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This section covers a wide range of campaigns against war, weapons and bases. It focuses particularly on protest in the west or countries allied to the west, but some issues such as nuclear testing, nuclear bases or military alliances have prompted opposition in many parts of the world. The campaign to ban landmines had particular importance for countries caught up in local conflicts. Conscientious objection to military service has also been a world-wide issue. Campaigns against specific wars receive some coverage under more general surveys, but for the more specialized literature see Section E.

Bennett, Scott H., Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 2003, pp. 312

Includes CO revolts in camps and prisons in World War Two against racial segregation, and role of League members in helping to found the Congress of Racial Equality and its nonviolent direct action strategy. Also covers relations of secular and radical WRL with other pacifist bodies, such as Christian Fellowship of Reconciliation.

Brock, Peter ; Young, Nigel J., Pacifism in the Twentieth Century, Syracuse NY, Syrakuse University Press, 1999, pp. 434

(Revised and updated version of Peter Brock, Twentieth Century Pacifism, 1970, Van Nostrand Reinhold.)
History of opposition to war drawing primarily on US and British experience, but including material on Gandhi and the later Gandhian movement, assessments of the position of conscientious objectors in many parts of the world, and references to transnational organizations, e.g. the War Resisters’ International. Although the focus is on pacifism, the book includes material on the role of pacifists in the nuclear disarmament and anti-Vietnam War movements.

Bussey, Gertrude ; Tims, Margaret, Pioneers for Peace: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom 1915-1965, London, WILPF British Section, 1980, pp. 225

History of first 50 years of transnational body campaigning against war and for disarmament, which opposed NATO and nuclear weapons, was active (especially in the US) in resisting the Vietnam War and promotes social justice and reconciliation.

Carter, April, Peace Movements: International Protest and World Politics Since 1945, London, Longman, 1992, pp. 283

Particular focus on European and North American movements against nuclear weapons in the 1950s-60s and 1980s and East European responses in the 1980s. But other nuclear disarmament protests, peace campaigns on other issues and nonviolent initiatives in other parts of the world are indicated more briefly.

Cockburn, Cynthia, Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements, London, Pluto Press, 2012, pp. 320

Feminist peace activist provides her theoretical perspective on cross-national case studies including UK peace movement, War Resisters’ International, anti-militarist campaigns in Spain, Korea and Japan, and the anti-NATO demonstrations in Strasbourg 2009.

Cortright, David, Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 378

Chapters 7 and 8 cover anti-nuclear weapon campaigns, opposition to Vietnam and Iraq wars, resistance in the military and also draft resistance and conscientious objection.

Flessati, Valerie, Pax: The History of a Catholic Peace Society in Britain 1936-1971, Bradford, University of Bradford, PhD Thesis, 1991, , 2 volumespp. 535

Detailed historical study of both Pax and the Catholic element in the British peace movement. Pax from the outset opposed war under modern conditions as contrary to traditional just war teaching, a stance underlined by the development of nuclear weapons. Influenced Catholic thinking about modern war and the decision of the Second Vatican Council to recognize the right to conscientious objection and to call upon states to make provision for it.

Gress, David, Peace and Survival: West Germany, the Peace Movement and European Security, Stanford CA, Hoover Institution Press, 1985, pp. 266

Howorth, Jolyon ; Chilton, Patricia, Defence and Dissent in Contemporary France, London, Croom Helm, 1984, pp. 264

Part 1 covers France’s defence policy since 1945 – including the wars in Indo-China and Algeria, and De Gaulle’s decision (supported by the major political parties) to develop a French nuclear bomb. Part 2 focuses on anti-nuclear critiques and movements in the 1980s, including a military critique of French defence policy by Admiral Sanguinetti and Claude Bourdet on the ‘The rebirth of the peace movement’.

Locke, Elise, Peace People – A History of Peace Activity in New Zealand, Christchurch and Melbourne, Hazard Press, 1992, pp. 335

Chronicles peace activities in New Zealand from Maori time and early colonial settlement to the anti-Vietnam war movement and anti-nuclear campaigns of the 1960s and 1970s. Includes accounts of the direct action protests against French nuclear tests in 1972.

Meaden, Bernadette, Protesting for Peace, Glasgow, Wild Goose Publications, 1999, pp. 151

Sympathetic coverage of a wide range of campaigns in Britain – Greenham Common, Trident Ploughshares, the arms trade, British troops in Northern Ireland, US bases, the ‘peace tax’, and opposition to the (first) Gulf War.

Molin, Marian, Radical Pacifism in Modern America: Egalitarianism and Protest, Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, pp. 255

Nepstad, Sharon Erickson, Religion and War Resistance in the Plowshares Movement, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 204

Study of radical nonviolent direct action movement initiated by Catholic left during Vietnam War (burning draft records and pouring blood on conscription papers), which developed into wider protests against nuclear weapons and unjust wars involving openly declared sabotage of missiles and planes. Compares movement in US with similar groups in UK, Australia, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden, and examines how a movement involving long prison sentences maintained itself over decades.

Peace, Roger C., A Just and Lasting Peace: The US Peace Movement from the Cold War to Desert Storm, Chicago IL, The Noble Press, 1991, pp. 345

Peace, a writer/activist, documents the growth of the peace and justice movement in the US, with particular focus on the 1980s. Areas covered include anti-nuclear campaigning and campaigns for justice in Latin America. Discusses also debates and controversies within the movement.

Prasad, Devi, War is a Crime Against Humanity: The Story of War Resisters’ International, London, War Resisters' International, 2005, pp. 560

A history of the first 50 plus years of the radical pacifist organization (1921-1973).

Taylor, Richard ; Young, Nigel J., Campaigns for Peace: British Peace Movements in the Twentieth Century, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1987, pp. 308

Collection of analytical and descriptive essays spanning period from late 19th century to 1980s, but the main focus is on post-World War Two movement against nuclear weapons. Michael Randle assesses ‘Nonviolent direct action in the 1950s and 1960s’, pp. 131-61.

Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Pacific Women Speak-Out for Independence and Denuclearisation, Christchurch, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 1998, pp. 80

Indigenous women from Australia, Aotearoa (New Zealand), Belau, Bougainville, East Timor, Ka Pa’aina (Hawaii), the Marshall Islands, Te Ao Maohi (French Polynesia) and West Papua (Irian Jaya) condemn imperialism, war, ‘nuclear imperialism’ (in the form of nuclear tests) and military bases in the hope ‘that when people around the world learn what is happening in the Pacific they will be inspired to stand beside them and to act’. The book is a contribution to the Hague Appeal for Peace, 1999.

Much of the information about peace protest and nonviolent direct action is to be found in movement newsletters or journals, though some of these are transient. Long-running peace periodicals are:

Peace News, London, which has transnational interests but particularly covers Britain; Liberation (1956-1977), WIN Magazine (published until spring 2015) and Fellowship in the USA. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, although primarily a socially concerned journal covering scientific and strategic issues has carried articles on peace campaigns. Peace and Change (published by Sage) is an academic journal which examines peace campaigns and activity.

Conscientious objection to taking part in or supporting war has for a long time been associated in the west with particular religious beliefs. Since the Reformation protestant groups such as the Quakers, Anabaptists, Mennonites and Dukhobors have consistently refused military service. In past centuries some emigrated from Europe or Russia to North America to avoid conscription.
In the 20th century, although religious objectors to military service, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, have played a heroic role in resisting enforced military service in dictatorships, and a small but significant Catholic pacifist movement has also developed, there has been a growth of individual conscientious objection based on humanist beliefs. There have also been significant movements based on socialist or anarchist objections to capitalist wars, and major campaigns against participation in wars viewed as imperialist, racist, aggressive, illegal under international law or in any other way unjust. Many western states, especially since the end of the cold war, no longer require general conscription, but reservists or serving soldiers have also sometimes refused to take part in a particular war – as for example in the 1991 Gulf War.
Liberal democratic states have increasingly recognized the right to be a conscientious objector (CO) – and this has been reflected by many intergovernmental bodies, including the UN Human Rights Commission – and gradually extended the definition of conscience beyond religious beliefs. But militant resisters have rejected recognition of the state’s right to demand alternative civilian service, and have committed themselves to total resistance. Open draft resistance has often occurred alongside draft evasion – many young US citizens crossed the border into Canada during the Vietnam War – and desertion from the forces. One important role for organized peace groups, nationally and transnationally, has been to provide legal information, advice and support.
Refusing military service is limited to those of military age and until very recently has been limited to young men, but some have also seen conscientious refusal to pay taxes for war as a relevant form of protest. Moreover, in national campaigns against particular wars, prominent individuals have encouraged defiance of the draft or even desertion by signing subversive manifestoes, or have taken direct action at recruitment offices. Some examples of conscientious objection and draft resistance in SouthAfrica and Israel have been covered in Volume I of this Guide (E.I.1.c.), but a few reference are listed under 2.b. See also Section E for resistance to specific wars, in particular Vietnam.
There is a large literature on pacifism, much of it not directly relevant here. Selective references dealing with pacifist beliefs, with transnational and national organizations and campaigns against conscription, with the experiences of COs and draft resisters, and analyses of the legal position are listed below. We also include a couple of references to just war theory, influential in opposition to many wars, but critical of pure pacifism.

American Friends Service Committee, Speak Truth to Power: A Quaker Search for an Alternative to Violence, Philadelphia PA, American Friends Service Committee, 1955, pp. 71

Manifesto outlining a nonviolent approach to international politics and social change. Influenced the thinking of radical direct actionists in the US and Britain.

Ceadel, Martin, Thinking about Peace and War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1987, pp. 222

A frequently cited analysis and classification of different ways of thinking about war, which examines 5 ‘ideal types’ of ‘militarism’, ‘crusading’, ‘defencism’, ‘pacific-ism’ (representing many ideological and organizational strands within peace movements), and ‘pacifism’.

Childress, James F., Moral Responsibility in Conflicts: Essays on Nonviolence, War and Conflict, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1982, pp. 224

Includes chapters on conscientious objection and Reinhold Niebuhr on violent and nonviolent methods.

Hentoff, Nat, The Essays of A.J. Muste, new preface by Jo Ann O. Robinson, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2002, pp. 515

Essays on revolution, nonviolence and pacifism by a key figure on US radical/pacifist left, from 1905 to 1966, commenting in later essays on conscientious objection, opposition to French nuclear tests in Africa, the Civil Rights movement and the opposition to the Vietnam War.

Mayer, Peter, The Pacifist Conscience, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1966, pp. 447

Collection of writings on war, pacifism and nonviolence from 500 BC to 1960 AD, but emphasis on more modern figures, such as William Lloyd Garrison, Thoreau, Tolstoy, Gandhi, Simone Weil and Albert Camus. Includes also Martin Buber’s criticism of Gandhi for advocating nonviolent resistance by Jews to Hitler, and Reinhold Niebuhr’s reasons for leaving the (pacifist) Fellowship of Reconciliation.

Merton, ThomasZahn, Gordon C., The Nonviolent Alternative, ed. Zahn, Gordon C., New York, Farrar Strauss Giroux, 1980, pp. 270

Collection of essays by well-know Catholic thinker on war, peace and nonviolence.

Teichman, Jenny, Pacifism and the Just War: A Study in Applied Philosophy, Oxford, Blackwell, 1986, pp. 138

Discussion of pacifist theory and major objections to it from a just war perspective.

