Davis analysing China's role in sparking the protest) focuses on the role of the Hong Kong government in opposing greater democracy and allowing excessive use of force by the police, so fuelling public anger.

Hunt, Andrew E., The Turning: A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War, [1999], 2nd edition, New York, New York University Press, 2001, pp. 296

Covers origins and development of Vietnam Veterans Against the War and key events, as well as attempts to recruit Afro-American veterans and the role of women in the organization.

Hunt, Timothy J., The Politics of Bones: Dr Owens Wiwa and the Struggle for Nigeria’s Oil, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 2005, pp. 400

Focuses on the brother of the executed leader of the Ogoni movement, Kenule Sarowiwa, and his efforts to carry on the campaign.

Hunter, Daniel ; Lakey, George, Opening Space for Democracy: Training Manual for Third-Party Nonviolent Intervention, Philadelphia PA, Training for Change, 2004, pp. 628

Much of this book can be downloaded from: http://www.trainingforchange.org.

Devised as a training resource for the Nonviolent Peace Force, this manual contains hundreds of training activities, with special emphasis on team-building and defending human rights. It includes over 60 handouts, an integrated 23 day curriculum, and many tips for trainers.

Hunter, Robert, The Greenpeace Chronicle, London, Pan Books, 1980, pp. 448

(Published in USA as Warriors of the Rainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement, New York, Rhinehart and Winston, 1978)
The story of Greenpeace from its emergence in the 1970s to the time of the book’s publication. Autobiographical account by a founder member of Greenpeace International.

Hurley, Judith, Brazil: A Troubled Journey to the Promised Land, In McManus; Schlabach, Relentless Persistence: Nonviolent Action in Latin America (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies), Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, pp. 174-196

The author, who founded a US support group for the landless, provides excerpts from her journal of visiting sites of land struggle in 1987. She notes intensified confrontations in 1980s between the landed elite and the landless, who resorted to lawsuits, demonstrations, fasts, vigils, marches, mock funerals and, above all, land occupations.

Hurwitz, Deena, Walking the Red Line: Israelis in Search of Justice for Palestine, Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 1992, pp. 208

Essays by 20 Israelis – some of them ‘selective objectors’ – who question standard definitions of nationalism, national security and loyalty.

Hutt, Michael, Drafting the Nepal Constitution, 1990, Asian Survey, Vol. 31, no. (November), 1991, pp. 1020-1039

Huxley, Aldous, Ends and Means: An Enquiry into the Nature of Ideals and into the Methods Employed for their Realization, London, Chatto and Windus, 1937

which includes some discussion in chapter 10 of nonviolent resistance

Hæstrup, Jørgen, European Resistance Movements 1939-1945: A Complete History, Westport CT, Meckler, 1981, pp. 568

Expert on the Danish resistance extends his scholarship to other resistance movements in Occupied Europe.

Ibarra, Pedro, Objeción e insumisión, claves ideológicas y sociales, Madrid, Fundamentos, 1992, pp. 319

This collective work analyzes the origins and early stages of conscientious objection and insumision in Spain, its ideological debates and evolution. It includes an analysis of the national and international political context, a chapter on alternative civilian service in the Federal Republic of Germany, and a guide to becoming an objector.

Ighe, Ann ; Papp, Réka Kinga ; Potter, Claire ; Drakulić, Slavenka, Where to for #MeToo?, Eurozine, 2018

An account of the possible development of the #MeToo movement from four different perspectives. It analyses the need to explore the nature and consequences of power as a primordial factor influencing response to sexual harassment; the work-based campaigns in Sweden; the development of the #MeToo movement in Hungary; and the varying nature of the movement in different parts of Europe with particular emphasis on the distinction between West and East.

Ihonvbere, Julius O., Where is the Third Wave? A Critical Evaluation of Non-Transitions to Democracy, Africa Today, Vol. 43, no. 4 (Oct-Dec), 1996, pp. 343-377

ILGA: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition, [2006], Geneva, ILGA, 2016, pp. 193

Provides global overview of LGB legislation and country-by-country summary of states that still criminalize same-sex acts between consenting adults in private. Published annually since 2006.

Ilic, Vladimir, Otpor – In or Beyond Politics, Helsinki Files No. 5, Belgrade, Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, 2001

Similar material is contained in: Ilic, Vladimir , Otpor - An Organization in Action , 2002, pp. 54 .

Ilic, Vladimir, Otpor - An Organization in Action, 2002, pp. 54

Impastato, Giovanni ; Vassia, Franco, Resistere A Mafiopoli. La Storia Di Mio Fratello Peppino Impastato, Viterbo, Stampa Alternativa, 2009, pp. 127

The story, narrated by his brother, of one of the most iconic figure of the anti-mafia struggle, Peppino Impastato, who revolted against the patriarchal structure of his family, went against his father who belonged to the Sicilian mafia organisation and ignited an anti-mafia culture and actions at the cost of his own life.

Index on Censorship, Index on Censorship, Vol. 9, No 1, Feburary, London, Index on Censorship, 1980

This issue is largely dedicated to dissent in China.

Ingold, Tim, The Skolt Lapps Today, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1976, pp. 290

Primary focus on Saami in Finland. Study of reservation resettled due to boundary changes with USSR after 1945, looking at ecological imbalances, links to government and debates about future. But also notes influence of broader Nordic movement and its different approaches (conservative defence of Lapp culture, or left focus on neocolonialism). Chapter 21 examines the evolution of the wider Saami movement and inter-Nordic conferences (pp. 235-44).

International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), ; ICF, National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16: India, Mumbai, IIPS, 2017, pp. 637

A large scale survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. It reports that 30% percent of women aged 15-49 in India have experienced physical violence since age 15, amongst many other forms of violence or discrimination, and the social context that makes it difficult to challenge. The National Family Health Survey 2018-2019 is yet to be published.

International Peace Research Association, ; Research Institute, International Peace, Bulletin of Peace Proposals, ed. International Peace Research Association, , Research Institute, International Peace, no.4, Vol. 9, Oslo and Boston MA, Universitetsforlaget, 1978

Issue devoted to reconsideration of nonviolent defence with contributions by leading exponents, including Sharp, Roberts and Galtung, and articles on its role in Sweden’s Total Defence strategy, and on a Dutch government research project.

Iricibar, Valentina, Campaigners demand action after January surge in femicide, Buenos Aires Times, 2019

Report on the initiative of the Argentinian feminist organisation ‘Mujeres de la Matria Latinoamericana’ (MuMaLá) to call on the government to declare a national emergency after 27 confirmed femicides occurred between January and February 2019. The organisation has also submitted a petition highlighting the educational and legislative steps to take in order to reduce this form of violence. 

Irvine, Jill, From Civil Society to Civil Servants: Women’s Organizations and Critical Elections in Croatia, Politics and Gender, Vol. 3, no. 1 (March), 2007, pp. 7-32

Irwin, Colin, The People’s Peace Process in Northern Ireland, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, pp. 326

Discusses the lessons learned from the negotiations leading to the Good Friday Agreement. Describes how opinion polls were used by politicians to explore what compromises their supporters might accept.

Isakhan, Benjamin ; Mansouri, Fethi ; Akbarzadeh, Shahram, The Arab Revolutions in Context: Civil Society and Democracy in a Changing Middle East, ed. Isakhan, Benjamin, Mansouri, Fethi, Akbarzadeh, Shahram, Carlton, Melbourne University Press, 2012, pp. 184

Isaksson, Eva, Women and the Military System, ed. Isaksson, Eva, Brighton, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1988, pp. 455

Ischenko, Volodymyr, Interview: Ukraine's Fractures, New Left Review, no. 87 (May/June), 2014

Assessment by a Marxist sociologist in Ukraine who demonstrated in 2000 against the Kuchma regime. Topics include: the role of the far right in Euromaidan (he argues that an organised and effective minority was promoting nationalist slogans); the changing of the social composition of protesters; the interim goverment; the cultural roots of the eastern Ukrainian uprisings for independence, and the election of President Poroshenko.

Ishkanian, Armine, Democracy Building in Post-Soviet Armenia, London, Routledge, 2008, pp. 206

Critical assessment of western support for civil society groups, noting that it can create a backlash and needs to be considered in the historical, social and cultural context of the country involved. Also makes comparisons with other post-Soviet states.

Isichei, Elizabeth, A History of Nigeria, London, Longman, 1983, pp. 517

Ch. 17 ‘Colonialism rejected’ (pp. 396-412) examines workers’ and women’s protests and growing nationalism from the 1920s to 1950.

Isodoros, Konstantina, Awakening Protests in Morocco and the Western Sahara, In Manji; Ekine, African Awakening: The Emerging Revolutions (E. I.2.3. Third Wave of Protests: 2011 -), Cape Town, Dakar, Nairobi and Oxford, Pambazuka Press (imprint of Fahamu), pp. 122-129

Israel, Adrienne M., Ex-Servicemen at the Crossroads: Protest and Politics in Post-War Ghana, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 30, no. 2, 1992, pp. 359-368

A trigger incident in 1948 was when armed police opened fire on an ex-servicemen’s march about unpaid benefits, killing three.

Ivanitz, Michele, Democracy and Indigenous Self-Determination, ed. Carter, April, Stokes, Geoffrey, In Carter, April ; Stokes, Geoffrey , Democratic Theory Today: Challenges for the 21st Century Cambridge, Polity, , 2002, pp. 307, pp. 121-148

Compares Australia and Canada

Jackson, Julian, Living in Arcadia: Homosexuality, Politics and Morality in France from the Liberation to AIDS, Chicago IL, University of Chicago Press, 2009, pp. 336

Account of the French ‘homophile’ organization Arcadie.

Jackson, Mandi Isaacs, Harlem’s Rent Strike and Rat War: Representation, Housing Access and Tenant Resistance in New York 1938-1964, American Studies, Vol. 47, no. 1, 2006, pp. 53-71

Jackson, Ross, Occupy World Street: A Global Roadmap of Radical Economic and Political Reform, Vermont VT, Chelsea Green Publishing, 2012, pp. 336

The chair of the Danish-based Gaia Trust advocates return to smaller decentralised communities with a more sustainable life style.

Jacobsson, Kerstin ; Saxonberg, Steven, Social Movements in Post-Communist Europe and Russia, London, Routledge, 2015, pp. 128

Examines social movement strategies and how they differ to fit national circumstances and considers activism related to the environment and sustainability, animal rights, human rights, women’s rights and gay rights. Reconceptualizes the relationship between state and civil society under post-communism. Based on special issue of East European Politics.

James, C.I.R., Nkrumah 
and the Ghana Revolution, London, Alison and Busby, 1977, pp. 227

Frequent references to strikes and nonviolent resistance. See especially ch. 7, ‘Positive action’.

James, William, The Moral Equivalent of War, 1906

a short essay arguing the need for alternatives to military methods and emotions associated with war, later reproduced as a pamphlet and in anthologies

Jancar, Barbara, The New Feminism in Yugoslavia, ed. Ramet, Pedro, Martin, Chris, Hopken, Wolfgang, In Ramet, Pedro ; Martin, Chris ; Hopken, Wolfgang , Yugoslavia in the 1980s Boulder CO, Westview Press, , 1985, pp. 354,

Jancar-Webster, Barbara, Environmental Action in Eastern Europe: Response to Crisis, Armonk NY, M.E. Sharpe, 1993, pp. 256

Jankovic, Bojan ; Jankovic, Vesna, Resisting the Evil: [Post-]Yugoslav Anti-War Contention, ed. Jankovic, Bojan, Jankovic, Vesna, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2012

Jasper, James M., The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp. 514

Takes up the challenge that ‘most academic theories of social movements are not prepared to explain the full range of protest goals and activities, especially those of privileged rather than oppressed citizens’, specifically drawing on the US environmental, anti-nuclear energy, and animals rights movements.

Jawad, Pamela, Democratic Consolidation in Georgia after the “Rose Revolution”?, PRIF Reports No. 73, Frankfurt Main, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, 2005, pp. 48

Jay, Karla ; Young, Allen, Out of the Closet: Voices of Gay Liberation, ed. Flam, Helena, New York, New York University Press, 1997, pp. 367

Views and experiences of US activists and their assessment of how much or little had changed since Stonewall.

Jayaram, N., Frenzied argument in India , OpenDemocracy.net, 2011

Article written at peak of Hazare movement, noting the divided views on the movement and criticisms of it, including the dangers of ‘messianic campaigns’ for parliamentary democracy.

Jaywardina, Kumari, Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World, London, Zed Press (Third World Books), 1986, pp. 288

Study of women’s rights movements in Middle East and Asia from 19th century to 1980s, covering Egypt and Turkey, China, India, Indonesia, Korea and the Philippines. Argues feminism was not an alien ideology but indigenous to these countries.

Jeffrey-Poulter, Stephen, Peers, Queers and Commons: The Struggle for Gay Law Reform from 1950 to the Present, London, Routledge, 1991, pp. 320

Detailed account of post-war gay movement using contemporary newspaper reports, articles and letters.

Jenkins, Craig, The Politics of Insurgency: The Farm Workers Movement in the 1960s, New York, Columbia University Press, 1985, pp. 261

Jenkins, Rob, Democracy, Development and India’s Struggle Against Corruption, Public Policy Research, Vol. 3, no. 3 (Sep-Dec), 2006, pp. 155-163

Jenkins, Rob, Civil Society versus Corruption in India, ed. Ganguly, Sumit, Diamond, Larry, Plattner, Marc F., In Ganguly, Sumit ; Diamond, Larry ; Plattner, Marc F., The State of India's Democracy Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, , 2007, pp. 264, pp. 161-167

Jenkins, Rob ; Goetz, Anne Marie, Accounts and Accountability: Theoretical Implications of the Right-to-Information Movement in India, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, no. 3, 1999, pp. 603-622

Examination of the grass roots work of the MKSS in developing campaign for right to information as part of their wider campaigning and their use of jan sunwals (public hearings) in communities where official documents regarding public works, anti-poverty programmes etc. are read out and people are encouraged to add their own testimony about diversion of funds and fraud. The article also covers the MKSS use of public protest, such as a 52 day sit-in in the capital of Rajasthan, Jaipur, in 1997. See also:  Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, Right to Information. State Level: Rajasthan [2005] , 2005 . Brief elaboration and update on work of MKSS and Right to Information Acts up to 2005.

Jensen, Derrick ; Keith, Lierre, Earth at Risk: Building a Resistance Movement, ed. Jancar-Webster, Barbara, Crescent City CA, Flashpoint Press, 2012, pp. 288

Jezer, Marty, Where Do We Go From Here? Tactics and Strategies for the Peace Movement, New York, A.J. Muste Institute, 1984, pp. 74

Answers by range of peace activists to questions about the future of the movement, including whether it should focus on the arms race or more broadly on US foreign policy, its relationship to electoral politics, the role of civil disobedience and issues related to feminist separatism.

Jianrong, Yu, Social Conflict in Rural China, China Security, Vol. 3, no. 2 (spring), 2007, pp. 2-17

Jika, Thanduxolo ; Mosamo, Sebabatso ; Sadiki, Leon ; Saba, Athandiwe ; Ledwaba, Lucas ; Dlangamandla, Felix, We Are Going to Kill Each Other Today: The Marikana Story, Cape Town, Cape Town, Tafelberg, 2013, pp. 256

Account by City Press reporters and photographers, supplemented by edited evidence from official Enquiry, and including analyses of labour migration.

Jimenez, Manuel, Mobilizing Against the Iraq War in Spain: Background, Participants and Electoral Implications, ed. Yukich, Grace, Ortiz, David, McVeigh, Rory, Myers, Dan, South European Society and Politics, Vol. 12, no. 3, 2007, pp. 399-420

Jimenez, Manuel, The Environmental Movement in Spain. A Growing Source of Contention, (Special Issue on ‘New and Alternative Movements in Spain), South European Society and Politics, Vol. 12, no. 3, 2007, pp. 359-378

Jimenez, Manuel, Southern European Environmental Movements in Comparative Perspective, ed. Jensen, Derrick, Keith, Lierre, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 51, no. 1 (July), 2008, pp. 1627-1647

Jing, Jun, Environmental Protest in Rural China, In Perry; Selden, Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance (C. II.1.d. China Since 1990), London, Routledge, pp. 198-214

Discusses protest through letters, petitions, law suits and sometimes demonstrations and sabotage, against pollution, soil erosion, contaminated water, etc.

Jivani, Alkarim, Its Not Unusual: History of Lesbian and Gay Britain in the 20th Century, ed. Hekma, Gert, Oosterhuis, Harry, Bloomington IN, Indiana University Press, 1997, pp. 224

Looks briefly at early 20th century, focusing on celebrities. But based primarily on interviews with 36 lesbians and gay men and covers changing social and legal contexts of World War Two, 1950s, 1960s-70s and emergence of gay liberation, and setbacks of HIV/AIDS and Section 28 in the 1980s.

Jochheim, Gernot, Die Gewaltfreie Aktion. Ideen und Methoden, Vorbilder und Wirkungen, Hamburg, Rausch und Roehrig, 1984, pp. 334

A general description of nonviolent action, its ideas, methods and effects.

Jochheim, Gernot, Frauenprotest in der Rosenstrasse. Berlin 1943. Bericht, Dokumente. Hintergründe, Berlin, Hentrich and Hentrich, 2002, pp. 223

Study of important and rare example of open protest against Gestapo, by German wives demanding release of their German Jewish husbands who had been arrested.

Analyses the role of international funding in episodes of 'people power'.

Johansen, Jørgen, External Financing of opposition movements, In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), London, Pluto Press, pp. 198-205

Critical assessment of external financing in historical perspective.

Johns, Rebecca ; Vural, Leyla, Class, Geography and the Consumerist Turn: UNITE and the Stop Sweatshops Campaign, Economic Geography, Vol. 74, 2000, pp. 252-271

Johnson, Bryant, The Four Days of Courage: The Untold Story of the People Who Brought Marcos Down, New York, Free Press, 1987, pp. 290

Emphasis on role of military and Catholic Church.

Johnson, Douglas A., Confronting Corporate Power: Strategies and Phases of the Nestle Boycott, Research in Corporate Social Policy and Performance, Vol. 8, 1986, pp. 323-344

Johnson, Richard L., Essential Writings by and about Mahatma Gandhi, ed. Johnson, Richard L., Lanham MD, Lexington Books, 2005, pp. 408

Selected key texts from Gandhi with essays by Judith Brown, Richard Falk, Michael Nagler, Glenn Paige, Bhiku Parekh and others.

Johnston, Hank, Tales of Nationalism: Catalonia, 1939-1979, New Jersery, Rutgers University Press, 1991, pp. 261

Much-cited in the social movement literature on ‘framing’, Johnston analyses the contribution of resistant sub-cultures under Francoism to the eventual resurgence of Catalan opposition.

Johnston, Hank, States & Social Movements, Cambridge, Polity, 2011, pp. 230

Johnston edited the journal Mobilization 1996-2007. Chapters on protest both in contemporary democracies and repressive states, on revolutions, and on globalization.

Johnston, Hank ; Mueller, Carol, Unobtrusive Practices of Contention in Leninist Regimes, Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 44, no. 3 (Fall), 2002, pp. 351-375

Examines three different forms of resistance: oblique spoken criticism; using officially approved organisations to promote muted collective opposition; and more open ‘dissidence’ – petitions, open letters, samizdat and contacting foreign press. (See also Johnston, States & Social Movements (A. 6. Nonviolent Action and Social Movements) , ch. 4.)

Jones, Brian Christophe, Law and Politics of the Taiwan Sunflower and Hong Kong Umbrella Movements, London, Routledge, 2017, pp. 236

Comparison of the Umbrella Movement with the Sunflower Movement in Taiwan is relevant for a number of reasons. Taiwan is under pressure to move closer to China, and although it is politically more independent than Hong Kong, the Taiwanese government since 2010 has entered into a close trading relationship with China, making it economically more dependent. Moreover, many smaller Taiwanese businesses have suffered. The protests occurred between 18 March and 10 April 2014 and took the form of an occupation of the legislature, which spiraled into a mass occupation of the surrounding district. Young people, who feel distinctively Taiwanese rather than Chinese, were prominent in the occupation, but it included a wide section of the population (an estimated 500,000 taking part at one point) and many others gave food, water and money to the demonstrators.

This book includes contributions from a range of distinguished scholars from Hong Kong, Taiwan and other parts of Asia who explore, in particular, issues relating to democracy, the rule of law and freedom of speech. Contributors also discuss the legal and political implications of mass occupation as a protest tactic and seek to draw lessons for the future.

Jones, Lynne, Keeping the Peace, London, The Women's Press, 1983, pp. 162

Gives transnational examples of women's peace activism.

Jones, Stephen, The Rose Revolution: A Revolution without Revolutionaries?, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 9, no. 1, 2006, pp. 33-48

Argues that the role of civil society bodies was important, but not vital. He suggests that key factors were popular attitudes to the ideal of Europe, the impact of the global economy, the appeal of western models and the implications of the soviet legacy. See also Jones, Stephen , Georgia’s ‘Rose Revolution’ of 2003: Enforcing Peaceful Change In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)New York, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 317-334 .

Joppke, Christian, Mobilizing Against Nuclear Energy: A Comparison of Germany and the United States, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 307

Joppke, Christian, East German Dissidents and the Revolution of 1989: Social Movements in a Leninist Regime, New York, New York University Press, 1995, pp. 277

Joseph, Richard, Africa: The Rebirth of Political Freedom, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, no. 1 (Fall), 1991, pp. 11-25

Joseph, Richard, Conflict and Democracy in Africa, ed. Joseph, Richard, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 1999, pp. 527

Wide-ranging collection of comparative essays on democratic transitions, the state and economic and social factors. Considers developments since the early 1990s and degrees of democracy achieved (in Benin and Zambia), continuing obstacles to democracy and ‘second elections’.

Journal of Peasant Studies, Green Grabbing – a New Appropriation of Nature?, Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 39, no. 2 (Special Issue), 2012, pp. 237-617

Prints papers from international conference: The Land Deal Politics Initiative, (convenor of) ‘The Second International Academic Conference on Land Grabbing’ , Cornell University, 17-19 October 2012.

Jovanovich, Milja, Rage Against the Regime: the OTPOR Movement in Serbia, In von Tongeren, Paul ; Brenk, Malin ; Hellema, Marte ; Verhoeven, Juliette , People Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, , 2005, pp. 695, pp. 545-551

Joya, Malalai, Raising My Voice: Story of the Afghan Woman Who Spoke Out, London, Rider, 2010, pp. 288

Explores life of young woman who secretly ran schools for girls in Herat during Taliban rule, was elected to the Afghan parliament in 2005 at the age of 23, but was thrown out of it for raising women’s issues, and who had by 2009 already survived five assassination attempts. When she visited Britain in 2009, where she opposed NATO involvement in Afghanistan, the Independent ran a long interview with her:  Hari, Johann , Malalai Joya: The woman who will not be silenced The Independent, 28/07/2009, pp. 1-5 .

Jumbala, Prudhisan ; Mitprasat, Maneerat, Non-governmental Development Organisations: Empowerment and the Environment, In Hewison, Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation (E. II.10.a. Demanding Democracy 1973 and 1992), London, Routledge, pp. 195-216

Analysis of two case studies in Thailand: the Raindrops Association encouraging villagers to resuscitate the natural environment; and the opposition to planned Kaeng Krung Dam.

Junes, Tom, Students Take Bulgaria’s Protests to the Next Level. Can They Break the Political Stalemate?, Transit. Europaische Revue, no. 44, 2013

Useful and well referenced analysis of student phase of protests, in context of earlier student protests in 1997 and wider national demonstrations in 2013.

Jung, Kim Dae, Interview: Democracy and dissidence in South Korea, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 8, no. 2, 1985, pp. 181-192

Kim Dae Jung had been a leading figure in the Democratic Opposition of South Korea since 1971, when he ran for president against the dictator Park Chung Hee, was imprisoned and then exiled. He gave this interview in November 1984, setting out his policies and hopes, when planning to return to join in the struggle against the dictatorship.

Kalandadze, Katya ; Orenstein, Mitchel, Electoral Protests and Democratization: Beyond the Color Revolutions, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 42, no. 11 (November), 2009, pp. 1403-1425

Sceptical assessment of role of popular protest in achieving genuine democratic change.

Kaldor, Mary, Le Nuove Guerre. La Violenza Organizzata Nell’Eta’ Globale, Roma, Edizioni Carocci, 2001, pp. 188

By examining the wars in Rwanda, in the former Yugoslavia, across the Middle East and in the former Soviet Union, Kaldor discusses the elements and dynamics of structural violence that determined the nature of these wars. She argues that these wars were predominantly determined by military and criminal factors, as well as by the presence of an illegal economy and human rights’ violations. She also argues that the underlying causes of these conflicts lie in the relationship between military and civilian victims, and in the changed perception of threat by the Western powers.

Kalland, Arne ; Persoon, Gerard, Environmental Movements in Asia, London and New York, Routledge, 1999, pp. 297

Includes campaigns against logging, tree plantations, factories and tourist facilities and in defence of nature reserves. Argues environmentalism in Asia has a local focus and is often a form of cultural and political protests where overt political opposition is too dangerous.

Kaltefleiter, Werner ; Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Peace Movements in Europe and the United States, London, Croom Helm, 1985, pp. 211

Essays arising out of May 1984 conference at the Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, on peace movements in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, West Germany, France, Italy, Britain and the US. Focus is on the anti-nuclear movements of the 1980s, though some contributors sketch the earlier history of movements in their countries.

Kaminer, Reuven, The Politics of Protest: The Israeli Peace Movement and the Palestinian Intifada, Brighton, Sussex Academic Press, 1996, pp. 248

Veteran Israeli leftist explores relations between moderates and militants, and gives special emphasis to rise of an autonomous women’s movement, especially Women in Black and their weekly vigils. With glossary of political parties and groups.

Kandelaki, Giorgi, Georgia’s Rose Revolution: A Participant’s Perspective, Special Report no. 167, Washington DC, US Institute of Peace, 2006, pp. 12

Account by student leader and founder of Kmara. Discusses background of Shevardnadze regime, comments on why protesters and the government avoided violence, assesses role of internal media (especially Rustavi-2) and argues that the role of foreign support was limited by lack of information and by caution. Summary and full report available online.

Kandil, Hazem, Mubarak’s Overthrow, New Left Review, no. 68 (March/April), 2011, pp. 17-56

Interview in which Kandil analyses the revolt brewing under the surface and the role of six distinct groups, the nature of the Mubarak regime, the events of the first month of revolution and prospects for the future.

Kandil, Hazem, Soldiers, Spies and Statesmen: Egypt’s Road to Revolt, London, Verso, 2012, pp. 256

Analysis by political sociologist depicting the revolt as a power struggle between the military, the security services and the political leadership in the context of the previous six decades. Challenges the widespread assumption that after the popular rebellion the military continued to control the political developments.

Kantor, Jodi ; Twohey, Meg, She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story that Helped Ignite a Movement, London, Bloomsbury Circus, 2019, pp. 336

Widely reviewed and recommended account by the two journalists who wrote the New York Times article that exposed and documented Harvey Weinstein’s systematic abuse of women actors and employees over decades. The book reveals the unfolding story they uncovered, exposes in detail the mechanisms of power that silenced many women, and reveals those who resisted these pressures. The second part of the book covers the Senate hearings for Trump’s Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanagh and Blasey Ford’s accusation against him.

Kaplan, John, The Court Martial of the Kaohsiung Defendants, Berkeley CA, Berkeley University Press, 1981, pp. 79

Kapur, Sudarshan, Raising up a Prophet: The African American Encounter with Gandhi, Beacon, Beacon Press, 1992, pp. 222

Kapuscinski, Ryszard, Shah of Shahs, [1985], London, Penguin Books, 2006, pp. 152

Celebrated analysis by distinguished Polish journalist of later years of Shah’s regime and meditation on power, the role of fear and the nature of revolution.

Karis, Thomas ; Carter, Gwendolen M. ; Gerhart, Gail M. ; Glaser, Clive L., From Protest to Challenge: Documents of African Politics in South Africa 1882-1990, ed. Karis, Thomas, Carter, Gwendolen M., Gerhart, Gail M., Glaser, Clive L., [1973], 2010 6 volumes,

– a six-volume series. Notably vol. 2, ‘Hope and Challenge, 1935-1952’, Thomas Karis, ed., 1973, pp. 550; vol 3, ‘Challenge and Violence, 1953-1964’, 1987, pp. 845; vol. 5, ‘Nadir and Resurgence, 1964-1979’, Thomas G. Karis and Gail M. Gerhart, eds., 1997, pp. 840; vol 6, ‘Challenge and Victory’, Gail M. Gerhart and Clive L. Glaser, 2010, pp. 816. ‘Combines narrative with a wealth of primary source material.’

Karol, K. S., Visa for Poland, London, MacGibbon and Kee, 1959, pp. 259

Account by a Polish journalist (who left in 1949) of the evolution of destalinization from above and demands for democratization from below in 1955-56, and the October 1956 revolution. Karol explains the background context of Poland’s wartime experiences and the Communist seizure of power and in Part Two assesses Poland a year after October 1956.

Karumidze, Zurab ; Wertsch, James V., Enough! The Rose Revolution in the Republic of Georgia, ed. Karumidze, Zurab, Wertsch, James V., New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2005, pp. 143

Features interviews with a number of Georgian political figures. Most of the contents are reproduced from the Spring 2004 issue of Caucasus Context.

Kasian, Tejapira, Toppling Thaksin, New Left Review, no. 39 (May/June), 2006, pp. 5-37

Analyses social and political context and mounting opposition up to April 2006.

Katerini, Tonia, Organising to Survive, Red Pepper, no. Dec/Jan, 2013, pp. 43-45

Examines scale of crisis created in Greece by austerity programme and the growing movement Solidarity for All (promoted by the left coalition Syriza) creating support networks supplying food, health, education, cultural activity and legal advice, and setting up informal exchanges of goods and services.

Katz, Milton, Ban the Bomb: A History of SANE, the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1986, pp. 215

SANE was founded in the US in 1957 to campaign against nuclear tests, but also to draw attention to wider dangers of the arms race. Its emphasis was on public appeals, lobbying in Washington and backing peace candidates in the 1962 primaries, and its support was mainly from intellectuals and some business people; students tended to support more radical groups and nonviolent direct action against tests and bases was carried out by groups like the Committee for Nonviolent Action.

Katz, Steven ; Mayer, Margit, Gimme shelter: Self-help Housing Struggles within and against the State in New York City and West Berlin, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 9, no. 1, 1985, pp. 15-47

Kaufman, Edy, The Role of the political parties in the redemocratization of Uruguay, In Sosnowski, Saul ; Popkin, Louise B., Repression, Exile and Democracy: Uruguayan Culture Durham NC, Duke University Press, , 1993, pp. 272, pp. 17-58

Includes references to role of ‘truly peaceful resistance’ in 1983.

Kaufman, Edy ; Salem, Walid ; Verhoeven, Juliette, Bridging the Divide: Peacebuilding in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, ed. Kaufman, Edy, Salem, Walid, Verhoeven, Juliette, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 2006, pp. 230

Includes chapter by Mohammed Abu Nimer, ‘Nonviolent Action is Israel and Palestine: A Growing Force’ (pp. 135-171) and others on the role of civil society and NGOs in both Israel and Palestine. Also profiles of a range of Israeli and Palestinian organizations.

Kaunda, Kenneth, Zambia Shall Be Free, London, Heinemann, 1962, pp. 202

Kaunda, KennethMorris, Colin, On Violence, ed. Morris, Colin, London, Collins, 1980, pp. 184

Kaunda, President of Zambia and an advocate of nonviolence, wrestles with problems of violence and nonviolence, giving his reasons for ultimately accepting the case for armed struggle in neighbouring Zimbabwe.

Kavan, Jan ; Tomin, Zdena, Voices from Prague: Documents on Czechoslovakia and the Peace Movement, London, Palach Press, 1982, pp. 75

See also: Sormova, Ruth ; Neubarova, Michaela ; Kavan, Jan , Czechoslovakia’s Nonviolent Revolution In Martin, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)London, War Resisters' International, 1991, pp. 36-41

Keck, Margaret ; Sikkink, Kathryn, Activists Across Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 1998, pp. 240

Kecskemeti, Paul, The Unexpected Revolution: Social Forces in the Hungarian Uprising, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 1961, pp. 178

Kedzior, Sya Buryn ; Leonard, Liam, Occupy the Earth: Global Environmental Movements, ed. Kalland, Arne, Persoon, Gerard, Bingley, Emerald Publishing Group, 2014, pp. 275

Covers range of environmental campaigns in different parts of the world, including Ireland, France, Israel, Japan, India and Indonesia.

Keith, Michael ; Pile, Steven, Geographies of Resistance, ed. Keith, Michael, Pile, Steven, London, Routledge, 1997, pp. 336

Kelliher, Diarmaid, Solidarity and Sexuality: Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners 1984-5, History Workshop Journal, Vol. 77, no. 1 (spring), 2014, pp. 240-262

Among the many groups that sprang up to offer financial support and solidarity to the miners was the London- based Lesbian and Gays Support the Miners. This article charts support offered by LGSM and discusses wider implications for the movement on the left.

Kelly, Cara ; Hegarty, Aaron, #MeToo was a culture shock. But changing laws will take more than a year, USA Today, 2018

A comprehensive article exploring the legislative advances and what is yet to be accomplished in the US one year after the emergence of the #MeToo movement and #TimeIsUp campaigns.

Kelly, Kathy, Other Lands Have Dreams: From Baghdad to Pekin Prison, Petrolia CA, Counterpunch, 2006, pp. 173

Kelly participated in the Gulf Peace Team and later co-founded Voices in the Wilderness, breaking sanctions against Iraq. See also: ‘Kathy Kelly and Milan Rai, ‘Voices in the Wilderness: Campaigning against Sanctions on Iraq 1995-2005’, in Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) , pp.143-49.

Kelly, Petra K. ; Bastian, Gert ; Aillo, Pat, The Anguish of Tibet, ed. Kelly, Petra K., Bastian, Gert, Aillo, Pat, Berkeley CA, Parallax Press, 1991, pp. 382

Selection of documents and personal accounts, including eyewitness reports on demonstrations in Lhasa in 1988 and 1989.

Kelsey, Kim, Set in Bronze: Examining the Women’s Movements and the Politics of Comfort Women Memorialization , UCLA Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2018

After decades of silence, many surviving ‘comfort women’ – sex slaves for the Imperial Japanese Army in World War Two - have publicly come forward to demand justice through apologies and reparations. The Japanese government has continued to deny responsibility. In response, supporters of ‘comfort women’ have created public memorials throughout the world, particularly in the US. These memorials have led to Japanese diplomatic intervention and demands for their removal, sparking a battle for recognition in the public sphere. This thesis explores the ‘comfort women’ movement and the controversy surrounding the memorials, reexamining these memorials as a form of recognition, reparations and reconciliation.

The thesis can be accessed here https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5h71r542#article_main

Kem, Vera, What do Europeans consider sexual harassment?, DW, 2017

Kem discusses a survey showing how attitudes to social harassment vary across Europe, and also how EU countries have different laws and punishments for harassment.  Notes that although the Council of Europe Istanbul Convention of 2011 prohibiting violence against women has been ratified by many West European states (though not by Germany until 2017), legal provisions, and in particular reporting rates, vary between countries.  France provides for a fine of up to 30,000 euros and two years in prison, or in the case of harassment by a work superior up to three years in prison.

Kennedy, Paul ; Barker, Colin, To Make Another World: Studies in Protest and Collective Action, Aldershot, Avebury Press, 1996

Kennedy, Scott, The Druze of the Golan: A Case of Nonviolent Resistance, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 13, no. 2, 1984, pp. 48-64

Account widely reprinted (including in both Crow, Ralph E.; Grant, Philip ; Ibrahim, Saad E., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, , 1990, pp. 129 , and Stephan, Civilian Jihad: Nonviolent Struggle, Democratization, and Governance in the Middle East (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) , (above) of the (Syrian) Druze resistance to incorporation into Israel after the occupation of the Golan Heights in 1967.

Kenney, Padraic, A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989, 352, Princeton NJ, Princetown University Press, 2003

Youthful personal impressions combined with later historical research on Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Slovenia. Especially strong on the playful resistance of groups such as the Orange Alternative in Wroclaw.

Kenyatta, Jomo, Suffering Without Bitterness: The Founding of the Kenya Nation, Nairobi, East Africa Publishing House, 1968, pp. 348

Kerr, Michael ; Knudsen, Are, Lebanon: After the Cedar Revolution, London, C. Hurst, 2012, pp. 256

Covers Lebanon since the mass movement in response to Hariri’s assassination, covering the role of Hizbollah and other political groupings.

Kerssen, Tanya, Grabbing Power: The New Struggles for Land, Food and Democracy in Northern Honduras, ed. Journal of Peasant Studies, , Oakland CA, Food First Books, 2013, pp. 188

This book covers the popular resistance that has developed in the towns since the coup in 2009, but especially in the Bajo Aguan valley, where peasants who are contesting their dispossession from their land since 1992 by the Dinant Corporation and other large landowners promoting palm oil plantations, are staging large scale occupations of land. The area has a large military presence and special forces are implicated in killing local activists.