Unnithan, T.K.N. ; Singh, Yogendra, Traditions of Nonviolence, New Delhi and London, Arnold-Heinemann, 1973, pp. 317

Examines nonviolent traditions in Hindu, Chinese, Islamic and Judeo-Christian thought.

Walzer, Michael, Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1980, pp. 359

Highly regarded interpretation of just war theory. See also his earlier essays on war and disobedience, including an essay on conscientious objection in: , Obligations: Essays on Disobedience, War and Citizenship [1970] Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press, , 1982, pp. 260

Ajangiz, Rafa, The European Farewell to Conscription, In , The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces Oxford, JAI/Elseveer, , 2002, pp. 307-333

Discusses the relative impact of ‘reasons of state’ and ‘social mobilization’ (against conscription) as factors leading to the abandonment of conscription.

Amnesty International, Out of the Margins: The Right to Conscientious Objection to Military Service in Europe, London, Amnesty International, 1997, pp. 61

Surveys provisions for conscientious objection to military service, and expresses particular concerns in relation to treatment of COs in some countries. Recommends the release of all COs in prison, that all member states of EU and Council of Europe re-examine their legislation regarding conscientious objection, and that the EU include in the criteria for membership the recognition of conscientious objection and provisions for alternative service ‘of non-punitive length’.

Biesemans, Sam, The Right to Conscientious Objection and the European Parliament, Brussels, European Bureau for Conscientious Objection, 1995, pp. 109

Urges incorporation of right to conscientious objection in national constitutions, and the European Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Blatt, Martin ; Davis, Uri ; Kleinbaum, Paul, Dissent and Ideology in Israel: Resistance to the Draft,1948-1973, London, Ithaca Press for Housmans Bookshop, WRI, Middle East Research Group (MERAG) and Lansbury House Trust Fund, 1975, pp. 194

Accounts by Israeli conscientious objectors of their experience and the reasons for their stance. Editors relate these to a critique of Zionism.

Braithwaite, Constance, Conscientious Objection to Compulsions Under the Law, York, William Sessions, 1995, pp. 421

History of conscientious objection to compliance with various legal provisions involving compulsion of citizens, including taking of oaths, vaccination and religious education. Chapter on ethical and political problems related to conscientious objections takes the form of imaginary dialogue between author and a critic of her thesis.

Brock, Peter, These Strange Criminals’: An Anthology of Prison Memoirs by Conscientious Objectors from the Great War to the Cold War, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 505

Anthology of prison memoirs by conscientious objectors from World War One to the Cold War. Contributions from Britain, Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Casquette, Jesus, The Sociopolitical Context of Mobilization: The Case of the Anti-Militarist Movement in the Basque Country, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 1, issue 2 (Sept), 1996, pp. 203-212

Cinar, Ozgur Heval, Conscientious Objection to Military Service in International Human Rights Law, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, pp. 276

An updated overview of the recognition of the right to conscientious objection in international human rights law, with a focus on the UN and Council of Europe.

Cinar, Ozgur Heval ; Usterci, Coskun, Conscientious Objection: Resisting Militarized Society, London, Zed Books, 2009, pp. 272

Collections of essays: Part 1 comprises Turkish experience and viewpoints; Part 2 examines conscientious objection from gender perspectives; Part 3 examines C.O. struggles in different parts of the world and Part 4 looks at conscientious objection and the law.

Conscience and Peace Tax International, Fifth International Conference on War Tax Resistance and Peace Tax Campaigns, Founding Assembly of Conscience and Peace Tax International: Hondarribia, September 16-19 1994, Hondarribia, Spain, Asamblea de Objecion Fiscal de Navarra, 1994, pp. 111

Text of contributions, workshop reports and summaries of discussions. Conscience and Peace Tax International was established in Brussels as a non-profit association under Belgian law.

Ellner, Andrea ; Robinson, Paul ; Whetham, David, When Soldiers Say No: Selective Conscientious Objection in the Modern Military, Farnham, Ashgate, 2014, pp. 290

Explores theoretical arguments for and against selective objection, together with case studies from US, Britain, Australia, Germany and Israel.

Elster, Ellen ; Sørensen, Majken Jul, Women Conscientious Objectors: An Anthology, London, War Resisters' International, 2010, pp. 156

A collection of essays by and about women COs in USA, Europe, Turkey, Israel, Eritrea, Korea, Paraguay and Colombia.

Translations: Spanish
Flynn, Eileen P., My Country Right or Wrong: Selective Conscientious Objection in the Nuclear Age, Chicago IL, Loyola University Press, 1985, pp. 98

Discusses varieties of conscientious objection, from pacifist objection to all wars, selective objection to particular wars considered unjust and objection to indiscriminate and, most notably, nuclear warfare. Includes a discussion of just war principles.

Horeman, Bart ; Stolwijk, Marc, Refusing to Bear Arms: A World Survey of Conscription and Conscientious Objection to Military Service, Foreword by Devid Prasad, London, War Resisters' International, 1998, pp. 310

The most authoritative country by country survey of the position on conscription and conscientious objection in all member states of the UN, following the same formula in each case and setting out legal possibilities for avoiding military service. Historical overview of the evolution of conscription and conscientious objection appended to many country reports. There are also often additional sections on forced recruitment by non-governmental armed groups. Each report is dated. The online version includes updates, especially 2008, on all the countries (and then candidate countries) in the Council of Europe, see http://www.wri-irg.org/co/rtba/index.html. The 2008 update also published separately as: , Professional soldiers and the right to conscientious objection in the European Union Brussels, Tobias Pfluger MEP, European Parliamentary Group European United Left/Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL), , 2008, pp. 60

Lainer-Vos, Dan, Social Movements and Citizenship: Conscientious Objection in France, the United States and Israel, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 11, issue 3 (Oct), 2006, pp. 277-295

Compares movements of objection to the French war in Algeria, the US War in Vietnam and Israel’s invasion of Lebanon.

Moskos, Charles C. ; Chambers, John Whiteclay, The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 286

Section 1 suggests ‘the secularization of conscience and modern individ-ualism have been the driving force’ in the rise of conscientious objection. Section 2 looks at the historical record in the USA. Section 3 has articles on France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, the former Communist states in Eastern Europe, Israel and South Africa.

Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, Conscientious Objection to Military Service, Geneva, United Nations Publications, 2012, pp. 90

also available in Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish (pdf)

Translations: French | Spanish
Pentikainen, Merja, The Right to Refuse Military Orders, Geneva, International Peace Bureau in collaboration with International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms, Peace Union of Finland and Finnish Lawyers for Peace and Survival, 1994, pp. 110

Contributions on various forms of refusal – to do military service, to fire at one’s own people, to participate in torture, or to accept orders relating to nuclear weapons – together with summaries of relevant international law.

Quaker Council for European Affairs, Conscientious Objection to Military Service in Europe, Report for the Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Legal Affairs Committee, Brussels, Quaker Council for European Affairs, 1984, pp. 99

Sets out the legal provision for COs in all the European states at that date. Notes the importance of resolutions in support of making provisions for COs adopted by the Council of Europe in 1967, the UN in 1978 and the European Parliament in 1983.

Quaker Peace and Service, Taxes for Peace Not War: 6th International Conference on Peace Tax Campaigns and War Tax Resistance, London, Quaker Peace and Service, 1997, pp. 51

Assesses the impact of peace tax campaigns in the area of peacemaking and considers their possible future influence.

Rohr, John A., Prophets Without Honor: Public Policy and the Selective Conscientious Objector, Nashville and New York, Abingdon Press, 1971, pp. 191

Examines lack of a constitutional right or political tolerance for selective refusal to take part in particular wars.

Schlissel, Lillian, Conscience in America: A Documentary History of Conscientious Objection in America, 1757-1967, New York, E.P. Dutton, 1968, pp. 444

Documents and statements on conscientious objection, later sections cover COs in two world wars and Vietnam, and case for tax resistance.

Socknat, Thomas, Conscientious Objection in the Context of Canadian Peace Movements, Journal of Mennonite Studies, Vol. 25, 2007, pp. 61-74

War Resisters' International, A Conscientious Objector’s Guide to the International Human Rights Systems, London, War Resisters' International, 2013

A frequently updated overview of international human rights mechanisms available to conscientious objectors, including a wealth of case law (also downloadable as pdf).

Translations: Spanish
War Resisters' International, Conscientious Objection: A Practical Companion for Movements, London, War Resisters' International, 2015, pp. 192

A practical companion for conscientious objection movements and all those whose work forms part of the continuum of war resistance. It has been written by activists who are campaigning against all kinds of injustice, all over the world. 

Zemlinskaya, Yulia, Cultural Context and Social Movement Outcomes: Conscientious Objectors and Draft Resistance Movement Organizations in Israel, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 14, issue 4 (Dec), 2009, pp. 449-466

Comparative analysis of two Israeli organizations supporting conscientious objection and draft resistance during the Second Palestinian Intifada, exploring impact of Israeli culture on tactics and how different tactics of two organizations have different impact in Israel.

See also:

A.J. Muste, Of holy disobedienceIn Hentoff, The Essays of A.J. Muste (D.2.a. Pacifist and Nonviolent Thought), on case for total resistance to conscription as opposed to alternative civilian service.

After 1945 the invention of nuclear weapons created a new peril, dramatized by Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which gradually aroused widespread public concern. This concern was exacerbated from the mid-1950s by growing awareness of the dangers to health and the environment caused by the testing of nuclear bombs in the atmosphere.
But development of atomic and then hydrogen bombs, and later of nuclear missiles, was also a product of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the deep distrust generated by the Cold War. Once both sides had nuclear weapons, developing strategic doctrines of the necessity of deterrence made opposition to US (or British) weapons more politically sensitive. The fact that the Soviet Union mobilized a worldwide ‘peace campaign’ against nuclear weapons in the early 1950s also meant that in the most frigid period of the cold war western peace protests were almost automatically seen by governments and the media as pro-Soviet. (How far these campaigns, which undoubtedly drew in many non-Communists concerned about the dangers of nuclear war, should be seen as part of the overall peace movement is disputed.)
A strong explicitly nonaligned movement against nuclear weapons, linked in Britain to the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), did not therefore develop until 1957/58. The ‘first wave’ of the nuclear disarmament movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s resulted in mass marches and a wide variety of nonviolent direct action protests against nuclear testing sites, nuclear bases and installations and government buildings. In some cases (as in West Germany) protest originated on the organized left, in others popular protest impacted on trade unions and leftist political parties, leading for example to a unilateralist resolution being passed by the British Labour Party Conference in 1960. The debate also spread to the churches and raised the question whether nuclear weapons were compatible with the doctrine of just war. The 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed initially by the USA, Soviet Union and Britain, could be interpreted as a success for the movement, and the USA and USSR began to engage more seriously in a series of arms control negotiations.
By the late 1960s many campaigners had turned their energies to opposing the Vietnam War. During the 1970s environmental protests came to the fore, though concern about nuclear energy sometimes linked up with opposition to nuclear weapons. A second mobilization of mass opposition to nuclear weapons was sparked by US proposals to deploy the neutron bomb and by the NATO decision to deploy cruise and Pershing II missiles – Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) – in Western Europe. The campaigns of the 1980s had greater transnational reach, involved many more people than the ‘first wave’ of the movement, and influenced the policy of some local councils and regions. The role of the European Nuclear Disarmament (END) campaign in promoting a dialogue between western peace campaigners and East European and Soviet dissidents also opened up a new dimension.
The use of nonviolent direct action was even more widespread in the 1980s than in the 1950s/60s, and less controversial within the movement. There were, for example, many sit-downs and peace camps at bases. There was also widespread transnational cooperation, for example at the peace camp at the Comiso missile base in Sicily. The legality of nuclear weapons under international law was frequently raised in the courts. Some of the most militant actions, for example at the Greenham Common cruise missile base, are also associated with radical feminism and have been listed under the Feminist Movement (F.5.).
Although the nuclear disarmament movement has in general lost momentum since the break-up of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war, the dangers from nuclear weapons and proliferation ensure that campaigning continues. There are still nonviolent direct action demonstrations in Britain, for example at nuclear bases and installations.
There is a large literature on the nuclear disarmament movement. The titles below include assessments from a range of ideological perspectives, but many of them have been chosen because they give some prominence to forms of direct action and civil disobedience.