Kerton, Sarah, Tahrir Here? The influence of the Arab Uprisings on the emergence of Occupy, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social Cultural and Political Protest, Vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 302-308

Keyes, Gene, Peacekeeping by Unarmed Buffer Forces: Precedents and Proposals, Peace and Change, Vol. 5, no. 2/3, 1978, pp. 3-10

Keyes, Gene, Strategic nonviolent defense: The construct of an option, Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 4, no. 2 (June), 1981, pp. 125-151

Khagram, Sanjeev, Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 2004, pp. 288

Focused particularly on the controversy over the major Narmada River dam projects, but also provides comparative perspective by considering dam projects in Brazil, China, Indonesia, South Africa and Lesotho, where the World Bank and other lenders were persuaded to withdraw funding.

Khagram, Sanjeev ; Riker, James V. ; Sikkink, Kathryn, Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks and Norms, Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, 2002

See also: Khagram, ‘Restructuring the Global Politics of Development: The Case of India’s Narmada Valley Dams’, pp. 206-30; and Smitu, Kothari, ‘Globalization, Global Alliances and the Narmada Movement’, pp. 231-44.

Khalidi, Rashid, The uprising and the Palestinian question, World Policy Journal, Vol. 5, no. 3 (summer), 1988, pp. 497-517

Khan-Cullors, Patrisse ; Bandele, Asha, When They Call You a Terrorist: A Black Lives Matter Memoir, New York, NY, St. Martin Press, 2018, pp. 257

When They Call You A Terrorist is the story of Patrisse Khan-Cullors, one of the co-founders of the Black Lives Matter movement. It collects her reflections on humanity, on her life and activism since early age, her brother’s first-hand experience with police brutality, and on the founding of a movement for racial justice and its development during the Trump era.

Kidron, Peretz, Refusenik!: Israel’s Soldiers of Conscience, ed. Kidron, Peretz, London, Zed Books, 2004, pp. 160

Documents from the soldiers’ resistance to the Lebanon War, the First Intifada and the Second Intifada.

Kimber, Richard ; Richardson, J.J., Campaigning for the Environment, London, Routledge, 1974, pp. 238

Case studies of a range of environmental conflicts in Britain over urban development, water supply, power lines, M4 motorway, juggernaut lorries, the Cublington airport campaign, and the genesis of the Clean Air Act. Focus on pressure groups.

King, Coretta Scott, Martin Luther, King, Il Sogno Della Nonviolenza. Pensieri, [1983], Milano, Edizione Feltrinelli, 2006, pp. 117

In this book, Coretta Scott King collects a series of extracts on Dr. King’s views on issues such as racism, justice, civil rights, freedom, religion, nonviolence and peace. She also includes some of her husband’s major speeches.

King, Martin Luther, Stride Towards Freedom: The Montgomery Story, London, Victor Gollanez, 1958, pp. 216

Account of year-long 1955 bus boycott which heralded a new stage of nonviolent direct action against segregation and launched King’s leadership.

King, Martin Luther, Letter from Birmingham City Jail, Philadelphia PA, American Friends Service Committee, 1963, pp. 15

Answer to critics during the major campaign to desegregate Birmingham Alabama. President Kennedy intervened to get King released.

King, Martin Luther, Why We Can’t Wait, New York, Harper and Row, 1963, pp. 159

Answer to white leaders urging less militant confrontation and greater patience.

King, Mary Elizabeth, Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, New York, William Morrow, 1987, pp. 592

Insider account by white woman working in SNCC office. Meticulously detailed, with extensive quotes from key documents.

King, Mary Elizabeth, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr: The Power of Nonviolent Action, Paris, UNESCO, 1999, pp. 539

2nd edition New Delhi, Indian Council for Cultural Relations and Mehta Publishers, 2002, pp. 520.

King, Mary Elizabeth, A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and a Strategy for Nonviolent Resistance, New York, Nation Books, 2007, pp. 304

Argues that the First Intifada represented a mass nonviolent mobilization in which women played a significant role, and looks at the global history of nonviolent resistance to suggest that nonviolent strategies are the way to achieve a just peace. See also King, Mary Elizabeth, Palestine: Nonviolent Resistance in the Struggle for Statehood, 1920s-2012 In Bartkowski, Recovering Nonviolent History: Civil Resistance in Liberation Struggles (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 2013, pp. 161-180 .

King, Mary Elizabeth, Gandhian Nonviolent Struggle and Untouchability in South India: The 1924-25 Vykom Satyagraha and the Mechanisms of Change, India, Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 312

Revisionary analysis of Gandhi’s 608 day campaign to secure right of untouchables to use road by a Brahmin temple, challenging claims in earlier accounts that a solution was reached because the Brahmins were ‘converted’. The author criticises both Gandhi’s belief that self-imposed suffering can convert the opponent and his leadership of this campaign.

King, Mary Elizabeth ; Miller, Christopher A., Nonviolent Transformation of Conflict, Addis Ababa, University for Peace Africa Programme, 2006, pp. 140

King, Peter, Australia’s Vietnam: Australia in the Second Indo-China War, Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1983

King, Peter, West Papua and Indonesia Since Suharto: Independence, Autonomy or Chaos?, Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 2004, pp. 240

King, Peter ; Elmslie, Jim ; Webb-Gannon, Camellia, Comprehending West Papua, ed. King, Peter, Elmslie, Jim, Webb-Gannon, Camellia, Sydney, Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies (CPACS), 2011, pp. 392

The most substantial publication from CPACS’ ongoing West Papua Project – 25 chapters, including human rights surveys, discussions on strategic possibilities, and other commentaries, plus Katrina Rae’s West Papua 2010: A Literature Survey. All online at http://sydney.edu.au/arts/peace_conflict/practice/west_papua_project.shtml

Kingsnorth, Paul, One No, Many Yeses: A Journey to the Heart of the Global Resistance Movement, London, Free Press, 2003, pp. 355

Wide ranging exploration of campaigns in all parts of the world seen at first hand. Includes coverage of Sem Terra in Brazil, Cochabamba in Bolivia, township resistance to privatization in South Africa, the Zapatistas, opposition to mining in West Papua, and campaigning groups in the USA. See also his: Kingsnorth, Paul , Protest still matters New Statesman, 08/05/2006 , 8 May, 2006, discussing why the Global Justice Movement has dropped out of the news, the turn away from street demonstrations to social forums, and stressing that struggles still continue, especially in the Global South.

Kingsnorth, Paul, Protest still matters, New Statesman, 2006

Kinsman, Jeremy ; Bassuener, Kurt, A Diplomat’s Handbook for Democracy Development Support, 3rd edition, Washington, DC, Council for a Community of Democracies, 2009, pp. 450

Tips for diplomats on how they can more effectively support local pro-democracy g roups facing repressive regimes. Case studies from South Africa, Ukraine, Chile, Belarus, Burma/Myanamar, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

Kirksey, Eben, Freedom in Entangled Worlds: West Papua and the Architecture of Global Power, Durham NC, Duke University Press, 2012, pp. 344

Kirshbaum, Erik, Germany had seemed immune to the #MeToo movement. Then a prominent director was accused, Los Angeles Times, 2018

Discusses why MeToo was not taken up in Germany as it spread from the US to parts of Europe, until an actress went public in 2018 about a violent attempted rape by prominent film director Dieter Wedel in 1980.  Her accusation led other women to follow suit, and Die Zeit revealed that the TV network Wedel worked for had buried evidence of his sexual misconduct.  The article quotes a woman university professor on two main reasons for German reluctance to take up MeToo: 1) that despite Angela Merkel's long period as Chancellor women are not well represented in politics, or in top management; 2) German skepticism about cultural trends emanating from the USA.

Kleger, Heinz, Widerstand und ziviler Ungehorsam im demokratischen Rechtsstaat, In Enzemann , Birgit, ed., Handbuch Politische Gewalt., Wiesbaden, Springer VS, pp. 163-203

The author stresses that a democratic state based on the rule of law provides a rigorous normative order, which guarantees basic civil and human rights for each citizen, whilst also allowing for democratic government. Therefore, resistance and civil disobedience are always caught in a conflict between social (and political) rules and individual rights.

Kleger, Heinz, Protestantismus und die Tradition des zivilen Ungehorsams, In Klein, A und O. Zimmerman, (eds.) Impulse der Reformation: Buergergesellschaft und Demokratie, Wiesbaden, Springer VS, pp. 51-58

Since the protests against the use of nuclear energy in the 1980s, civil disobedience is part of German society. The author claims that this kind of resistance shouldn't be confused with the right to resist. Civil disobedience has certain stringent criteria that have to be fulfilled, and should moreover be an exception in a democracy founded on the rule of law and the principle of representation.

Klein, Naomi, No Logo, London, Flamingo, 2000, pp. 512

Now a classic analysis of the role of brands and sources of leverage on corporations, including extensive information on a range of campaigns, many including direct action.

Klein, Naomi, Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate, London, Harper/Collins and Flamingo, 2002, pp. 304

See ‘IMF: Go To Hell. The People of Argentina have tried the IMF Approach; Now they want to govern the country’, pp. 51-55.

Klein, Naomi, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate, New York and London, Simon and Schuster / Allen Lane, 2014, pp. 566

Well known critic of neoliberal globalization analyses its impact on climate change, argues against the adequacy of technical fixes and for fundamental social change. She also examines the developments in the environmental movement and suggests how campaigns against fracking and tar sands are front lines in the struggle against climate change.

Translations: Spanish
Klipic, Irma, Government responses to feminicides in Latin America, Växjö‎ & ‎Kalmar‎, ‎Småland‎ (Sweden), Linnæeus University, 2018

This thesis examines how government responses affected femicide rates in five selected countries: Costa Rica, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. The study is a qualitative comparative multi-case study using social inclusion and exclusion theory to understand if policies are inclusive or exclusive, and if the nature of legislation has an impact on the femicide rates.

Kluver, Alan R., Student movements in Confucian society, In DeGroot, Gerald J., Student Protest: The Sixties and After London, Addison Wesley, , 1998, pp. 312, pp. 219-231

Discusses role of self-immolation by Korean protesters.

Knight, John, The Forest Grant Movement in Japan, In Kalland; Persoon, Environmental Movements in Asia (C.1.a. General and International Studies), London and New York, Routledge, pp. 110-130

Kohl, Benjamin ; Farthing, Linda, Impasse in Bolivia. Neoliberal hegemony and popular resistance, London, Zed Books, 2006, pp. 224

Koirala, Niranjan, Nepal in 1990: End of an Era, Asian Survey, Vol. 31, no. (February), 1991, pp. 134-139

See also Hutt, Michael , Drafting the Nepal Constitution, 1990 Asian Survey, 1991, pp. 1020-1039 .

Kolb, Felix, Protest and Opportunities: The Political Outcomes of Social Movements, Frankfurt Main, Campus Verlag, 2007, pp. 360

Derives propositions about social movements and political change from detailed analyses of the US Civil Rights Movement compared with movements against nuclear power.

Komhiya, A., Britain: Section 28, ed. Sears, James Thomas, In Sears, James Thomas, Youth, Education, and Sexualities: An International Encyclopedia, Volume I, A-J Westport CT, Greenwood Press, , 2005, pp. 520,

Komisar, Lucy, Corazon Aquino: The Story of a Revolution, New York, George Brazillier, 1987, pp. 290

Discusses role of Benigno Aquino and Corazon Aquino’s involvement in politics; pp. 105-23 focus on mutiny and popular protests.

Kong, Tsung-gan, Umbrella: A Political Tale from Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Pema Press, 2017, pp. 668

A detailed account of the 2014 movement, setting it in the wider context of the campaign for democracy in Hong Kong, and of Hong Kong's relations with mainland China. The author, who is a free lance journalist, explains that he began this account as a record by a participant in the protests, but that he came to see the need to counter propaganda about the movement and give a proper overall picture. The student radical leader Joshua Wong has written a Foreword.

Koopmans, Ruud, Democracy from Below: New Social Movements and the Political System in West Germany, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1995, pp. 300

Analyzes range of social movements and over 3,000 ‘protest events’ between 1965-1989 in the context of West German institutional arrangements, drawing comparisons with the Netherlands and Switzerland.

Kopacsi, Sandor, In the Name of the Working Class, London, Fontana/Collins, 1989, pp. 348

Eyewitness account by the police chief of Budapest in 1956, who refused to obey Soviet orders to quell the uprising and was later sentenced to life imprisonment, but released in 1963 in an amnesty granted by Khrushchev.

Korac, Maja, Linking Arms: Women and War in Post-Yugoslav States, Uppsala, Life and Peace Institute, 1998, pp. 91

Koster, R.M. ; Sanchez, Guillermo, In the Time of the Tyrants: Panama 1968-1990, New York, W.W. Norton, 1990, pp. 430

The authors, Panamanian journalists, were both forced to leave the country.

Kostovicova, Denisa, Parallel Worlds: Response of Kosovo Albanians to Loss of Autonomy in Serbia, Keele, Keele European Research Centre, 1997, pp. 109

Kostovica’s commentaries also appeared frequently in the on-line journal Transitions: http://www.tol.org.

Kostovicova, Denisa, Kosovo: The Politics of Identity and Space, London, Routledge, 2005, pp. 322

Primarily a study of education and on ethnic segregation.

Krasniewicz, Louise, Nuclear Summer: The Clash of Communities at the Seneca Women’s Peace Encampment, ed. Harford, Barbara, Hopkins, Sarah, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 1992, pp. 276

Krasniqi, Gezim, ”For Democracy – Against Violence”: a Kosovar Alternative, In Jankovic, Bojan ; Jankovic, Vesna , Resisting the Evil: [Post-]Yugoslav Anti-War Contention Baden-Baden, Nomos, , 2012, pp. 83-102

Krippendorff, Ekkehart, Staat und Krieg: Die historische Logik politischer Unvernunft, Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp, 1985, pp. 435

A ‘classic’ for grassroots activists. A study of the interdependence of the state, as a form of political organization, and war.

Krnjevic-Miskovic, Damjan, Serbia’s prudent revolution, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 12, no. July, 2001, pp. 96-110

Kroepil, Karl, Ziviler Ungehorsam und whistleblowing: Begriffe und rechtliche Bezuege, Recht und Politik, Vol. 49, no. 4, 2013, pp. 193-198

The author distinguishes between 'civil disobedience' and 'whistle blowing', discusses possible classification of the terms and clarifies their meaning with reference to historical context.

Kronlid, Lotta ; Needham, Andrea ; Wilson, Joanna ; Zelter, Angie, Seeds of Hope: East Timor Ploughshares: Women Disarming for Life and Justice, London, Seeds of Hope, 1996, pp. 59

Account by four women who ‘disarmed’ a Hawk fighter-bomber bound for Indonesia at the time of the war against East Timorese resisters. In July 1997 Liverpool Crown Court acquitted the four, accepting that under international law their action aimed to prevent a crime.

Kruks, Sonia ; Rapp, Rayna ; Young, Marilyn B., Promissory Notes: Women in the Transition to Socialism, ed. Bull, Anna, Diamond, Hanna, Marsh, Rosalind, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1989, pp. 396

Kulikova, Svetlana V. ; Perlmutter, David D., Blogging Down the Dictator? The Kyrgyz Revolution and Samizdat Websites, International Communication Gazette, Vol. 69, no. February, 2007, pp. 29-50

Kumar, Mahendra ; Low, Peter, Legacy and Future of Nonviolence, ed. Kumar, Mahendra, Low, Peter, New Delhi, Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1996

Kumar, Raj C., Corruption and Human Rights in India: Comparative Perspectives on Transparency and Good Governance, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 234

Analyzes corruption as a violation of human rights and proposes a multi-pronged approach to tackling corruption, including a greater role for civil society. A postscript takes account of the 2011 Anna Hazare movement against corruption.

Kumar, Raksha, Why the ‘MeToo’ movement is succeeding at last, OpenDemocracy, 2018

Kumar discusses why the ‘first wave’ of the ‘Me Too’ movement in India in October 2017 was not very effective, but argues that the ‘second wave’ from Autumn 2018 has been better organised, provided better evidence of harassment and brought in more women. Therefore, there is now some hope that earlier 2013 legislation against sexual harassment in the workplace may be implemented in practice.

Kunzru, Hari, Welcome to Paradise, The Guardian, 2006

Kuper, Leo, Passive Resistance in South Africa, London, Jonathan Cape, 1956, pp. 256

Sociological study of the 1952 ‘Defiance Campaign’.

Kurkov, Andrey, Ukraine Diaries: Dispatches From Kiev, London, Harvill Secker, 2014, pp. 272

Account by an enthusiastic Russian Ukrainian novelist, best known for his surreal Deat of a Penguin, who was a symphatetic observer of protests, and stresses popular anger at the systematic corruption of Yanukovytch regime and the spontaneous self-organising nature of the Euromaidan movement.

Kurth, Helmut ; Kempe, Iris, Presidential Election and Orange Revolution: Implications for Ukraine’s Transition, ed. Kurth, Helmut, Kempe, Iris, Kyiv, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 2005, pp. 152

Kurzman, Charles, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, 1977-1979, Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press, 2004, pp. 304

Contends that the revolution was truly unpredictable by critiquing five sets of retrospective ‘explanations’. Includes essay on available source material.

Kuttab, Eileen, Empowerment as Resistance: Conceptualizing Palestinian Women’s Empowerment, Development, Vol. 53, no. 2, 2010, pp. 247-253

Kuzio, Taras, From Kuchma to Yushchenko, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 38, no. 2 (June), 2005, pp. 229-244

Kuzio, Taras, Civil society, youth and societal mobilization, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 39, no. 3 (Special Issue ‘Democratic Revolutions in Post-Communist States’, ed. Taras Kuzio), 2006, pp. 365-368

Examines the leading role of youth organizations – Otpor in Serbia (2000), Kmara in Georgia (2003) and Pora in Ukraine (2004) – and conditions for success, including training, western technical and financial assistance, choice of strategies and response of authorities.

Kuzio, Taras, Special issue ‘Kuchmagate Crisis to Orange Revolution: Civil Society, Elections and Democratisation in Ukraine’, The Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 23, no. 1 (March), 2007

Eight contributions analysing various aspects of Ukrainian society from schools to rock ’n’ roll, from politics to gender.

Kuzio, Taras ; D'Anieri, Paul, Special Issue ‘Ukraine: Elections and Democratisation’, ed. Kuzio, Taras, D'Anieri, Paul, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 38, no. 2 (June), 2005, pp. 131-292

Much of this issue analyses the previous Kuchma regime and parliamentary elections in 1994, 1998 and 2002, but there are two articles on the 2004 presidential elections and impact of the ‘Orange Revolution’, one by Kuzio, Taras , From Kuchma to Yushchenko Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 2005, pp. 229-244 .

Kwon, insook, Gender, Feminism and Masculinity in Anti-Militarism, International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 15, no. 2 (June), 2013, pp. 213-233

Feminist analysis of the conscientious objection movement in South Korea in which women activists challenge dominant militarized conception of masculinity.

L'Abate, Alberto, Riflessioni su “La Rivoluzione Disarmista” di Carolo Cassola (Rizzoli, 1983), a oltre trenta anni dalla sua pubblicazione, [2016], Torino, Centro Studi Sereno Regis, 2016

In this long article, L’Abate reflects on Cassola’ s work, La Rivoluzione Disarmista, which focuses on pursuing a nonviolent ‘disarming revolution’ aimed at strengthening fraternity amongst people and abolishing nuclear weapons. Starting from Cassola, L’Abate examines the relevance of nonviolent movements in Italy and worldwide, starting from those whose activity contributed to the adoption of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, signed in 1987 by Gorbachev and Reagan. He also sharply analyses the pervasive, global structural violence caused by the huge concentration of natural resources in the hands of a few, and reflects on how nonviolence can contribute to changing the current global financial system. L’Abate cites both Italian and internationally renowned authors on nonviolence, and proposes his solutions for overcoming the current state of affairs.

Available at http://serenoregis.org/2016/12/12/riflessioni-su-la-rivoluzione-disarmista-di-carlo-cassola-rizzoli-1983-a-oltre-trenta-anni-dalla-sua-pubblicazione-alberto-labate/

L.F., Francis ; Chan, Joseph, Digital Media Activities and Mode of Participation in a Protest Campaign: a Study of the Umbrella Movement, Information, Communication and Society, Vol. 19, no. 1, 2016

Laba, Roman, The Roots of Solidarity: A Political Sociology of Poland’s Working Class Democratization, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 264

Between arriving in Poland in 1980 and being expelled in 1982, the author engaged in firsthand research and gathered relevant documents to question the emphasis on the role of intellectuals, and develop his thesis on the central role of working class activism and their talent for democratic organization.

Labrador, M.C., The Philippines in 2001: High drama, a new president and setting the stage for recovery, Asian Survey, Vol. 42, no. 1 (January/February), 2002, pp. 141-149

La Duke, Winona, Uranium Mines on Native Land, The Harvard Crimson, 1979

On struggle in late 1970s by Navajos against proposed uranium and coal mining, stressing dangers of uranium mining.
See also her article La Duke, Winona , Uranium Mining, Native Resistance and the Greener Path: The impact of uranium mining on indigenous communities Orion Magazine, 2009 , on Navajo resistance in past and new threat from revived stress on nuclear power. (Includes references to Kakadu.)

Lainer-Vos, Dan, Social Movements and Citizenship: Conscientious Objection in France, the United States and Israel, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 11, no. 3 (Oct), 2006, pp. 277-295

Compares movements of objection to the French war in Algeria, the US War in Vietnam and Israel’s invasion of Lebanon.

Laipson, Ellen, Seismic Shift: Understanding Change in the Middle East, ed. Laipson, Ellen, Washington DC, Stimson Center, 2011, pp. 138

As civil resistance again took the world of realpolitik by surprise, the Stimson Center invited experts to evaluate how their sectors had viewed the prospects for change in the Middle East.

Lakey, George, Powerful Peacemaking: A Strategy for a Living Revolution, [1973], Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 1987, pp. 246

Analyses revolutionary popular movements (such as Guatemala and El Salvador 1944, and France 1968) and issues of cultural preparation, organisation and tactics from a committed nonviolent standpoint. Also discusses how to develop and defend revolution by decentralizing power and use of nonviolent civilian defence.

Lakey, George, Nonviolence training and charges of Western imperialism: A guide for worried activists, In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), London, Pluto Press, pp. 206-213

Experienced activist trainer poses questions for trainers to ask themselves about their work, and suggests questions for those who denounce nonviolence training as ‘pro-imperialist’.

Lama, Dalai, My Land and My People, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1962, pp. 253

Autobiography of his earlier years.

Lama, Dalai, Freedom in Exile: The Autobiography of the Dalai Lama, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1990, pp. 308

Lamarca, Melissa Garcia, Sparks from the Spanish Crucible: Resisting evictions Spanish style, New Internationalist, no. April, 2013

On the Platform for Mortgage Affected People (PAH) set up in February2009 to campaign about the hundreds of thousands of foreclosures and evictions of people unable to keep up mortgages on their homes, and often faced with a huge debt to the banks even after eviction. The group organized mass resistance to evictions, occupied foreclosed flats and houses to provide shelter for those made homeless, and to lobby Parliament to end evictions, promote affordable rents and changes to the mortgage law.

Lande, Carl H., The return of “people power” to the Philippines, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 12, no. April, 2001, pp. 88-102

Discusses the constitutional problems of Philippine democracy and the role of an elite above the law.

Lansky, Miriam ; Areshidze, Georgi, Georgia’s Year of Turmoil, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 19, no. 4, 2008, pp. 154-168

Argues there was domestic crisis in Georgia before the war with Russia. Flawed elections, a ‘superpresidency’ and arbitrariness towards the constitution marked politics after the Rose Revolution.

Lapchick, Richard, The Politics of Race and International Sport: The Case of South Africa, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1975, pp. 268

Laqueur, Walter ; Hunter, Robert Edwards, European Peace Movements and the Future of the Western Alliance, ed. Kaltefleiter, Werner, Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., New Brunswick, Transaction Books in association with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 1985, pp. 450

Generally critical contributions on the peace movements of the 1980s in various European countries and their impact on the Western alliance. Includes chapter on the US peace movement of the 1980s.

Lastra, Antonio, Desobediencia civil. Historia y antologia de un concepto, Madrid, Technos, 2012, pp. 308

Primarily a compilation of texts on civil disobedience from a philosophical perspective, using texts from George Anastaplo, G.E. Lessing, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, plus chapter 6 from John Rawls’s Theory of Justice. Tolstoy is represented by chapters 14 and 15 from his novel War and Peace, and there is an appendix with two short classic texts from Gandhi and Martin Luther King.

Latin American Perspectives, Latin American Perspectives, ed. Latin American Perspectives, , no 2 (March), Vol. 33, 2006, pp. 144

This issue focuses on Mexican politics, society and economy and provides background to the 2006 protests. Articles include: Rus, Jan and Miguel Tinker Solas, ‘Introduction. Mexico 2006-2007: High stakes, daunting challenges’, pp. 5-15; Gilly, Adolfo, ‘One triangle, two campaigns’, pp. 78-83; Semo, Enrique, ‘What is left of the Mexican Left?’, pp. 84-89.

Latin American Perspectives, Peasant Movements in Latin America, no. 4 (issue 167) (July), Vol. 30, Latin American Perspectives Inc, 2009, pp. 213

The whole issue is dedicated to ‘Peasant Movements in Latin America’ including 2 articles on MST.

Lavalette, Michael ; Mooney, Gerry, The Poll Tax Struggle in Britain: A Reply to Hoggett and Burn, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 12, no. (Jan.), 1993, pp. 96-108

Lavalette, Michael ; Mooney, Gerry, ”No Poll Tax Here!”: The Tories, Social Policy and the Great Poll Tax Rebellion, 1987-1991, ed. Lavalette, Michael, Mooney, Gerry, In Lavalette, Michael ; Mooney, Gerry , Class Struggle and Social Welfare Abingdon, Routledge, , 2000, pp. 296, pp. 199-227

Lavalette, Michael ; Mooney, Gerry, Class Struggle and Social Welfare, Abingdon, Routledge, 2000, pp. 296

Lawrence, WilliamRennebohm, Max, Saami and Norwegians protest construction of Alta Dam, Norway, 1979-81, 30/01/2011, 2011, pp. 3

Useful summary with references.

Lawson, Ronald, The Rent Strike in New York City 1904-1980: The End of a Social Movement Strategy, Journal of Urban History, Vol. 10, no. 3 (May), 1984, pp. 235-258

Lawson, Ronald ; Naison, Mark, The Tenant Movement in New York City, 1904-1984, New Brunswick NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1986, pp. 289

See also the article by Lawson, Ronald , The Rent Strike in New York City 1904-1980: The End of a Social Movement Strategy Journal of Urban History, 1984, pp. 235-258

Lazić, Mladen, Protests in Belgrade: Winter of Discontent, ed. Lazić, Mladen, Budapest and New York, Central European University Press, 1999, pp. 242

Based on interviews with more than 1,000 participants in the 1996-97 protests.

Lebor, Adam, Milosevic: A Biography, London, Bloomsbury, 2002, pp. 386

Chapter 24 – ‘Toppling Milosevic from Budapest’, pp. 298-312 – covers Otpor demonstrations in 2000, but focuses on role of outside powers in toppling Milosevic and ensuring TV coverage.

Lebron, Christopher J., The Making Of Black Lives Matter, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 216

This work presents a concise and accessible history of the rhetoric and activism that has laid the foundation to the modern #BlackLivesMatter movement. Drawing on the work of earlier Black public intellectuals, such as Frederick Douglass, Ida B. Wells, Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston, Anna Julia Cooper, Audre Lorde, James Baldwin, and Martin Luther King Jr., it prompts readers to understand the thoughts, demands and emotions of African Americans in order to understand their activism and the history of Black thought in the face of contemporary anti-Black law enforcement.

Christopher J. Lebron is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Johns Hopkins University. He specializes in political philosophy, social theory, the philosophy of race, and democratic ethics.

Lee, Francis L.F., Media Mobilization and the Umbrella Movement, ed. Jones, Brian Christophe, London, Routledge, 2016, pp. 152

This study covers both international and local media, as well as the role of conventional as well as digital media, in both publicizing and mobilizing the Hong Kong protests. It discusses, for example, the impact of TV, but also deliberate social media strategies. The editor is a Professor in the School of Journalism at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Lee, Francis L.F. ; Chan, Joseph, Media and Protest Logics in the Digital Era: The Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong, ed. Lee, Francis L.F., Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 288

Examines how digital media transformed the largely spontaneous movement into a campaign of collective action, with a central organization articulating clear policy demands as a result of a process of 'bottom up' debate and organization. The book covers the role of conventional as well as digital media, and draws on surveys of protesters, wider public opinion surveys and analysis of both conventional and social media platforms content.

See also: L.F., Francis ; Chan, Joseph , Digital Media Activities and Mode of Participation in a Protest Campaign: a Study of the Umbrella Movement Information, Communication and Society, 2016 .

Lee, Martha F., Earth First! Environmental Apocalypse, Syracuse NJ, Syracuse University Press, 1995, pp. 221

Study of the militant US movement founded in 1980, which split between what the author terms ‘millenarian’ and ‘apocalyptic’ wings, the former seeking to educate others and the latter trying to save biodiversity before it is too late.

Lee, Paul S.N. ; So, Clement Y.K. ; Long, Louis, Social Media and the Umbrella Movement: Insurgent Public Sphere in Formation, Chinese Journal of Communication (Routledge Journal), Vol. 8, no. 4, 2015, pp. 356-375

The authors from the Chinese University of Hong Kong interviewed a random sample of 1011 to assess the role of social media in the Umbrella Movement. They found a positive correlation between support for the movement and reliance on social media for news and that this group also distrusted the Hong Kong authorities, the police and Chinese Government.

Lee, Terence, Military Cohesion and Regime Maintenance : Explaining the Role of the Military in 1989 China and 1998 Indonesia, Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 32, no. 1, 2005, pp. 80-104

Lee, Terence, The Armed Forces and Transitions from Authoritarian Rule, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 42, no. 5 (May), 2009, pp. 640-669

Legislature, NCSL – Nation, 2018 Legislation On Sexual Harassment in the Legislature, Washington, D.C. and Denver, NCSL – National Conference of State Legislature, 2018

This online report includes up-to-date links to the status of the legislation on sexual harassment in every state in the US.

Lehman, Steve ; Barnett, Robert ; Coles, Robert, The Tibetans: A Struggle to Survive, New York, Powerhouse Cultural Entertainment Books, 2004, pp. 125

Leiter, Benjamin, The Rebellion of the Forajidos: The Movement to Overthrow President Lucio Gutierrez, Nonviolent Social Change, no. 34, 2007, pp. -9

Lemarchand, Rene, Africa’s Troubled Transitions, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 3, no. 4 (Fall), 1993, pp. 98-109

Lernoux, Penny, Cry of the People: The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America: The Catholic Church in conflict with US Policy, [1980], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1982, pp. 535

Includes material on Archbishop Romero.

Levenson-Estrada, Deborah, Trade Unionists against Terror: Guatemala City, 1954–1985, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1994, pp. 288

Includes account of 1984 workers’ occupation of Coca-Cola factory.

Levy, Jacques, Cesar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa, New York, W.W. Norton, 1975, pp. 546

Lewis, Flora, A Case History of Hope: The Story of Poland’s Peaceful Revolutions, G Garden City NY, Doubleday, 1958, pp. 281

Covers developments in 1956, especially the June and October public protests.

Lewis, John ; D’Orsa, Michael, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement, with Michael D’Orsa, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1998, pp. 496

By an early SNCC leader who came from the South.

Lewis, Paul G., Democracy and Civil Society in Eastern Europe, ed. Lewis, Paul G., Basingstoke and New York, Macmillan and St. Martin's Press, 1992, pp. 179

Mostly about prospects for civil society in post-communist context, but drawing on theory and practice of 1980s. Includes a chapter on the movement in Slovenia that led to it breaking away from Yugoslavia.

Liang, Zhang ; Nathan, Andrew J. ; Link, Perry, The Tiananmen Papers, ed. Liang, Zhang, Nathan, Andrew J., Link, Perry, compiled by Zhang Liang and edited by Andrew J. Nathan and Perry Link, London, Little Brown and Abacus, 2001, pp. 679

Secret Party papers leaked to the west provide details of the meetings, negotiations and communications between the top leaders about how to deal with the protests, and the triumph of the hardliners over Zhao Ziyang, General Secretary of the Party, who wished to be conciliatory. Western scholars generally accepted the papers as authentic.

Liao, Shannon, #MeToo makes its way to China, but will the government censor it?, The Verge, 2018

Gives background to one of the catalysts for the development of #MeToo in China - translated as “我也是” or #WoYeShi -, namely a social media post by academic Luo Xixi in December 2017, in which she accused her former doctoral professor Chen Xiaowu of unwanted sexual advances.

See also https://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/chinas-me-too-moment

Liao, Shannon, China’s feminist movement braves a government crackdown on #MeToo, The Verge, 2018

Provides insights on aspects of Chinese culture that remain deeply patriarchal in a way that mixes Communist, capitalist, and Confucian values. It also provides links to organised feminist initiatives in China; reports on sexual harassment and gender discrimination; and sheds light on positive initiatives by the government to protect women alongside grave episodes of censorship on the occasion of worldwide #MeToo mobilisation and other forms of feminist street protests and art performances.

Liddington, Jill, The Long Road to Greenham: Feminism and Militarism in Britain since 1820, London and Syracuse NY, Virago and Syracuse Press, 1991, pp. 341

Light, John, Five Groups Fighting Climate Change, billmoyers.com, 2014

Summary account of following organizations and their campaigns: 350.org (founded to combat climate change globally); the Sierra Club; Greenpeace; Idle No More (founded 2012 in Canada mostly by Native North Americans to combat government tar sands plan); and Union of Concerned Scientists.

Lim, Kim Chong, Political Participation in Korea: Democracy, Mobilization and Stability, ed. Lim, Kim Chong, Santa Barbara CA and Oxford, Clio Books, 1980, pp. 238

Includes chapters on student activism in 1960 and 1971.

Liminalis, Intersex and Transgender in Movement!, Issue 3, Liminalis, 2009

Includes article on ‘Intersex and Transgender Activism in South Africa’ and interviews with activists from Africa, Latin America and Europe discussing situation of trans people, forms of organization and role transnational organizations in these regions.

Linn, Ruth, Conscience at War: The Israeli Soldier as a Moral Critic, Albany NY, State University of New York Press, 1996, pp. 245

Lintner, Bertil, Outrage: Burma’s Struggle for Democracy, [1989], London and Bangkok, White Lotus, 1990, pp. 208

Covers the 1988 mass unarmed resistance and its suppression.

Linz, Juan, Opposition to and under an Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Spain, In Dahl, Robert A., Regimes and Opposition New Haven CT, Yale University Press, , 1973, pp. 171-259

Much-cited essay discussing categories of opposition.

Lipkis, Sarah, 2013: The Year of Bulgarian Protest, World Policy Journal Blog, 2013, pp. -2

Lipsitz, Lewis ; Kritzer, Herbert, Unconventional Approaches to Conflict Resolution, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 19, no. 4, 1975, pp. 713-733

Gives examples of where ‘consent’ of the oppressed is not necessary to the ends and strategy of the oppressor.

Liwag-Kotte, Emmalya, People Power in the Philippines: Civil Society between Protest and Participation, D + C: Development and Cooperation, no. 6 (Nov/Dec), 2001, pp. 21-22

Lizhi, Fang, Bringing Down the Great Wall: Writings on Science, Culture and Democracy, translated and edited J.H. Williams, New York, Alfred Knopf, 1990, pp. 336

Fang Lizhi, a prominent astrophysicist, became an increasingly vocal critic of the regime in the 1980s and was linked to the 1986 student protests.

Lliso, Juan Carlos Dal, La Objecion Fiscal a los gastos militares, Madrid, Technos, 1996

Study of the Spanish tax resistance campaign against military expenditure, launched in the early 1980s and still continuing.

Lloyd, Vincent W., The Problem with Grace: Reconfiguring Political Theology, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 2011, pp. 256

Locke, Elise, Peace People – A History of Peace Activity in New Zealand, ed. Howorth, Jolyon, Chilton, Patricia, Christchurch and Melbourne, Hazard Press, 1992, pp. 335

Chronicles peace activities in New Zealand from Maori time and early colonial settlement to the anti-Vietnam war movement and anti-nuclear campaigns of the 1960s and 1970s. Includes accounts of the direct action protests against French nuclear tests in 1972.

Lodge, Tom, Black Politics in South Africa since 1945, London, Longman, 1983, pp. 389

Covers key campaigns up to Sharpeville and the Soweto student rebellion.

See also Lodge, Tom , The Interplay of Nonviolent and Violent Action in the Movements Against Apartheid in South Africa, 1983-94 In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)New York, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 213-230 .