There is an immense literature on strategic thinking about nuclear weapons since the late 1950s, as theories of deterrence and arms control evolved and as missile deployments and strategic rationales altered over time. The titles selected here focus on moral, political and strategic arguments which influenced campaigners. But a well-regarded survey of official nuclear policies is: , The Nuclear Question: The United States and Nuclear Weapons 1946-1976 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, , 1979, pp. 288

Church of England, Board of Social Responsibility, The Church and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons and Christian Conscience. The Report of the Working Party under the Chairmanship of the Bishop of Salisbury, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1982, pp. 190

Influential report which concluded that Just War principles forbid the use of nuclear weapons, and recommended that the UK should renounce its independent nuclear deterrent, followed by a phased withdrawal from other forms of reliance on nuclear weapons including, ultimately, the presence of US air and submarine bases.

Holroyd, Fred, Thinking about Nuclear Weapons: Analyses and Prescriptions, London, Croom Helm in association with the Open University, 1985, pp. 409

Covers a range of perspectives on nuclear weapons. Includes influential , Nuclear weapons and the Atlantic Alliance Foreign Affairs, 1982, pp. 753-766 , arguing that NATO should not use nuclear weapons in response to a conventional attack. Also includes section from the Alternative Defence Commission report on ‘The rationale for rejecting nuclear weapons’, as well as an extract from Edward P. Thompson’s 1980 pamphlet Protest and Survive (see below).

Schell, Jonathan, The Abolition, London, Picador in association with Jonathan Cape, 1984, pp. 170

Definition of the nuclear predicament and radical proposals for the abolition of all nuclear weapons.

Stein, Walter, Nuclear Weapons and Christian Conscience, [1961], With Foreword by Archbishop Roberts., London, Merlin Press, 1981, pp. 163

Essays by six leading Catholic thinkers on the moral issues raised by nuclear weapons. Had considerable influence in Christian and wider circles. The 1981 edition has a postscript by Anthony Kenny on Counterforce and Countervalue nuclear doctrines.

Thompson, Edward P., Protest and Survive, London, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, 1980, pp. 33

This polemic, whose title was prompted by government civil defence advice ‘Protect and Survive’, provided considerable impetus to the rejuvenated nuclear disarmament movement of the 1980s, and the launch of the European Nuclear Disarmament (END) campaign in which Thompson played a leading role.

Urquhart, Clara, A Matter of Life, [1963], London, Praeger and Jonathan Cape, 1973, pp. 255

A collection of brief essays or speeches by eminent proponents of peace or nonviolence on dangers facing the world and role of civil disobedience. Contributors include Martin Buber, Danilo Dolci, Erich Fromm, Kenneth Kaunda, Jawaharlal Nehru and Albert Schweitzer. There are essays by founding members of the Committee of 100: Bertrand Russell, Michael Scott and Robert Bolt.

US Bishops, The Challenge of Peace: God’s Promise and our Response: The US Bishops’ Pastoral Letter on War and Peace in the Nuclear Age, London, CTS/SPCK, 1983, pp. 34

Influential Catholic document. Argues that ‘a justifiable use of force must be both discriminatory and proportionate’ and that ‘certain aspects of both US and Soviet strategies fail both tests’. Urged greater consideration of nonviolent means of resistance whilst upholding the right of governments to conscript (with provision for general or selective objection).

Evangelista, Matthew, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War, Ithaca NY, Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 406

Well-documented examination of the role of transnational civil movements in contributing to arms control and the ending of the Cold War. Includes assessment of the Pugwash Conference which brought together scientists from East and West, and also the wider anti-war movement.

Kaltefleiter, Werner ; Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Peace Movements in Europe and the United States, London, Croom Helm, 1985, pp. 211

Essays arising out of May 1984 conference at the Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, on peace movements in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, West Germany, France, Italy, Britain and the US. Focus is on the anti-nuclear movements of the 1980s, though some contributors sketch the earlier history of movements in their countries.

Laqueur, Walter ; Hunter, Robert Edwards, European Peace Movements and the Future of the Western Alliance, New Brunswick, Transaction Books in association with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 1985, pp. 450

Generally critical contributions on the peace movements of the 1980s in various European countries and their impact on the Western alliance. Includes chapter on the US peace movement of the 1980s.

Nehring, Holger, Politics of Security: British and West German Protest Movements in the Early Cold War 1945-1970, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 368

Discusses cultural and social bases of protest against nuclear weapons, role of nationalism in the movements, and importance of British types of activism for German protest in light of experience in World War Two and the cold war. See also: , Demonstrating for “Peace” in the Cold War: The British and West German Easter Marches 1958-64 In Reiss, Matthias , The Street as Stage: Protest Marches and Public Rallies since the Nineteenth Century Oxford, Oxford University Press, , 2007 , chap. 15; Nehring, Holger , National Internationalists: British and West German Protests Against Nuclear Weapons, the Politics of Transnational Communication and the Social Hisotry of the Cold War 1957-1964 Contemporary European History, 2005, pp. 559-582 .

Rochon, Thomas R., Mobilizing for Peace, Princetown NJ, Princetown University Press, 1988, pp. 232

Wide-ranging analysis of West European anti-missile/nuclear disarmament campaigns 1979-1986, incorporating discussion of social movement theory and the wider political context. Focuses particularly on Britain, the Netherlands, West Germany and France. It includes great deal of information on organizations, campaigns and types of action, as well as many useful sources and references.

Wittner, Lawrence S., The Struggle Against the Bomb, One World or None: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement Through 1953, Vol. 1, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 1993, , 3 volumespp. 456

Covers responses to the Bomb from 1945-1953, including by scientists and churches, but with emphasis on the Soviet-initiated protests under the World Peace Council.

Wittner, Lawrence S., Resisting the Bomb: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement 1954-1970, Vol. 2, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 1997, , 3 volumespp. 641

Extensive and thoroughly researched history of campaigns and governments responses, which includes quite a lot of material on nonviolent direct action.

Wittner, Lawrence S., Towards Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement 1971 to the Present, Vol. 3, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 2003, , 3 volumespp. 657

Traces the development of the movement in the 1970s, the rise of a new activism in the 1980s, the ‘breakthrough’ of the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Agreement of 1987, and the end of the Cold War. While noting later more worrying trends, Wittner concludes that ‘This study – like its predecessors – indicates that the nuclear arms control and disarmament measures of the modern era have resulted primarily from the efforts of a worldwide citizens’ campaign, the biggest mass movement in modern history’.

Wittner, Lawrence S., Confronting the Bomb: A Short History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 2009, pp. 272

A greatly condensed version of his three volume history (listed individually).

Bigelow, Albert, The Voyage of the Golden Rule: An Experiment with Truth, Garden City NY, Doubleday, 1959, pp. 286

Account by former Lieutenant in the US navy of an attempt by four people to sail a ketch into the US nuclear testing zone at Eniwetok in protest against the tests. Defying an injunction, the ketch sailed 5 miles into the zone before being stopped by US navy. Their example inspired a second attempt by Earle and Barbara Reynolds (see Reynolds, The Forbidden Voyage (D.3.c. Studies of Particular Countries, Campaigns or Actions) ).

Bradshaw, Ross ; Gould, Dennis ; Jones, Chris, From Protest to Resistance, (Peace News pamphlet), Nottingham, Mushroom, 1981, pp. 64

Story of the rise of direct action against nuclear weapons in the British context. Includes diary of main protest in the 1957-1966 period, and interviews with those involved.

Breyman, Steven, Why Movements Matter: The West German Peace Movement and U.S, Arms Control Policy, Albany NY, State University of New York Press, 2001, pp. 359

Charts the evolution of the movement from 1979 to deployment of missiles in Germany at the end of 1983, linking accounts of major protests in West Germany to internal political developments and US/USSR negotiations. The final chapter assesses the impact of the movement and its relation to the INF Treaty.

Cairns, Brendan, Stop the Drop, In Burgmann, Verity ; Lee, Jenny , Staining the Wattle Ringwood VIC, McPhee Gribble/Penguin Books, , 1988, pp. 243-253

On the 1980s revived movement against nuclear weapons, in particular Australia’s People for Nuclear Disarmament.

Carter, April, The Sahara Protest Team, In Hare; Blumberg, Liberation without Violence: A Third Party Approach (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment), London, Rex Collings, pp. 126-156

On a transnational expedition in 1959-60 attempting to prevent French nuclear tests in the Algerian Sahara.

Clements, Kevin P., Back from the Brink: The Creation of a Nuclear Free New Zealand, Wellington NZ and New York, Harper Collins, 1988, pp. 241

Account of significant popular movement in 1970s and 1980s (including local councils declaring themselves nuclear-free) that led to government action to turn New Zealand into a nuclear-free zone and to refuse to allow US warships carrying nuclear weapons to dock in its ports (although it did not remove US monitoring bases).

Deming, Barbara, Earle Reynolds: Stranger in This Country, In Deming, Revolution and Equilibrium (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution), New York, Grossman, pp. 124-135

On the transnational protests by the ship ‘Everyman III’ which sailed from London to Leningrad to protest against Soviet nuclear tests.

Driver, Christopher, The Disarmers: A Study in Protest, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1964, pp. 256

Account of the emergence of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War and the Committee of 100 in Britain. Describes the main actions and internal debates within the movement.

Harvey, Kyle, American Anti-Nuclear Activism 1975-1990: The Challenge of Peace, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 221

The Introduction examines the dynamics of anti-nuclear activism in the Second Cold War. There is a chapter on mainstream movement building, but the emphasis is on nonviolent approaches and the role of pacifists.

Harvey, Kyle, American Anti-Nuclear Actvism 1975-1990: The Challenge of Peace, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, pp. 221

The introduction examinesthe dynamics of anti-nucelar activism in the Second Cold War. There is a chapter on mainstream movement building, but the emphasis is on nonviolent approaches and the role of pacifists.

Hinton, James, Protests and Visions: Peace Politics in 20th Century Britain, London, Hutchinson Radius, 1989, pp. 248

Covers pacifist and anti-war campaigning in Britain from the ‘imperialist pacifism’ of the Victorian period, through both World Wars to the birth of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and the New Left in the 1950s and 1960s. Written from a democratic socialist perspective. Final chapters cover CND’s ‘second wave’ in the 1980s, the Gorbachev initiatives, and the role of the European Nuclear Disarmament campaign seeking to transcend the Cold War divide.

Hudson, Kate, Now More than Ever, London, Vision Paperbacks, Satin Publishers, Sheena Dewan, 2005, pp. 278

Up to date account of British nuclear disarmament movement since the 1950s by chair of CND, giving some weight to direct action.