Lodge, Tom ; Nasson, Bill, All, Here, and Now: Black Politics in South Africa in the 1980s, ed. Lodge, Tom, Nasson, Bill, London, Hurst, 1992, pp. 400

Lomax, Bill, The Workers’ Councils of Greater Budapest, In Ralph Miliband and John Saville (eds.), Socialist Register 1976, London, Merlin Press, pp. 89-110

Excerpt from his book Hungary 1956, London, Alison and Busby, 1976, pp. 222, which provides a chronology, background to the 1956 uprising and an account of the events of October/November.  

Long, Kristi S., We All Fought for Freedom: Women in Poland’s Solidarity Movement, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1996, pp. 208

Explores women’s consciousness of the period through interviews, many with local Gdansk activists, notes women’s marginalisation in union structures and discusses implications for post-Communist period.

Long, Simon, Taiwan: China’s Last Frontier, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1991, pp. 264

After sketching in Taiwan’s earlier history and the evolution of the KMT, chapter 3 describes Taiwan’s political development up to 1986, including a brief summary of the birth of opposition (pp. 66-72). Chapter 8 looks at political reform in 1986-89, the founding of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party and the rise in protest.

Loonba, Ania ; Lukose, Ritty A., South Asian Feminisms, Durham NC, Duke University Press, 2012, pp. 432

Building on 40 years of activism and scholarship, contributors assess recent feminist issues and campaigns in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

Lopez, Maria E., Femicide in Ciudad Juárez is enabled by the regulation of gender, justice, and production in Mexico, London School of Economics and Political Science Blog, 2018

Sheds light on the causes of femicide in Ciudad Juarez, a city in Mexico with the highest rate of femicides. It highlights nonviolent initiatives led by feminist groups and emphasises that the pandemic of femicide in Ciudad Juárez should be placed in a national context of uncontrolled violence from organised crime, impunity, institutional corruption, and a patriarchal mentality. 

Lopez, Miguel A. Martine, The Squatters’ Movement in Europe: A durable struggle for social autonomy in urban politics, Antipolitik: A Radical Journal of Geography, Vol. 45, no. 4 (Sept), 2013, pp. 866-887

Examines squatting in empty properties in European cities over three decades, and argues squatting has promoted a mode of citizen participation, protest and self-management.

Lopez Levy, Marcela, We Are Millions: Neo-Liberalism and New Forms of Political Action in Argentina, London, Latin America Bureau, 2004

Lopez Levy, Marcela, We Are Millions: Neo-Liberalism and New Forms of Political Action in Argentina, London, Latin America Bureau, 2004, pp. 142

Lora, Guillermo, A History of the Bolivian Labour Movement, 1848-1971, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1977, pp. 380

Loveman, Mara, High-Risk Collective Action: Defending Human Rights in Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 104, no. 2, 1998, pp. 477-525

Low, D. A. ; Smith, Alison, History of East Africa, ed. Low, D. A., Smith, Alison, Vol. 3, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1976

Lowden, Pamela, Moral Opposition to Authoritarian Rule in Chile, 1973-1990, New York, St. Martins Press, 1996, pp. 216

Primarily a detailed history of the Vicaria de la Solidaridad and the changing context of its work.

Lowery, Wesley, They Can’t Kill Us All: The Story Of Black Lives Matter, London, Penguin, 2017, pp. 256

A front-line account of the police killings and the Black, young activism that sparked the birth of the racial justice movement Black Lives Matter. Lowery, a Washington Post reporter, provides the narration of the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, in August 2014, and the weeks of protests and rioting that broke out in the aftermath. He also challenges readers with the question of why so little progress has been made on the racial front during Barack Obama’s presidency, despite its promise and potential for such a transformative advancement.

Wesley Lowery became renowned, together with other of his colleagues at The Washington Post, for establishing an informal database that collects information about the shooting of Black people by police officers in 2014 and 2015, in the absence of a comprehensive federal government database.

Lowery, Wesley, 'The Birth of a Movement', Guardian (17 Jan 2017), pp. 23-25.

This Guardian 'Long Read' article is an adapted extract from Lowery's book They Can't Kill Us All, London, Penguin, 2017. The article is available (free) at https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/17/black-lives-matter-birth-of-a-movement

Lucas, Ian, OutRage! An Oral History, London, Continuum, 1998, pp. 256

Lucian, Vesalon ; Remus, Cretan, ”We are not the Wild West...”: Anti-Fracking Protests in Romania, Environmental Politics, Vol. 24, no. 2, 2015

Luckhardt, Ken ; Wall, Brenda, Organize or Starve: The History of the South African Congress of Trade Unions, New York, International Publishers, 1980, pp. 485

Luengo, María, Shaping solidarity in Argentina: the power of the civil sphere in repairing violence against women, In The Civil Sphere in Latin America, Cambridge, UK, University Printing House, pp. 39-65

María Luengo looks at contemporary movements against femicide in Argentina and at the role the civil sphere plays in creating forms of solidarity with transversal and global links that unite various groups of different beliefs and ideologies. She also sheds light on how the #NiUnaMenos movement is helping to reverse the trend of polarisation within and degradation of the discourse on human rights.

Lukes, Steven, Power: A Radical View, [1974], Basingstoke, Palgrave McMillan, 2005, pp. 192

Substantially expanded second edition (with two new chapters) of his influential 1974 short book. His delineation of ‘three dimensions of power’ has influenced debates about power in the social sciences, and provided a reference point for some debates about resistance to domination.

Lustick, Ian S., Writing the Intifada: Collective action in the Occupied Territories, World Politics, Vol. 45, no. 4 (July), 1993, pp. 560-594

Review article covering nine recent books, and providing overview of movement and noting the impact on the Arab world (Algeria and Jordan) and wider world.

Luthuli, Albert, Let My People Go!, London, Collins, 1962, pp. 256

Autobiography of President of ANC from 1952 to 1967, and Nobel Prize winner.

Luxemburg, Rosa, The Mass Strike: The Political Party and the Trade Unions, [1906], London, Merlin Press, 1963, pp. 87

Also available in Mary Alice Waters, ed., Rosa Luxemburg Speaks, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1970; and in The Complete Works of Rosa Luxemburg, 14 vols, London, Verso Books, 2011.

Discusses the evolution, nature and significance of the (predominantly unarmed) 1905 Revolution in Russia, and reflects Luxemburg’s emphasis on the importance of popular initiative and cooperation, as opposed to centralised party leadership – themes developed in her pamphlets ‘The Russian Revolution’ and ‘Leninism or Marxism’, both republished in 1961 under those joint titles (Ann Arbor paperback, University of Michigan Press). The standard study of Luxemburg is: Peter Nettl, Rosa Luxemburg, Oxford University Press, 1966 and 1969 (abridged edition).

Lynch, Marc, The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East, New York, Public Affairs, 2012, pp. 288

By US political scientist and Foreign Policy blogger.

Lynd, Alice, We Won’t Go: Personal Accounts of War Objectors, Boston, Beacon Press, 1998, pp. 332

Deals with conscientious objection in US during the Vietnam War, 1961-1975.

Lynd, StaughtonLynd, Alice, Nonviolence in America: A Documentary History, ed. Lynd, Alice, [1966], Maryknoll NY, Orbis Books, 1995, pp. 530

The 1966 anthology included writings by opponents of slavery, anarchists and ‘progressives’ in the 19th century, and trade unionists, conscientious objectors and peace campaigners in the 20th century, up to the Civil Rights Movement and anti-Vietnam War protests. The revised edition covers radical Catholic resistance, nonviolent trade unionism, resistance to US imperialism in Central America in the 1980s and assistance to Central American refugees, opposition to the 1991 Gulf War and environmental protests.

Lynn, Stephen, Women and Social Movements in Latin America: Power from Below, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 1997, pp. 352

Covers six cases of grassroots activism in Mexico, El Salvador, Brazil and Chile, which use interviews with activists and provide histories of organizations and movements involved. The activists are concerned with economic and health issues, but also stress problems relating to contraception and abortion, rape and domestic violence.

Lyons, David, Moral Judgment, Historical Reality and Civil Disobedience, Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 27, no. 1, 1998, pp. 31-49

Explores standard philosophical writings on civil disobedience and queries the assumption of political obligation in contexts of major injustice and oppression, such as slavery and segregation.

Lyttle, Brad, You Come with Naked Hands: The Story of the San Francisco to Moscow March for Peace, Raymond NH, Greenleaf Books, 1966, pp. 246

Participant’s account of march for disarmament organized by the Committee for Nonviolent Action. After marching across the USA the participants walked in Britain, Belgium and West Germany (they were debarred from entering France). But they were allowed to enter the Soviet bloc to travel through parts of the GDR, Poland and the USSR.

Maathai, Wangaari, The Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experiences, [1985], New York, Lantern Books, 2004, pp. 117

Maathai, Wangaari, Unbowed: A Memoir, Vintage, 2006, pp. 338

(also published as: Unbowed: My Autobiography, Anchor 2008)

By prominent Kenyan woman who promoted mass planting of trees by women at grassroots level through the Green Belt Movement (founded in 1977) to reverse effects of deforestation. She also undertook vigils and fasts for human rights under the dictatorship of President Moi. See also her book: Maathai, Wangaari , The Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experiences [1985] New York, Lantern Books, , 2004, pp. 117

MacFarquahar, Roderick, Contradictions Among the People 1956-1957, Vol. vol. 1 of The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, New York, Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 438

Highly respected scholarly analysis.

Machcewicz, Pawel ; Latynski, Maya, Rebellious Satellite: Poland 1956, Washington DC, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2009, pp. 280

Macklem, Patrick, Distributing Sovereignty: Indian Nations and Equality of Peoples, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 45, no. 5 (May), 1993, pp. 1311-1367

Compares Canada and USA from a legal perspective.

Maclean, Sandra J, Mugabe at war: The political economy of conflict in Zimbabwe, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, no. 3 (June), 2002, pp. 513-528

Examines deterioration of governance in Zimbabwe since independence and the effectiveness of opposition since 2001.

MacLeod, Jason, The Role of Strategy in Advancing Nonviolent Resistance in West Papua, In Reychler, Luc ; Deckard, Julianne Funk; Villanueva, Kevin H.R., Building Sustainable Futures: Enacting Peace and Development Bilbao, University of Deusto, , 2009, pp. 388, pp. 215-237

MacLeod has a chapter on dialogue in King; Elmslie; Webb-Gannon, Comprehending West Papua (E. II.2.d. West Papua: Civil mobilization supersedes guerrilla struggle) , above, and a historical chapter, ‘West Papua: Civil Resistance, Framing, and Identity, 1910s-2010s’, in Bartkowski, Recovering Nonviolent History: Civil Resistance in Liberation Struggles (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) , Chapter 12, pp. 217-237. He also contributes on Papua for opendemocracy.net.

Macpagal, Maria Elizabeth ; Galace, Jasmin Nario, Social psychology of People Power II in the Philippines, Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, Vol. 9, no. 3, 2003, pp. 219-233

Includes assessment of nonviolence.

Macpherson, Fergus, Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia: The Times and the Man, Lusaka, Oxford University Press, 1974, pp. 478

Madgwick, P.J., Linguistic conflict in Wales: A problem in the design of government, ed. Williams, Glyn, In Williams, Glyn , Social and Cultural Change in Contemporary Wales London, Routledge, Kegan and Paul, , 1978, pp. 227-241

Magnusson, Warren ; Shaw, Karena, A Political Space: Reading the Global through Clayoquot Sound, Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, 2002, pp. 320

Campaign on Vancouver Island, Canada, against corporate loggers trying to take over indigenous land. Protesters blocked roads against logging. Both men and women took part, but cited as a protest organized on feminist principles.

Mahony, Liam ; Eguren, Luis Enrique, Unarmed Bodyguards: International Accompaniment for the Protection of Human Rights, West Harford CT, Kumarian, 1997, pp. 288

Authoritative account by former-volunteers-turned-researchers of work of Peace Brigades International (PBI) in countries in Central and South America and in Asia. The authors interviewed generals connected with the Guatemala death squads to see how far PBI had inhibited the squads. See also: Liam Mahony, Human Rights Defenders Under Attack, London, Peace Brigades International-UK, pp. 20, marking PBI’s 25th anniversary, downloadable from: http://www.peacebrigades.org/publications/books-from-pbi/. For one volunteer’s more recent account; Louise Winstanley, ‘With Peace Brigades International in Colombia’, Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) , pp.108-11.

Maier, Charles S., Dissolution: The Crisis of Communism and the End of East Germany, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1997, pp. 464

Drawing on newly released Party and Stasi archives, Maier analyses the 40 years of East German history, and charts both the growth of dissent (for example the autonomous peace campaigns and youth culture) in the 1980s, and the systemic decline of the regime due to economic crisis and corruption at the top. See also: Maier, ‘Civil Resistance and Civil Society: Lessons from the Collapse of the German Democratic Republic in 1989’, in Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) , pp. 260-76.

Mailer, Phil, Portugal: the Impossible Revolution, [1977], London, Merlin Press, 2012, pp. 276

Firsthand account from Irish libertarian socialist, looking beyond parties and discussing agrarian and urban social struggles.

Majd, Hooman, The Ayatollahs’ Democracy: an Iranian Challenge, London, Allen Lane, 2010, pp. 282

The author, an Iranian journalist living abroad, provides lively analysis of the Green Movement and current Iranian politics. See also: Majd, Hooman , Think Again: Iran’s Green Movement. It’s a Civil Rights Movement, not a Revolution Washington DC, Foreign Policy, , 2010 , online at http://foreignpolicy.com/2010/01/06/think-again-irans-green-movement/.

Makasa, Kapasa, Zambia’s March to Political Freedom, 2nd edition, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1985, pp. 199

(Originally published as March to Political Freedom, 1981).

Personal account by an activist prominent in the independence struggle of political events from the 1940s to 1963.

Malagreca, Miguel, Lottiamo Ancora: Reviewing One Hundred and Fifty Years of Italian Feminism, Journal of International Women's Studies, Vol. 7, no. 4 (May), 2006, pp. 69-89

Includes material on the second wave of Italian feminism in 1960s and 1970s and developments on divorce, family law and employment law in the 1970s and 1980s, Ends with some discussion of lesbian and queer struggles for recognition.

Maliqi, Shkelzen, Kosova: Separate Worlds: Reflections and Analysis, Peja/Pec, Dukagjini, 1998, pp. 261

Malloy, James M. ; Gamarra, Eduardo, Revolution and Reaction: Bolivia 1964-1985, Oxford, Transaction Books, 1988, pp. 244

Mam, Somaly, The Road of Lost Innocence: The True Story of a Cambodian Heroine, New York, Random House Circle, 2009, pp. 224

Memoir by a Cambodian activist against sexual slavery, whose organizations have tried to rescue, shelter and teach girls and women escaping from sexual exploitation in Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and more generally. She received high level international support, but the credibility of her claims to have been sent to a brothel as a child, and of her most lurid examples of abuse in the sex industry, was challenged in a Newsweek report, 21 May 2014. An interview and report in Marie Claire 16 September 2014 in turn queried some of the allegations and interpretations of the Newsweek story. Mam is still involved in campaigning and fund raising, but controversy continues about her role, management of her campaigns, and the extent of exploitation in the sex industry.

Mama, Amina ; Okazawa-Reis, Margo, Militarism, Conflict and Women’s Activism in the Global Environment: Challenges and Prospects for Women in three West African Countries, Feminist Review, no. 101 (July), 2012, pp. 97-123

Focus on examples from Nigerian, Sierra Leone and Liberian civil wars over several decades.

Mamdani, Mahmood, An African reflection on Tahrir Square, Pambazuka News, 2011

Mamdani, Mahmood, 'Walk to work' and lessons of Soweto and Tahrir Square, Pambazuka News, 2011

Mamdani, Mahmood ; Wamba-dia-Wamba, Ernest, African Studies in Social Movements and Democracy, ed. Mamdani, Mahmood, Wamba-dia-Wamba, Ernest, Dakar, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA), 1995, pp. 636

Covers very wide range of ‘movements’, including trade unions, religious and gender groupings potentially relevant to nonviolent action, but also ‘mafias’. Embraces the whole of Africa.

Mamonova, Tatyana, Women and Russia: Feminist Writings from the Soviet Union, Boston MA, Beacon Press, 1984, pp. 272

Mamonova and three others in the group were forced into exile by the KGB.

MAN, Pour Une Nonviolence Ethique Et Politique, Ed. du MAN, 2014, pp. 93

This book is the key reference guide to the main French nonviolent action movement. It presents the basis for applying a culture of nonviolence to the spheres of the economy, ecology, education, democracy, defence and international solidarity.

Manalansan IV, Martin F., In the Shadows of Stonewall: Examining Gay Transnational Politics and the Diasporic Dilemma , GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies, Vol. 2, no. 4, 1995, pp. 425-438

Manara, Fulvio C., Una Forza Che Dà Vita. Ricominciare Con Gandhi In Un’Età Di Terrorismi, Milano, Edizione Unicopli, 2006, pp. 360

A selection of Gandhi’s writings that illustrate his thought and action, his relationship with the West and his reflection on the West-East relationship. The author presents also research findings on educational programs based on Gandhian principles, Gandhi’s thought on economic issues, nonviolence, nationalism, intercultural dialogue, terrorism and war, as well as experiments in Italy based on the Gandhian philosophy.

Mandela, Nelson, No Easy Walk to Freedom, [1965], London, Heinemann, 1986, pp. 189

Mandela, Nelson, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, London, Little Brown, 1994, pp. 768

Includes views on nonviolence and support for the turn to violent resistance. Mandela’s earlier articles, speeches and addresses at his trials are published in: Mandela, Nelson , No Easy Walk to Freedom [1965] London, Heinemann, , 1986, pp. 189 .

Mandelbaum, Michael, The Nuclear Question: The United States and Nuclear Weapons 1946-1976, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1979, pp. 288

Mander, Jerry ; Tauli-Corpuz, Victoria, Paradigm Wars: Indigenous Peoples’ Resistance to Globalization, (new expanded edition), Los Angeles CA, University of California Press, 2007, pp. 272

Documents how multinationals are targeting resources in indigenous lands and strong indigenous resistance. Section V discusses activism and social movements and what can be done.

Mandle, W. F., Going It Alone: Australia’s National Identity in the Twentieth Century, Ringwood VIC, Penguin, 1980

Chapter on ‘Donald Macleod and Australia’s Aboriginal Problem’, pp. 174-89 covers Pilbara strike and Pindan movement of late 1940s.

Maney, Gregory M. ; Kutz-Flamenbaum, Rachel V. ; Rohlinger, Deana A. ; Goodwin, Jeff, Strategies for Social Change, ed. Maney, Gregory M., Kutz-Flamenbaum, Rachel V., Rohlinger, Deana A., Goodwin, Jeff, Minnesota, University of Minnesota Press, 2012, pp. 360

Investigates strategic choices of a range of social movements.

Manhire, Toby, The Arab Spring, ed. Manhire, Toby, London, Guardian Books, 2012, pp. 302

Part I is composed of the Guardian live blogs; Part II is made up of essays and analyses covering all the Arab countries, but with especial focus on those where the uprisings were most significant.

Manji, Firoze ; Ekine, Sokari, African Awakening: The Emerging Revolutions, ed. Manji, Firoze, Ekine, Sokari, Cape Town, Dakar, Nairobi and Oxford, Pambazuka Press (imprint of Fahamu), 2011, pp. 234

These are largely contemporaneous accounts, lightly revised from Pambazuka News, Pan-African Voices for Freedom and Justice, http://www.pambazuka.org. As well as interesting contributions on Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Algeria (noted again under E.V), this book covers unrest in a number of Sub-Saharan countries:

‘People’s revolts in Burkina Faso’, February-April 2011, involving students, the broad population and army mutinies (unfortunately the mutineers did not make common cause with the civilian protesters), pp. 131-46.

A ‘Protest Diary’ from Cameroon in February 2011, by presidential candidate Kah Walla, blogs about strictly nonviolent protests brutally suppressed (pp.107-10).

In Swaziland (pp. 155-169) the 12-15 April 2011 popular demonstrations went ahead in the face of roadblocks and despite the arrests of virtually the entire leadership of the democratic association, perhaps signalling ‘the beginning of the end’ for the absolute monarchy.

Reflects on positive impact of solidarity from Israeli and international activists, with suggestions for strengthening effectiveness

Marat, Erica, The Tulip Revolution: Kyrgyzstan One Year After, ed. Marat, Erica, Washington DC, The Jamestown Foundation, 2006, pp. 151

Chronological collection of articles from Jamestown’s Eurasia Daily Monitor.

Maravall, Jose, Dictatorship and Political Dissent: Workers and Students in Franco’s Spain, London, Tavistock, 1978, pp. 199

Marichez, Jeanet ; Olagne, Xavier, La Guerre Par Actions Civiles: Identité d’Une Stratégie De Défense, Paris, Fondation pour les Etudes de Défense, 1998

This book aims to sensitise policy-makers and especially those active in the security sector, to the strategic utility of mass-based civilian resistance, and its potential use for national defence purposes.

Marotta, Toby, The Politics of Homosexuality, Boston MA, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1981, pp. 361

Examines struggle for gay rights in USA from 1950s to early 1970s, charting the different political and cultural issues and types of campaigning and the contradictions between political reformism and radical hippy culture. Part III covers the Lesbian Feminist Movement.

Marples, David R., Color revolutions: the Belarus case, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Vol. 39, no. 3 (Special Issue ‘Democratic Revolutions in Post-Communist States’, ed. Taras Kuzio), 2006, pp. 351-357

Examines why protesters failed to achieve regime change in the 2006 presidential election. Argues that the historical background of the regime, the popularity of the president, and electors’ concern with economic rather than democratic issues were all important. Also considers role of Russia and its ambivalence towards the Belarus regime.

Marples, David R. ; Mills, Frederick V., Ukraine's Euromaidan: Analyses of a Civil Revolution, Stuttgart and Hannover, Ibidem Press, 2015, pp. 304, pb.

Collection of essays edited by two historians at the University of Alberta. Topics cover the role of nationalism, the issue of the Russian language, the mass media, the motives and aims of the protesters, gender issues, and the impact of Euromaidan on politics in Ukraine, the EU, Russia and also Belarus. The Russian annexation of Crimea, and the creation of pro-Russian republics in the east of Ukraine and ensuing wars are covered in an epilogue.

Marsh, Rosalind, Polish feminism in an east-west context, Women Writing Online, no. 1, 2009, pp. 26-48

Martel, Frédéric, Le Rose et le Noir : Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968, ed. Jay, Karla, Young, Allen, [1996], 2nd updated and extended edition, Points, 2008, pp. 772

Original French version. Examines activist lesbian and gay organizations in relation to post-1968 feminism, gay ‘ghettoes’ and the gay press, and explores the impact of AIDS and revival of militancy in the 1990s. Notes influence of American movement, but also stresses differences.

Translations: English
Martens, Lorna, The Promised Land: Feminist Writing in the German Democratic Republic, New York, State University of New York Press, 2001, pp. 273

Writings by prominent intellectuals, including Christa Wolf, exploring how far the GDR gave women the equality it proclaimed.

Martin, Brian, Lessons in Nonviolence from the Fiji Coups, Gandhi Marg, Vol. 10, no. 2 (Sept), 1988, pp. 326-339

(also in Martin, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) ), Ch. 5.

Martin, Brian, Gene Sharp’s Theory of Power, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 26, no. 2, 1989, pp. 213-222

Examines whether a theory of power underlying nonviolent resistance should incorporate a structuralist (Marxist or feminist) interpretation, while noting the limits of structuralism for explaining active resistance.

Martin, Brian, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence, ed. Shelley Anderson and Janet Larmore, London, War Resisters' International, 1991

Analysis of nonviolent action and case studies of people power in Asia, Eastern Europe, Middle East, Central and South America and South Africa.

Martin, Brian, Social Defence, Social Change, London, Freedom Press, 1993, pp. 157

Anarchist perspective on civilian (nonviolent) defence.

Martin, Brian, Making accompaniment effective, 2006

Authoritarian actions often 'backfire' against those who carry them out. Effective accompaniment strategies make this more likely.

Martin, Brian, Justice Ignited: The Dynamics of Backfire, Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2007, pp. 236

Analysis of how violent attacks can (but do not always) backfire on the perpetrators. Not solely about unarmed resistance movements, but the theoretical framework is relevant to nonviolent strategy and there are chapters on Sharpeville, South Africa 1960. the 1991 Dili massacre in East Timor, and the 1930 salt works protest in Dharasana, India. Many of Brian Martin’s publications are online at http://www.bmartin.cc/pubs.

Martin, Brian, Backfire Manual: Tactics Against Injustice, Sparsnas Sweden, Irene Publishing, 2012, pp. 112

A guide to turning an opponent’s violence to the campaign’s advantage. For the wider theoretical analysis see: Martin, Justice Ignited: The Dynamics of Backfire (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)

Martin, Brian, Nonviolence Unbound, Sparsnäs, Sweden, Irene Publishing, 2015, pp. 354

Explores how methods of nonviolent action can be used effectively in contexts where unfamiliar: verbal abuse, online defamation, and struggles in relation to euthanasia and vaccination.

Martin, Brian ; Varney, Wendy ; Vickers, Adrian, Political Jiu-Jitsu against Indonesian Repression: Studying Lower Profile Nonviolent Resistance, Pacifica Review, Vol. 13, no. 2 (June), 2001, pp. 143-156

Compares the successful protests against Suharto in 1998 with the problems of resisting repression inside Indonesia 1965-66 and in East Timor after 1975. Brian Martin’s articles are online at: http://www.bmartin.cc/pubs

Martin, Rachel, #MeToo was a Rallying Cry at Women's Marches in Italy, Ms., 2018

The US feminist magazine reports that #quellavoltache  (MeToo) was a central theme of annual Women's Marches and rallies in Rome, Milan and Florence.   The Rome rally of hundreds of women was addressed by Asia Argento, who commented on the media abuse she had received after speaking out about being assaulted by Harvey Weinstein.  Representatives from the International Women's House and the Network of Women Against Violence, as well as a refugee woman activist, also spoke. 

Martin, ‘Del’ (Dorothy L. Taliaferro) ; Lyon, Phyllis, Lesbian/Woman, [1972], Volcano CA, Volcano Press, 1993, pp. 384

By two women journalists at forefront of US gay and lesbian rights struggle from the 1950s, founders of Daughters of Bilitis and active in the feminist campaign NOW (National Organization for Women) where they argued that lesbian issues were feminist issues. A couple since the 1950s, they married in San Francisco in February 2004.

Martínez, Mario López, Ni paz ni guerra, sino todo lo contrario. Ensayos sobre defensa y resistencia civil, Granada, Ano-Lugar, 2012, pp. 134

Professor Lopez presents the concepts of civil defense, people power, civil resistance, nonviolent defense and peace building. Although the book is a compilation of articles, it has a structural connection, and the many references provide the reader with more than an introduction – a full map of sources to research the ideas presented.

Marx, Anthony, Lessons of Struggle: South African Internal Opposition, 1960-1990, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 347

Examines relationship between strategies and different ideologies of resistance based on race, nation or class.

Mason, Chrstine, Women, Violence and Nonviolent Resistance in East Timor, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 42, no. 6, 2005, pp. 737-749

Mason, Paul, We Will Barricade, In Mason, Why Its Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions (A.8.a. General Titles), London, Verso,

Discusses resistance of slum dwellers in Philippines to eviction, but also their role in providing cheap workforce undermining organized labour.

Mason, Paul, Why Its Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions, London, Verso, 2012, pp. 237

Wide-ranging exploration, by BBC economics journalist, of campaigns round the world since 2008, including the Arab uprisings of 2011, but mainly focused on resistance to economic policies and including accounts of protest in UK, USA and Greece. Discusses economic and social causes of unrest and role of new communications.

Matienzo, Eugenia R., We, Latin Americans, have a lot to do with the current wave of feminism, Council on Hemispheric Affairs, 2018

Examines the factors that could contribute to reduce femicides in Argentina, such as training for state and security personnel, and judicial workers; sex education programs in academia and public schools and the inclusion of women journalists within the broader #NiUnaMenos movement. She also argues that the inclusion of climate justice and structural transformation within the patriarchal system can further contribute to the reduction of femicide.

Mauch, Christof ; Stoltzfus, Nathan ; Weiner, Douglas R., Shades of Green: Environmental Activism Round the Globe, Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, pp. 240

Explores impact of political, economic, cultural and religious conditions on environmental activism.

Maurel, Olivier, La Non-violence Active, 100 Questions Pour Résister Et Agir, Paris, Ed. La Plage, 2001, pp. 121

Manual presenting nonviolent strategies and tactics being used in contemporary environmental or social rights campaigns in France.

Maxwell, Kenneth, Portugal: The Revolution of the Carnations’, 1974-75, In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), Oxford, Oxford University Press,

Focuses on 1974-75, and provides more detailed references in both Portuguese and English.

May, Rachel A., ”Surviving All Changes is Your Destiny”: Violence and Popular Movements in Guatemala, Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 26, no. 2, 1999, pp. 68-91

Examines the impact of violence on popular movements and how they adapted.

Mayekiso, Mzwanele, Township Politics: Civic Struggles in the New South Africa, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1996, pp. 288

Mayer, Peter, The Pacifist Conscience, ed. Hentoff, Nat, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1966, pp. 447

Collection of writings on war, pacifism and nonviolence from 500 BC to 1960 AD, but emphasis on more modern figures, such as William Lloyd Garrison, Thoreau, Tolstoy, Gandhi, Simone Weil and Albert Camus. Includes also Martin Buber’s criticism of Gandhi for advocating nonviolent resistance by Jews to Hitler, and Reinhold Niebuhr’s reasons for leaving the (pacifist) Fellowship of Reconciliation.

Mayer, Tamar, Women and the Israeli Occupation: The Politics of Change, ed. Mayer, Tamar, London, Routledge, 1994, pp. 209

'Development' can be a euphemism for displacement, dispossession, disempowerment, unemployment, de-skilling, destruction of natural resources and dehumanisation.

Mazgaonkar, Anand, India – Macro Violence, Micro Resistance: Development Violence and Grassroots Unarmed Resistance, In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), London, Pluto Press, pp. 76-85

Include two brief accounts of struggles to retain land, by Adivasi (indigenous) people in Gujarat against dispossession from traditional lands by the Forest Department, and the ‘Save Our Lands’ campaign in Gujerat for common lands held by villages and often used by the landless for herding animals, plant collecting, etc, who were threatened by corporate agriculture. See also Mazgaonkar, Anand , Macro Violence, Micro Resistance (Development Violence and Unarmed Grassroots Resistance) , 2006 .

Mboya, Tom, Freedom and After, London, Deutsch, 1963, pp. 288

Mboya was a union leader and prominent in Kenya’s independence struggle. His book also covers negotiations with Britain.

McAdam, Doug, Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency, American Sociological Review, Vol. 48, no. 6, 1985, pp. 735-754

McAdam, Doug, Freedom Summer, New York, Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 368

A detailed study of SNCC’s Mississippi summer project in 1964.

McAdam, Doug, Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970, [1982], Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1999, pp. 304

McAdam, a leading social movement theorist, has written widely on various aspects and interpretations of the Civil Rights Movement, including McAdam, Doug , The US Civil Rights Movement: Power from Below and Above, 1945-70 In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 58-74 . His influential article  McAdam, Doug , Tactical Innovation and the Pace of Insurgency American Sociological Review, 1985, pp. 735-754  (reprinted in McAdam; Snow, Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics and Outcomes (A. 7. Important Reference Works and Websites) ) highlights how innovative tactics of mass action broke through institutionalised powerlessness.

McAdam, Doug ; McCarthy, John D. ; Zald, Mayer N., Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings, ed. McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D., Zald, Mayer N., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996

McAdam, Doug ; Snow, David A., Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics and Outcomes, [1997], 2nd edn, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 821

McAdam, Doug ; Tarrow, Sidney ; Tilly, Charles, The Dynamics of Contentious Politics, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 407

Book by three important authors in the field of social movements who also have some interest in nonviolent action – they address the role of nonviolent action more directly in their contribution to the ‘Symposium on Nonviolence’ (see below).

McAllister, Laura, Plaid Cymru – The Emergence of a Political Party, With a foreword by Gwynfor Evans, Bridgend, Seren, 2001, pp. 224

Covers the period 1945-99 when Plaid was developing from a pressure group to established party with MPS and MEPs.

McAllister, Pam, Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence, ed. McAllister, Pam, Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 1982, pp. 440

Examines feminism, pacifism and nonviolence and anti-nuclear protests in the USA.

McCabe, Sarah ; Wallington, P., The Police, Public Order and Civil Liberties: Legacies of the Miners’ Strike, London, Routledge, 1988, pp. 209

McCann, Eamonn, War and an Irish Town, [1974], London, Pluto, 1980, pp. 176

Describes the genesis of the civil rights and housing action campaign in Derry in which he played a leading role, and the civil rights march through the city in October 1968, which was attacked by the RUC and is now widely regarded as marking the start of the Troubles. Analyzes subsequent political developments from a radical socialist perspective and argues that the solution to the conflict lies in the creation of an all-Ireland workers’ republic. Critical of what he regards as the apolitical stance of NICRA , and of the later Women Together and Peace People campaigns. McCann took part in the Battle of the Bogside in 1969 and the civil rights march in Derry on Bloody Sunday. Argues that there is war in Ireland ‘ because capitalism, to establish and preserve itself, created conditions which made war inevitable.’

McCarthy, Mary, Vietnam, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1968, pp. 119

Influential account by US novelist of her visit to Vietnam, in which she argued that the US was fighting a war it could not win, and called for withdrawal.

McCarthy, Ronald M. ; Sharp, Gene, Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide, New York, Garland, 1997, pp. 720

An exhaustive, annotated, bibliography, very strong on earlier history of nonviolent action, but also including many recent nonviolent campaigns up to the mid-1990s. Part I covers cases of nonviolent action. Part II the methods and dynamics of nonviolent action and theories of conflict, power and violence. NB the index is seriously flawed (a correct version should be available on the Albert Einstein Institution website), but it is possible to trace campaigns through the list of contents.

McCartney, Clem, Striking a Balance: The Northern Ireland Peace Process, in Accord, issue 8, London, Conciliation Resources, 1999

Accounts of peace process from perspectives of various parties involved, including several members of the then recently formed Northern Ireland Executive. Clem McCartney writes on ‘The Role of Civil Society’ and Monica McWilliams and Kate Fearon of the Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition on ‘Problems of Implementation’.

McCaughan, Michael, The Battle of Venezuela, London, Latin America Bureau, 2004, pp. 116

Examines thwarting attempted coup by the right against Hugo Chavez in 2002. (See also the works under Venezuela in E IV.12)

McCluskey, Conn, Up Off Their Knees: A Commentary on the Civil Rights Movement in Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Conn McCluskey & Associates, 1989, pp. 245

Account of origins and development of the movement by an activist who played a key role in its foundation.

McCormick, John, The Global Environmental Movement: Reclaiming Paradise, ed. Kedzior, Sya Buryn, Leonard, Liam, London, Bellhaven, 1989, pp. 259

Despite its title, this is not primarily about protest, but the international /state context in which protest occurs, stressing the UN and international agreements.

McCrea, Frances B. ; Markle, Gerald E., Minutes to Midnight: Nuclear Weapons Protest in America 1950s-80s, Newbury Park CA, Sage, 1989, pp. 200

McDonald, Robert, The Greek Press under the Colonels, Index on Censorship, Vol. 3, no. 4, 1974, pp. 27-44

McEvoy, Joanne, The Politics of Northern Ireland, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2008, pp. 194

Discusses competing theoretical perspectives on the causes of the conflict and the political parties and paramilitaries involved. Records the various reforms and constitutional initiatives from the 1970s to the 1990s to find a settlement which culminated in the Good Friday Agreement, the setting up of a power-sharing Executive and Assembly, and finally, following the suspension of the Assembly between 2002 and 2007, the agreement between the DUP and Sinn Fein to co-operate in a power-sharing government.

McEvoy, Joanne, Power-Sharing Executives:Governing in Bosnia, Macedonia, and Northern Ireland, ed. McCartney, Clem, Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014, pp. 288

Comparative study of power sharing-initiatives, analyzing the different approaches in each case and the role of external actors. Author argues that the experience in Northern Ireland, despite many setbacks and false starts, has been relatively positive, though threatened by the rioting and quarrels that followed the decision in December 2010 to fly the Union flag at Stormont only on special occasions rather than every day as had previously been the case.

McFaul, Michael, Advancing Democracy Abroad: Why We should and How We Can, Lanham MA, Rowman and Littlefield, 2009, pp. 304

Before becoming US ambassador to Russia (January 2012) McFaul was a professor at Stanford University. A firm advocate of democracy promotion (which he distinguishes from advancing US geostrategic interests), he also argued for the USA re-establish its own civil rights credentials (e.g. after Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo). See: McFaul, Michael , Importing revolution: Internal and external factors in Ukraine’s 2004 democratic breakthrough In Bunce; McFaul; Stoner-Weiss, Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World (D. II.1. Comparative Assessments)New York, Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 189-225 .