Jezer, Marty, Where Do We Go From Here? Tactics and Strategies for the Peace Movement, New York, A.J. Muste Institute, 1984, pp. 74

Answers by range of peace activists to questions about the future of the movement, including whether it should focus on the arms race or more broadly on US foreign policy, its relationship to electoral politics, the role of civil disobedience and issues related to feminist separatism.

Katz, Milton, Ban the Bomb: A History of SANE, the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1986, pp. 215

SANE was founded in the US in 1957 to campaign against nuclear tests, but also to draw attention to wider dangers of the arms race. Its emphasis was on public appeals, lobbying in Washington and backing peace candidates in the 1962 primaries, and its support was mainly from intellectuals and some business people; students tended to support more radical groups and nonviolent direct action against tests and bases was carried out by groups like the Committee for Nonviolent Action.

McCrea, Frances B. ; Markle, Gerald E., Minutes to Midnight: Nuclear Weapons Protest in America 1950s-80s, Newbury Park CA, Sage, 1989, pp. 200

McTaggart, David ; Hunter, Robert, Greenpeace III: The Journey into the Bomb, London, Collins, 1978, pp. 372

Leading Greenpeace activists recount how their boat succeeded in sailing into the French nuclear testing zone near Muroroa Atoll in 1971, forcing the French government to halt one of its planned nuclear tests.

Meyer, David S.Rochon, Thomas, Coalitions and Political Movements: The Lessons of the Nuclear Freeze, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 1997, pp. 277

Examines movement of the early 1980s which mobilized huge numbers in the US to protest against the dangers of nuclear weapons and strategies and demanding a US-Soviet agreement for a freeze on testing, production and deployment of nuclear weapons, bombers and missiles. The movement gained some support in Congress, organized a mass lobby in Washington and demonstrated throughout the country in 1983, and engaged in electoral activity. This book examines the successes and failures of the Freeze, and broader implications for other movements. See also: Meyer, David S., A Winter of Discontent: The Nuclear Freeze and American Politics New York, Praeger, , 1990, pp. 320

Mitcalfe, Barry, Boy Roel: Voyage to Nowhere, Auckland N.Z., Alister Taylor, 1972, pp. 154

Diary of events aboard Boy Roel, one of the fleet of four ships, including Greenpeace III, which attempted to sail into French nuclear testing zone near Muroroa Atoll in 1972.

Reynolds, Earle, The Forbidden Voyage, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1975, pp. 281

Earle and Barbara Reynolds lived in Hiroshima, where he was studying effects of atomic radiation, from 1951-1954. In 1958, whilst cruising on their yacht the Phoenix of Hiroshima, they heard about the arrest of Bigelow’s Golden Rule protesting against US testing (see above) and later that year sailed 65 nautical miles inside the Bikini Atoll testing zone.

Robie, David, Eyes of Fire: The Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior, [1986], (2nd edn), Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, 2005, pp. 180

Account of final voyage of Greenpeace ship the Rainbow Warrior, trying to sail into French nuclear testing area near Mururoa Atoll, before it was blown up by French secret service agents in Auckland Harbour July 1985. See also: Sunday Times Insight Team, Rainbow Warrior: The French Attempt to Sink Greenpeace London, Sunday Times, , 1986, pp. 302

Robson, Bridget Mary, What Part did Nonviolence Play in the British Peace Movement 1979-1985?, Bradford, University of Bradford, MA Dissertation, 1992, pp. 89

Recounts debates surrounding the use of direct action and civil disobedience in anti-nuclear campaigns, noting the influence of New Left politics and feminism and the rise of nonviolence training, affinity groups and peace camps in the 1980s. Demonstrates that direct action was initiated at the grassroots level but in time accepted by CND leadership.

Sawyer, Steve, Rainbow Warrior: Nuclear War in the Pacific, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 8, issue 4 (October), 1986, pp. 1325-1336

Examines sinking of Rainbow Warrior, commenting on New Zealand’s reactions and the heightened awareness of the dangers of nuclear testing in the Pacific.

Simpson, Tony, No Bunkers Here: A Successful Nonviolent Action in a Welsh Community, Merthyr Tydfil, Nottingham and Mid-Glamorgan CND and Peace News, 1982, pp. 47

Account of direct action campaign against the building of a nuclear-blast-proof bunker.

Solnit, Rebecca, Savage Dreams: A Journey into the Hidden Wars of the American West, San Francisco CA, Sierra Club Books, 1994, pp. 401

Autobiographical account of radical campaigning activities against nuclear tests in Nevada. Author argues that policy of testing nuclear weapons in the American West is rooted in 19th century attitudes and policies towards native American peoples.

Taylor, Richard, Against the Bomb: The British Peace Movement 1958-1965, Oxford, Clarendon, 1988, pp. 368

Well researched account of the first phase of the nuclear disarmament campaign in Britain, analysed and critiqued from a New Left/Marxist perspective.

Thompson, Ben, Comiso, London, Merlin Press jointly with END, 1982, pp. 17

Account of transnational direct action against nuclear missile base in Sicily.

Vinthagen, Stellan ; Kennick, Justin ; Mason, Kelvin, Tackling Trident, Sparsnas Sweden, Irene Publishing, 2012, pp. 362

On two ‘Academic Conference Blockades’ at Faslane Trident missile base in Scotland in January and June 2007.

Zelter, Angie, Trident on Trial: The Case of People’s Disarmament, Edinburgh, Luath Press, 2001, pp. 312

Presents the legal case against nuclear weapons and for people’s ‘direct disarmament’ actions against UK Trident missiles, and includes personal accounts by activists in Trident Ploughshares.