McGarry, John ; O'Leary, Brendan, Explaining Northern Ireland, [1995], Oxford, Blackwell, 1996, pp. 533

Critical examination of both Nationalist and Unionist accounts of the causes of the conflict. Authors distinguish broadly between explanations that focus on external factors – the policies of British and Irish governments – and those that identify the internal factors of religion, culture and ethnicity in Northern Irish society. They reject the proposition that the conflict is fundamentally a religious one, and are sceptical not only of the various Marxist accounts – Orange, Green and ‘Red’ – but of the essentially materialist accounts by many liberal commentators. While acknowledging the multiplicity of causal factors, they view the conflict as essentially one between groups which identify themselves along different national, ethnic and religious lines, though they hold out the hope of an accommodation between them to produce an ‘agreed’, though not necessarily a united, Ireland.

McGill, Jack, Crisis on the Clyde: The Story of the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, London, Davis-Poynter, 1973, pp. 143

Account of the 1971 ‘work in’ that took over shipyards threatened with redundancy and for a period maintained them under worker control and forced the government to delay closure.

McIntyre, Jody, How to Grow a Student Movement, Chilean Style, New Internationalist, no. October, 2012, pp. 26-27

Stresses challenge to Pinochet legacy and links with workers’ unions. Includes timeline of protests from May 2011 – August 2012.

McKean, Margaret A., Environmental Protest and Citizen Politics, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1981, pp. 291

Study of ‘Citizens’ movements’ against industrial pollution.

McKeown, Ciaran, The Passion of Peace, Belfast, Blackstaff Press, 1984, pp. 320

McKeown was one of the group of student activists campaigning on civil rights issues at Queens University Belfast in the mid-1960s from which People’s Democracy emerged in 1968. However, he opposed the Belfast to Derry march in January 1969 as likely to inflame sectarian divisions, and the Marxist direction to which the organization turned. Best known for his leading role in the Peace People whose origins and development he recounts in detail. Sets out his idea for a parliamentary system based not on political parties but on autonomous community groups.

McKibben, Bill, The Bill McKibben Reader: Pieces from an Active Life, New York, Henry Holt/Times Books, 2008, pp. 442

Anthology of 44 essays by noted writer and activist on green issues, including climate change (with some more personal reflections).

McKie, Kristin, The process of donor funding as the cause of social movement decline; A case study of the Barabaig Land Rights Movement in Tanzania, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, IL, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, 2007

McKinley, Dale T., Lessons of Struggle: The Rise and Fall of the Anti-Privatisation Forum, South African Civil Society Information Service, 2012

Critical analysis of failings of Forum, which was set up in 2000 and active for 10 years, but also noting its positive role as voice for marginalised and promoter of grass roots activism.

McKittrick, David ; McVea, David, Making Sense of The Troubles, [2000], (revised edition), London, Viking, 2012, pp. 404

Coverage of major events during the Troubles. Includes a useful chronology and an account of the Ulster Workers Council strike in 1974. . The revised 2012 edition also covers political developments in Northern Ireland since the origonal publication including the historic power-sharing agreement between the DUP and Sinn Féin in 2007.

McLeod, Donald, Lesbian and Gay Liberation in Canada: A Selected Annotated Chronology 1964-1975, Toronto, ECW Press/Homewood Books, 1996, pp. 302

Covers 12 years of the ‘homophile’ movement, represented by ASK (Association for Social Knowledge) in Vancouver, and early Gay Liberation activity to founding of the National Gay Rights Coalition in 1975. Emphasis on demonstrations, lobbying and other political activities and legal reform, but also covers expressions of lesbian and gay concerns in culture and arts.

McManus, Philip ; Schlabach, Gerald, Relentless Persistence: Nonviolent Action in Latin America, ed. McManus, Philip, Schlabach, Gerald, Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 2004, pp. 312

[Individual essays are also cited in sub-sections.]

In the 1980s some groups used the term ‘firmeza permanente’ (in English widely rendered as ‘relentless persistence’) to indicate nonviolence.

McMillan, Andrew, The Voyage of the Lusitania Espresso, In Moser-Puangsuwan; Weber, Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders: A Recurrent Vision (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment), Honolulu, Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace, pp. 73-100

Critical account by Australian participant of Portuguese initiated act of solidarity with East Timorese victims of Indonesian occupation and repression: to sail a boat from Darwin to Dili in 1992 and lay a wreath in Santa Cruz cemetery in memory of 50 killed there attending a funeral in November 1991.

McNeish, James, Fire Under the Ashes: The Life of Danilo Dolci, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1965, pp. 256

McTaggart, David ; Hunter, Robert, Greenpeace III: The Journey into the Bomb, London, Collins, 1978, pp. 372

Leading Greenpeace activists recount how their boat succeeded in sailing into the French nuclear testing zone near Muroroa Atoll in 1971, forcing the French government to halt one of its planned nuclear tests.

Meaden, Bernadette, Protesting for Peace, Glasgow, Wild Goose Publications, 1999, pp. 151

Sympathetic coverage of a wide range of campaigns in Britain – Greenham Common, Trident Ploughshares, the arms trade, British troops in Northern Ireland, US bases, the ‘peace tax’, and opposition to the (first) Gulf War.

Meier, August ; Rudwick, Elliot, CORE: A Study on the Civil Rights Movement 1942-1968, [1973], Urbana IL, Illini Books, 1975, pp. 563

Extensive analysis of rise and fall of CORE drawing on interviews with key members and CORE archives. Covers the 1960 sit-ins, 1961 Freedom Ride, mass campaigns in 1963 to desegregate Southern cities, and the impact of black power ideology.

Meldrum, Andrew, Where We Have Hope: A Memoir of Zimbabwe, London, John Murray, 2004, pp. 272

Personal account by Guardian journalist of Zimbabwe’s politics and people since 1980. Chapters 12-19 (pp. 114-241) cover the rise of the MDC, the debate about the new constitution, resistance and repression, and Chapter 20 describes his own expulsion from the country.

Mellibovsky, Matilde, Circle of Love over Death: Testimonies of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, Willimantic CT, Curbstone Press, 1997, pp. 249

By one of the founding Madres.

Mellon, Christian ; Muller, Jean-Marie, La guerre par actions civiles: Identité d’une stratégie de défense, Paris, Fondation pour les Etudes de Défense (FEDN), 1985, pp. 204

Study commissioned by the then French Defence Minister on the  principles and techniques of nonviolent defence.

Mellon, Christian ; Muller, Jean-Marie ; Sémelin, Jacques, La dissuasion civile, Paris, Fondation des Etudes de Défense Nationale (FEDN), 1985, pp. 204

Study commissioned by the then French Defence Minister on the principles and techniques of nonviolent defence.

Mellon, Christian ; Sémelin, Jacques, La Non-violence, Paris, Presse Universitaire de la France, 1994, pp. 128

The authors offer a definition of nonviolence and its main components, before reviewing the history of nonviolent struggles, as well as the past and future research agenda on civil resistance.

Menasche, Louis ; Radosh, Ronald, Teach-ins USA: Reports, Opinions, Documents, New York, Praeger, 1967, pp. 349

Records how the Teach-In movement began modestly in a mid-West campus in 1965 but spread across the country, engaging many students and professors, and released a vast quantity of material about the Vietnam War. For first teach-in see: ‘History of Education: Selected Moments of the 20th Century: 1965 First ‘Teach-in’ held at University of Michigan: New Tool for Further Education is Born’:

http://schugurensky.faculty.asu.edu/moments/1965teachin.html

Menchu, Rigoberta, I Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian Woman in Guatemala, edited and introduced by Elisabeth Burgos-Debray, London, Verso, 1984, pp. 252

Mendes, Kaitlynn ; Ringrose, Jessica ; Keller, Jessalynn, # MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism, European Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 25, no. 2, 2018

A study of how digital technologies and social media are used to challenge rape culture, misogyny and harassment, conducted after the #MeToo movement’s explosion in October 2017.

Mendoza Jr., Amado Jr., ”People Power” in the Philippines, 1983-86, In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 179-190

Discusses if the role of civil resistance from 1983 onwards ‘derived from a principled rejection of violence, or from particular strategic, moral, and cultural considerations’. Suggests all relevant to the moderate coalition against Marcos. Also discusses crucial role of US government – though divided – and notes the continuing problems facing Philippine democracy.

Meray, Tibor, Thirteen Days that Shook the Kremlin: Imre Nagy and the Hungarian Revolution, London, Thames and Hudson, 1959, pp. 290

Mercado, Monina Allarey, People Power: An Eyewitness History: The Philippine Revolution of 1986, ed. Mercado, Monina Allarey, Preface and scenarios by Francisco S. Tatad, Manila and New York, J.B. Reuter and Writers and Readers Publishing, 1987, pp. 320

Meredith, Martin, Nelson Mandela: A Biography, London, Hamish Hamilton, 1997, pp. 596

Merrick, Battle for the Trees: Three Months of Responsible Ancestry, Leeds, Godhaven Ink, 1996, pp. 132

Account of three months struggle against Newbury bypass.

Merton, Thomas, La Mia Passione Per La Pace, Miano, Garzanti Editore, 2017, pp. 164

Merton explains his theoretical approach, which draws on exponents of nonviolence such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr, and in this context discusses the Danish people's resistance against the Nazis, the perils of the nuclear age and racism.

Merton, ThomasZahn, Gordon C., The Nonviolent Alternative, ed. Mayer, Peter, New York, Farrar Strauss Giroux, 1980, pp. 270

Collection of essays by well-know Catholic thinker on war, peace and nonviolence.

Mertus, Julie, Kosovo: How Truths and Myths Started a War, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 378

Interviews with both Serbs and Albanians about key episodes in the escalation from 1981 to 1990 are juxtaposed with a written history. See also: Mertus, Julie, ‘Women in Kosovo: Contested terrains – the role of national identity in shaping and challenging gender identity’ in Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Gender Politics in the Western Balkans, University Park PA, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999, pp. 171-86.

Meseznikov, Grigorij ; Ivantysyn, Michal ; Nicholson, Tom, Slovakia 1998-1999: A Global Report on the State of Society, ed. Meseznikov, Grigorij, Ivantysyn, Michal, Nicholson, Tom, Bratislava, Institue for Public Affairs, 1999, pp. 439

Meyer, David S., A Winter of Discontent: The Nuclear Freeze and American Politics, New York, Praeger, 1990, pp. 320

Meyer, David S.Rochon, Thomas, Coalitions and Political Movements: The Lessons of the Nuclear Freeze, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 1997, pp. 277

Examines movement of the early 1980s which mobilized huge numbers in the US to protest against the dangers of nuclear weapons and strategies and demanding a US-Soviet agreement for a freeze on testing, production and deployment of nuclear weapons, bombers and missiles. The movement gained some support in Congress, organized a mass lobby in Washington and demonstrated throughout the country in 1983, and engaged in electoral activity. This book examines the successes and failures of the Freeze, and broader implications for other movements. See also: Meyer, David S., A Winter of Discontent: The Nuclear Freeze and American Politics New York, Praeger, , 1990, pp. 320

Meyer, Michael, The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall, New York, Scribner, 2009, pp. 255

Former Newsweek bureau chief in East Europe combines personal recollections with an analysis contesting the view that the US government made a significant contribution to the collapse of the regimes – except indirectly through cooperating with Gorbachev’s detente agenda.

Mez, Lutz, Ziviler Widerstand in Norwegen, Frankfurt am Main, Haag and Herchen, 1976, pp. 376

The resistance by Norwegian teachers and other civil society groups to Quisling’s attempt to impose fascist ideology during th e German occupation is one of the most important and successful examples of resistance during World War Two.

Mhadavi, Pardis, How #MeToo became a global movement, Foreign Affairs, 2018

The article covers movements in countries such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Guatemala, Chile, India and Egypt that have preceded the #MeToo movement and have in some way created the conditions through which the #MeToo movement acquired international resonance.

Michelson, Cherry, The Black Sash of South Africa: A Case Study in Liberalism, London, Oxford University Press, 1975, pp. 204

Analysis of (predominantly) white women’s organization publicly opposing apartheid since 1950, known especially for its vigils.

Michnik, Adam, Letters from Prison and Other Essays, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1985, pp. 354

Influential intellectual oppositionist in Poland from the 1960s to the 1980s argues for adhering to nonviolent methods for moral and political as well as pragmatic reasons (i.e. threat of Soviet military response to a violent uprising).

Middle East Institute, Revolution and Political Transformation in the Middle East, ed. Middle East Institute, , Government Action in Response, Vol. 2, Washington DC, Middle East Institute, 2011, pp. 36

Middle East Institute, Revolution and Political Transformation in the Middle East, ed. Middle East Institute, , Outcomes and Prospects, Vol. 3, Washington DC, Middle East Institute, 2011, pp. 32

Middle East Institute, Revolution and Political Transformation in the Middle East, ed. Middle East Institute, , Agents of Change, Vol. 1, Washington DC, Middle East Institute, 2011, pp. 45

Milburn, Caroline, Australia: Women at forefront of Jabiluka resistance, The Age, no. 13 March, 1999

Miliband, Ralph ; Saville, John, The Socialist Register, 1972, London, Merlin Press, 1972

Miller, Christopher A., Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: A Training Manual, Addis Ababa, University of Peace Africa Programme, 2006, pp. 142

A manual derived mainly from writings and approach of Gene Sharp, Robert Helvey and Peter Ackerman and directed at an African audience.

Miller, David, Rethinking Northern Ireland: Culture, Ideology and Colonialism, Abingdon, Routledge, 1998, pp. 344

Aims, in words of editor, ‘to give its readers a reasonably broad critical introduction to the Northern Ireland conflict’. Most of the 13 contributors to the book are academics working in the field of sociology, politics and media studies, plus writers and journalists. The thrust of the argument in the book is that the conflict needs to be understood as an anti-colonial struggle, not as a religious or ethnic one, and that tackling the inequalities brought about by colonialism is the key to securing a lasting peace.

Miller, Jill, You Can’t Kill the Spirit: Women in a Welsh Mining Village, London, Women's Press, 1987, pp. 177

Miller, William Robert, Nonviolence: A Christian Interpretation, London, Allen and Unwin, 1965, pp. 380

Discusses the nature and dynamics of nonviolent action and briefly covers several unarmed resistance movements (the accuracy of the account of the Danish resistance in World War has been questioned).

Milligan, Don, The Politics of Homosexuality, Studies in Anti-Capitalism series, London, Pluto Press, 1975, pp. 19

Brief survey, which raises issue of how homosexuality should be addressed in the socialist movement.

Milne, Seumas, The Enemy Within: The Secret War Against the Miners, London, Verso and Pan, 1995, pp. 511

Miniotaite, Grazina, Nonviolent Resistance in Lithuania, Cambridge MA, Albert Einstein Institution, 2002, pp. 98

Mirowski, Philip, Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown, London, Verso, 2014, pp. 384

Economic historian’s caustic analysis of self-validating nature of neoliberal thought among economists and politicians and suggested bases for an alternative analysis of economic crisis and future possibilities.

Mishra, K.P., Gandhian Views on Democracy, Gandhi Marg, Vol. 34, no. 2-3 (Jul-Dec), 2012, pp. 205-216

Primarily an exposition of Gandhi’s theory of democracy, but commenting on Hazare’s anti-corruption movement as a starting point.

Mitcalfe, Barry, Boy Roel: Voyage to Nowhere, Auckland N.Z., Alister Taylor, 1972, pp. 154

Diary of events aboard Boy Roel, one of the fleet of four ships, including Greenpeace III, which attempted to sail into French nuclear testing zone near Muroroa Atoll in 1972.

Mjøset, Lars ; van Holde, Stephen, The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces, Oxford, JAI/Elseveer, 2002, pp. 424

Mladjenovic, Lepa ; Litricin, Vera, Belgrade Feminists 1992: Separation, Guilt and Identity Crisis, Feminist Review, no. 45, 1993, pp. 113-119

Reviews development of Yugoslav feminism from 1978 and notes strains created by vigils against the war in Croatia and later in Bosnia. See also:  Women in Black, Compilation of Information on Crimes of War against Women in ex-Yugoslavia – and Actions and Initiatives in their Defence Belgrade, Women in Black, , 1993

Mlynář, Zdeněk, Night Frost in Prague: The End of Humane Socialism, London, Hurst, 1980, pp. 300

Account by Communist Party leader close to Dubcek of internal Party politics leading up to the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, personal account of the Kremlin ‘negotiations’ after the abduction of top leaders, and his resignation from the Party.

Mobilization, Mobilization, ed. Mobilization, , Mobilization, Vol. 17, no. 4 (December), 2012

contains an overview by Charles Kurzman. ‘The Arab Spring Uncoiled’, and articles on Egypt, Iran, and Syria.

Moghadam, Valentine, Globalizing Women: Transnational Feminist Networks, ed. Loonba, Ania, Lukose, Ritty A., Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 2005, pp. 272

Explores pressures of globalization on women and reactions against it and rise of transnational networks, such as DAWN (Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era), WEDO (Women’s Economic and Development Organization), SIGI (Sisterhood is Global Institute) and WLUML (Women Living Under Muslim Laws).

Mok, Chiu Yu ; Harrison, Frank, Voices from Tiananmen Square: Beijing Spring and the Democracy Movement, ed. Mok, Chiu Yu, Harrison, Frank, Montreal, Black Rose Books, 1990, pp. 203

Collection of documents from participants in demonstrations.

Molin, Marian, Radical Pacifism in Modern America: Egalitarianism and Protest, Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, pp. 255

Molyneux, Maxine, Mobilization without Emancipation? Women’s Interests, the State and Revolution in Nicaragua, Feminist Studies, Vol. 11, no. 2, 1985, pp. 227-252

Molyneux, Maxine, The “Woman Question” in the Age of Perestroika, ed. Martens, Lorna, New Left Review, no. 183, 1990, pp. 23-49

Useful overall summary analysis of changing position of women in communist (and post-communist) countries (including China), with detailed references.

Monbiot, George, Anticapitalism: A Guide to the Movement, London, Bookmarks, 2001, pp. 416

Montessori, Maria, Educazione E Pace, [1949], Roma, Opera Nazionale Montessori, 2004, pp. 150

In this work, Maria Montessori elucidates her theory of education. She argues that children are the most important actors in a society and therefore stresses the role of education as a tool for building a culture of peace.

Montiel, Cristina Jayme, Political Psychology of Nonviolent Democratic transitions in Southeast Asia, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 62, no. 1 (February), 2006, pp. 173-190

Moody, Roger, The Risks We Run: Mining Communities and Political Risk Insurance, Utrecht, International Books, 2005, pp. 342

Part 1 investigates the shadowy world of international mining finances, while Part 2 has case study chapters on mining projects and local resistance in West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Guyana, Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania and Peru.

Moody, Roger, Rocks and Hard Places: The Globalisation of Mining, ed. Magnusson, Warren, Shaw, Karena, London, Zed Books, 2007, pp. 213

Detailed analysis by committed campaigner. Chapter 8 ‘No Means No’ discusses strategy against mining, calling for more emphasis on nonviolent direct action and greater scepticism about certification.

Moore Jr., Barrington Jr., The Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, London, Allen Lane, 1967

Chapter 6 ‘Democracy in Asia: India and the price of peaceful change’ argues that Gandhi was ‘the spokesman of the Indian peasant and village artisan’ (p. 178) and comments critically on Gandhi’s desire to return to ‘an idealized past’ of the village community purged of untouchability, and failure to challenge interests of landed aristocracy.

Moorhouse, Bert ; Wilson, Mary ; Chamberlain, Chris, Rent Strikes – Direct Action and the Working Class, ed. Miliband, Ralph, Saville, John, In Miliband, Ralph ; Saville, John , The Socialist Register, 1972 London, Merlin Press, , 1972, pp. 133-156

Starts with account of major rent strikes on the Clyde in 1915 and 1921-26, but includes materials on rent strikes in London 1959-61 and 1968-70 and their implications.

Moreira Alvez, Maria Helena, State and Opposition in Military Brazil, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 1985, pp. 352

Moreno, Aluminé, The Politics of Visibility and the GLTTTBI Movement in Argentina, Feminist Review, Vol. 89, no. 1, 2008, pp. 138-143

Morgan, Gerald, The Dragon’s Tongue: The Fortunes of the Welsh Language, Cardiff, The Triskel Press, 1966, pp. 144

Morgan, Robin, Sisterhood is Global: The International Women’s Movement Anthology, [1984], New York, City University of New York Feminist Press, 1996, pp. 821

Anthology of essays and documents from women in 70 countries round the world, especially the Global South. Authors are a mix of well known and less well known grass roots activists, politicians and scholars. A global strategy meeting organized to mark publication in 1984 led to the creation of the Sisterhood Is Global Institute (SIGI).

Morgenstierne, Christopher Munthe, Denmark and National Liberation in Southern Africa: A Flexible Response, Uppsala, Nordiska Afikrainstitutet, 2003, pp. 142

Companion to Eriksen and Sellstrom, this section.

Morris, Aldon, Black Southern Student Sit-in movement: An Analysis of Internal Organisation, American Sociological Review, Vol. 46, no. 6 (December), 1981, pp. 744-767

(reprinted in McAdam; Snow, Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics and Outcomes (A. 7. Important Reference Works and Websites) )

Describes the expansion of organisational capacity for direct action between 1956 and 1960.

Morris, Aldon, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organising for Change, London, Collier Macmillan, 1984, pp. 563

Details continuity with pre-civil rights movement generations of protest, and studies organisational infrastructure of protest in black communities.

Morris, Aldon ; Mueller, Carol McClure, Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, New Haven CT, Yale University Press, 1992, pp. 400

Morris, Monique W., Black Stats: African-Americans By The Numbers In The Twenty-First Century, New York and London, The New Press, 2014, pp. 240, p.b.

In this work, Monique Morris provides a statistical account on the lives of African Americans in the U.S. related to the field of education, environment, sport, health and justice system, military, politics, voting and civic engagement in order to highlight the disparity between racial communities.

Morse, David, Beyond the Myths of Seattle, Dissent, Vol. 48, no. summer, 2001, pp. 39-43

Morán-Breña, Carmen, Spanish #MeToo movement demands justice for victims of sexual abuse, El Pais, 2018

The anti-sexual harassment group Pandora's Box, composed of 3,000 women  involved in the arts, called for institutional protection against harassment and demanded allegations should not be ignored. The appeal was part of a campaign to support the dancer Carmen Tome, who had accused a curator at a cultural centre in Alicante of groping her. The group was still organising itself and considering both educational and legal means of preventing gender violence.

Moser, Richard R., The New Winter Soldiers: GI and Veteran Dissent During the Vietnam Era, New Brunswick NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1996, pp. 252

Draws on interviews and personal stories to examine how the ideal of the ‘citizen soldier’ encouraged thousands to move towards opposition to the Vietnam war.

Moser-Puangsuwan, Yeshua, Burma – Dialogue with the Generals: The Sound of One Hand Clapping, In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), London, Pluto Press, pp. 39-49

Includes comparison with resistance to Tibet.

Moser-Puangsuwan, Yeshua ; Weber, Thomas, Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders: A Recurrent Vision, ed. Moser-Puangsuwan, Yeshua, Weber, Thomas, Honolulu, Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace, 2000, pp. 369

Analyses different kinds of ‘intervention’ and notes history of earlier 20th century attempts. It provides accounts of transnational actions round the world designed to mobilize protest, provide assistance, promote reconciliation and development, witness human rights violations and ‘accompany’ endangered individuals, highlight danger (e.g. of nuclear testing), demonstrate solidarity, or to prevent or halt war. Includes chronology and summary of actions with suggestions for further reading.

Moskos, Charles C. ; Chambers, John Whiteclay, The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 286

Section 1 suggests ‘the secularization of conscience and modern individ-ualism have been the driving force’ in the rise of conscientious objection. Section 2 looks at the historical record in the USA. Section 3 has articles on France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, the former Communist states in Eastern Europe, Israel and South Africa.

Moskos, Charles C. ; Chambers, John Whitelay, The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance, ed. Moskos, Charles C., Chambers, John Whitelay, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 296

Movimiento de Objeción de Conciencia, En Legitima Desobediencia, Madrid, Proyecto Editorial Traficantes de Sueños, 2002, pp. 348

This is the major compilation of declarations, press statements and articles by the protagonists of the insumisión campaign at the time of their disobedience. Therefore it includes accounts of various stages of movement, such as the formation of the first objectors’ groups, and defiance of the Conscientious Objection Act, and the struggle inside the prison in Pamplona. There are also manifestoes, letters of support and internal documents which record these struggles and others that arose out of them: for example the gender issue raised by antimilitarist-feminist women, and the campaign against military expenditure involving tax refusal.

Moyer, Bill ; McAllister, JoAnn ; Finley, Mary Lou ; Soifer, Steven, Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements, Gabriola Island, New Society Publishers, 2001, pp. 228

From his central insight that some movements could not recognise when they were succeeding, Bill Moyer constructed his model MAP - Movement Action Plan - as a tool for strategic analysis for nonviolent movements. The book includes case studies of five US movements: civil rights, anti-nuclear energy, gay and lesbian, breast cancer and anti-globalization.

Mueller, Barbara, Passiver Widerstand in Ruhrkampf. Eine Fallstudie zur gewaltlosen zwischenstaatlichen Konfliktaustragung und ihren Erfolgsbedingungen, Münster, Lit, 1995, pp. 529

The officially organized German resistance to the French occupation of the Ruhr in 1923 is an especially relevant case study for proponents of civilian-based defence.

Mueller, Barbara, Balkan Peace Team 1994-2001. Mit Freiwilligenteams in gewaltfreiem Einsatz in Krisenregionen, Braunschweig, Bildungsvereinigung Arbeit und Leben, Niedersachsen, 2004, pp. 240

A description and evaluation of the work of the international Balkan Peace Team that worked in Croatia and Serbia/Kosovo in the 1990s.

Mueller, Barbara ; Schweizer, Christine, Zur Aktualitaet von Sozialer Verteidigung. Dokumentation eines Workshops von IFGK and BSV vom 15-16 April 2005, Arbeitspapier Nr 20 , 2008

This working paper is the product of a joint workshop on ‘The Timeliness of Civilian-based Defence’ held by the Union for Civilian Defence.  It discusses the role of nonviolent resistance in successful conflict management today in the context of the current direction of world politics.

Mueller, Carol, Claim “Radicalization?” The 1989 Protest Cycle in the GDR, Social Problems, Vol. 46, no. 4 (November), 1999, pp. 528-547

Mufson, Steven, The Fighting Years: The Struggle for a New South Africa, Boston, Beacon Press, 1990, pp. 360

Washington Post journalist, who was in South Africa 1984-86, interviewed leaders of banned organizations and more conservative Africans. Less strong on post-1986 period.

Muller, Jean-Marie, Stratégie De L'Action Non-violente, Paris, Le Seuil, Col. Points Politique, 1981, pp. 256

This book has become a key reference on the subject of nonviolent action, and notably was circulated clandestinely in Poland after 1981. It has been translated in Italian, Spanish, Polish, Croatian and Arabic.

Muller, Jean-Marie, Simone Weil. L’Esigenza Della Nonviolenza, Torino, Edizioni Gruppo Abele, 1994, pp. 188

This work discusses Weils’s nonviolent militancy during the 1930s and 1940s and highlights her rejection of violence as the epicentre of Weil’s discussions on economy, politics, philosophy and religion.

Muller, Jean-Marie, Le Principe De La Non-violence. Parcours Philosophique, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1995, pp. 328

The goal of this book is to develop a philosophical concept of non-violence to challenge the ideology that violence is necessary, legitimate and honourable.

Muller, Jean-Marie, Principes Et Méthodes De L'intervention Civile, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1997, pp. 176

A key resource on the French approach to international civilian peace intervention as an alternative to military or humanitarian intervention in conflict zones. It has been translated in Italian and Portuguese.

Muller, Jean-Marie, Le Dictionnaire De La Non-violence, Paris, Le Relie de poche, 2005, pp. 410

This encyclopaedia by leading French theorist compiles and analyses key words in the philosophy of nonviolence, as well as strategic components for effective nonviolent action.

Muller, Jean-Marie, L’Imperatif de Désobeissance, Fondements Philosophique et Stratégiques de la Désobeissance Civil, Le Passager Clandestin, 2011, pp. 281

The author analyses the foundation texts and historic campaigns of civil disobedience in France and in the world.  He constructs a definition of the concept understood as both an ethical imperative and a form of nonviolent direct action.

Muller, Jean-Marie, The Principle of Nonviolence: A Philosophical Path, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling, 2014, pp. 273

The goal of this book is to develop a philosophical concept of nonviolence, aiming to challenge the ideology that violence is necessary, legitimate and honourable.

Mullis, Daniel, Demonstrieren! Blockieren ! Okkupieren! - Blockupy Frankfurt und die Produktion des Politischen, Europa Regional, Vol. 20, no. 1, 2015, pp. 20-32

Blockupy in Germany is one of the broadest ranging attempts to politicize the austerity measures, which have been introduced throughout Europe since 2010. Blockupy was enabled to emerge through the combination of embedding protest in the 'Global City' of Frankfurt with the practice of civil disobedience. Drawing on the theories of Lefebvre, Laclau/Mouffe and also Ranciere, the author highlights the links between dissident production of space, the historical formation of the crisis and the focus on Frankfurt as the stage for the protests.  

Mundey, Jack, Green Bans and Beyond, Sydney NSW, Angus and Robertson, 1981

Murgatroyd, Richard, The Popular Politics of the Poll Tax: An Active Citizenship of the Left, London, Brunel University (published PhD thesis), 2000, pp. 338

Detailed case study of poll tax protest in the London Borough of Ealing.

Murphy, Dervla, A Place Apart, ed. Miller, David, [1978], Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1980, pp. 300

Records the experiences of this distinguished Irish travel writer during her cycling tour of Northern Ireland in 1976-77. Briefly recapitulates the historical background to the Troubles, and re-examines the rival myths and prejudices of the Protestant and Catholic communities, both of whom warmly welcomed her while remaining suspicious of each other. Informed by genuine affection for the people of Northern Ireland and an optimism about its future in the longer term though discounting the possibility of a united Ireland.

Murphy, Dervla, Changing the Problem: Post Forum Reflections, Lilliput Pamphlets No. 3, Gigglestown, Lilliput, 1984

Puts the case, following the publication of the report of the New Ireland Forum, for an independent Northern Ireland

Murray, Dominic, Protestant Perceptions of the Peace Process in Northern Ireland, Limerick, Centre for Peace and Development Studies, University of Limerick, 2000, pp. 173

Contributions from Northern Ireland Protestants with backgrounds in politics, the media, education, religion and community work. Murray, himself from a nationalist background, stresses the importance of contesting the widely held view in the Republic of Ireland and beyond that the Unionist population of Northern Ireland is a homogeneous group, which is both intransigent and obstructive. His intention as editor, he states, is to illuminate the diversity which exists in the unionist community.

Murungi, Kiraitu, President Moi and the Decline of Democracy in Kenya, Trans-Africa Forum, Vol. 8, no. 4, 1991, pp. 3-18

Muste, A.J., Of holy disobedience, In Hentoff, The Essays of A.J. Muste (D.2.a. Pacifist and Nonviolent Thought), New York, Simon and Schuster, pp. 355-377

Muste, A.J., Africa Against the Bomb, In Hentoff, The Essays of A.J. Muste (D.2.a. Pacifist and Nonviolent Thought), New York, Simon and Schuster,

Muñoz-Lamartine, Ernesto, Chile: Student Leaders Reinvent the Movement, Berkeley Review of Latin American Studies, no. Fall, 2011

Account of talk by Giorgio Jackson, President of the Catholic University’s Student Association in Chile.

Mwangilwa, Goodwin B., Harry Mwaanga Nkumbula: A Biography of the Old Lion of Zambia, Lusaka, Multimedia Publications, 1982, pp. 157

Nkumbula was the first major exponent from the 1940s of African resistance to white dominance and federation, and led the Northern Rhodesian African National Congress. But in the late 1950s he moved towards gradual reform policies and stood for a seat in the 1959 elections, whilst 
Kapepwe and Kaunda opted for further resistance and founded their own separate party.

Müller, Beate, Censorship & Cultural Regulation in the Modern Age, ed. Müller, Beate, Amsterdam and New York, Rodopi, 2004, pp. 250

Nafisi, Azar, Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books, [2003], London, Harper Perennial, 2008, pp. 347

A study of quiet resistance through a women’s group reading forbidden western literature. Also includes autobiographical insights into the 1977-79 Iranian revolution – its early stages and aftermath.

Nagler, Michael ; Spiegel, Egon, Politik ohne Gewalt. Prinzipien, Praxis und Perspektiven der Gewaltfreiheit, Berlin, Lit, 2008, pp. 196

The American activist and academic Nagler and the German theologian Spiegel describe the principles, practices and perspectives of nonviolence.

Naib, Fatma, Egypt: Women of the Revolution, Pambazuka News, 2011

Nairn, Tom, The Break-up of Britain, [1977], London, Verso, 1981, pp. 409

Marxist analysis of the political and economic factors leading to a resurgence of national consciousness in the constituent parts of the UK. In a chapter on Ireland, he rejects what he sees as the oversimplified imperialist analysis of Ireland’s situation by Irish nationalists and some fellow Marxists from Connolly to Farrell. Argues the case for an independent Northern Ireland.

Najjar, Sonja, Women’s Empowerment and Peace-Building under Occupation?, Palestine-Israel Journal, Vol. 17, no. 3 & 4, 2011, pp. 59-66

Argues peacebuilding has to empower resilience and resistance to occupation.

Nancy, Gregory, The Gay and Lesbian Movement in the United States, In Moyer; McAllister; Finley; Soifer, Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements (K.1. Planning and Development of Campaigns), Gabriola Island, New Society Publishers, pp. 152-164

Analyses the US LGBT movement from 1945-2000 using the model of the Movement Action Plan developed by Moyer.

Nanda, Bal R., Gandhi and His Critics, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1985, pp. 178

Nanda, who has also written a balanced biography of Gandhi and studies of other Indian leaders close to Gandhi (including Gandhi’s early mentor Gokhale), here examines controversial aspects of Gandhi’s life and thought.

Naples, Nancy A. ; Desai, Manisha, Women’s Activism and Globalization: Linking Local Struggles and Transnational Politics, London and New York, Routledge, 2002, pp. 352

Focuses on women’s inequalities in rural and urban areas, and considers forms of organization and solidarity across borders. Includes a study of women activists in Mali.

Narain, Sunitra, A Million Mutinies, New Internationalist, no. 419 (Jan/Feb), 2009, pp. 10-11

Nash, June, We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us: Dependency and Exploitation in Bolivian Tin Mines, New York, Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 363

Includes material on strikes, demonstrations, hunger strikes and road blocks.

Nash, June, Social Movements. An Anthropoligical Reader, ed. Nash, June, Oxford, Blackwell, 2005, pp. 360

Natanel, Katherine, Resistance and the Limits: Feminist Actions and Conscientious Objection in Israel, Feminist Review, no. 101 (July), 2012, pp. 78-100

Assesses effectiveness of feminist resistance on movement to refuse the draft, looking primarily at experience of individual feminist COs, rather than organized women’s groups.

National Crime Record Bureau – Ministry of Home Affairs, Crime in India 2016. Statistics, New Delhi, Government of India, 2017

The report reveals that India recorded 106 rapes a day, and 4 victims out of every 10 were minors. In 95% of the cases it reveals that the perpetrator was a relative, such as a brother, father, grandfather, son or other man close to the family. In 2016, a total of 38,947 rapes were registered in the country under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO) as well as Section 376 and other related section of the Indian Penal Code. In a positive light, the report indicates that the number of reports to the police is increasing each year. However, only 26% of rape cases ended up in conviction in 2016.

Naucke, Philipp, Der Stein im Schuh: ueber friedlichen, zivilen Widerstand in gewaltsamen Konfliktregionen - eine Fallstudie der Friedensgemeinde San Jose de Apartado, Kolumbien, Marburg, Curupira, 2011

During the forty years of armed conflict in Colombia, civil society was continuously assaulted by violent infringement of rights by both left wing guerrilla movements and paramilitary groups. Nevertheless, since the end of the 1990s many communities declared themselves 'municipalities of peace'. Their members commit themselves to behave neutrally and to reject any collaboration with armed actors. Naucke investigates the origin, function and structure of San Jose de Apartado, which is one of the peaceful communities that decided to confront repression.

Navin, Mishra, Nepal: Democracy in Transition, Delhi, Authorspress, 2006, pp. 295

Discusses historical background since 1951, the evolution of parliamentary democracy from 1991-2001 and examines in detail the royal takeover and war with the Maoists.

Nba, Nina Emma, Nigerian Women Mobilized: Women’s Political Activity in Southern Nigeria, 1900-1965, Berkeley CA, University of California Institute of International Studies, 1982, pp. 344

Neale, Jonathan, You Are G 8. We Are 6 Billion: The Truth Behind the Genoa Protests, London, Vision Paperbacks, 181, pp. 275

Needham