The significant movements against nuclear weapons in the west and in other parts of the world which suffered from nuclear testing, or had been drawn into the global network of nuclear bases and alliances, had no direct counterpart in the Soviet bloc in the 1950s and 1960s, where ‘peace activity’ was monopolised by the Communist regime sponsored ‘Peace Committees’, which focused on encouraging resistance to NATO nuclear policies (had their Communist-influenced western counterparts) and presented the Soviet nuclear arsenal and the Warsaw Pact as essentially defensive. By the 1980s, although the official Peace Committees were still prominent in the Soviet bloc, the nonaligned peace movement in the rest of the world was stronger than it had been in the first wave of anti-bomb protest and the European Nuclear Disarmament campaign initiated in 1980 made specific attempts to make links with dissident groups inside Eastern Europe, and other peace activists also promoted links across the East-West divide. The nature of Communist Party rule in the USSR and most of Eastern Europe was also somewhat less oppressive than in the 1950s, which meant that although open dissidents were still liable to harassment and imprisonment the space for protest had grown. Many opponents of some or all aspects of Communist Party rule in the Soviet bloc were primarily interested in internal political change, and greater national autonomy, rather than the dangers of nuclear weapons and were doubtful about western opposition to NATO policies. But there were a few autonomous peace initiatives and protests in both the USSR and Eastern Europe, as well as some conscientious objectors. Although the literature is limited, this autonomous peace activity was an important phenomenon.

Kavan, Jan ; Tomin, Zdena, Voices from Prague: Documents on Czechoslovakia and the Peace Movement, London, Palach Press, 1982, pp. 75

See also: Sormova, Ruth ; Neubarova, Michaela ; Kavan, Jan , Czechoslovakia’s Nonviolent Revolution In Martin, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)London, War Resisters' International, 1991, pp. 36-41

Ramet, Pedro, Church and Peace in the GDR, Problems of Communism, Vol. 35, issue Jul.-Aug, 1984, pp. 44-57

Sandford, John, The Sword and the Ploughshare: Autonomous Peace Initiatives in East Germany, London, Merlin Press jointly with END, 1983, pp. 111

Stead, Jean ; Grunberg, Gabrielle, END Special Report: Moscow Independent Peace Group, London, Merlin Press, 1982, pp. 44

Thompson, Edward P. ; Koszegi, Ferenc, The New Hungarian Peace Movement, London, Merlin Press jointly with END, 1983, pp. 53

Watch, Helsinki, From Below: Independent Peace and Environmental Movements in Eastern Europe and the USSR, New York, Helsinki Watch Report, 1987, pp. 263

Peace campaigners have also engaged in many activities which do not fall within either the categories of conscientious objection/draft resistance or opposition to nuclear weapons. There have for example been relatively successful campaigns to ban landmines and to achieve a treaty regulating the sale of arms, to prevent sales to repressive regimes or aggressors in wars. Much of this activity involves education and publicity or meetings, petitions and lobbying. But there is also a wide range of direct action, for example resistance to the siting or extension of military bases or firing ranges. A transnational movement against the arms trade includes both publicizing the extent and nature of the trade and regular demonstrations and blockades at arms fairs. In Britain the Campaign Against the Arms Trade publishes details of protests in CAAT News, and Peace News reports on demonstrations. The success of the international Stop the Shipments campaign in halting South Korean tear gas supplies to Bahrain (engaged in repressing internal protest) was celebrated in Peace News No. 2566 (Feb. 2014), pp. 1 and 6.

Caldecott, Leonie, At the foot of the mountain: The Shibokusa women of Mount Fuji, In Jones, Keeping the Peace (F.6. War and Women's Resistance), London, The Women's Press, pp. 98-107

Account of prolonged struggle to recover agricultural land occupied by US forces in 1945 and later retained by Japanese armed forces.

Cameron, Maxwell A. ; Lawson, Robert J. ; Tomlin, Brian W., To Walk Without Fear: The Global Movement to Ban Landmines, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 512

Deming, Barbara, San Francisco to Moscow: Why they walk, In Deming, Revolution and Equilibrium (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution), New York, Grossman, pp. 51-59

(Article originally published in the Nation 15 July.)

See also: Deming, Barbara , San Francisco to Moscow: Why the Russians let them in In Deming, Revolution and Equilibrium (A. 1.a.ii. Theories of Civil Disobedience, Power and Revolution)New York, Grossman, 1971, pp. 60-72

Lyttle, Brad, You Come with Naked Hands: The Story of the San Francisco to Moscow March for Peace, Raymond NH, Greenleaf Books, 1966, pp. 246

Participant’s account of march for disarmament organized by the Committee for Nonviolent Action. After marching across the USA the participants walked in Britain, Belgium and West Germany (they were debarred from entering France). But they were allowed to enter the Soviet bloc to travel through parts of the GDR, Poland and the USSR.

Packard, George R., Protest in Tokyo: The Security Treaty Crisis of 1960, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1966, pp. 423

Includes coverage of petitions, strikes and demonstrations of May-June 1960 with emphasis on role of Zengakuren student organization.

Rawlinson, Roger, Larzac: A Nonviolent Campaign of the 70s in Southern France, York, William Sessions, 1996, pp. 202

Story of the successful ten-year struggle of French farmers in Larzac to protect their land from military encroachment. The Gandhian pacifists at the Community of the Arch, and industrial and professional unions played a role in the struggle. An earlier account is: Rawlinson, Roger , Larzac: A Victory for Nonviolence London, Quaker Peace and Service, , 1983, pp. 43 . See also: Rawlinson, Roger , The battle of Larzac In Hare; Blumberg, Liberation without Violence: A Third Party Approach (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment)London, Rex Collings, 1977, pp. 58-72

Waldman, Sidney R. ; Richards, Susan ; Walker, Charles C., The Edgewood Arsenal and Fort Detrick Projects: an Exchange Analysis, Haverford PA, Center for Nonviolent Conflict Resolution, 1967, pp. 67

‘Exchange analysis’ between organizers of two protests against Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) weapons production, the first a 21 month campaign at Fort Detrick from January 1960, the second planting a tree inside the base.

Walker, Charles C., Culebra: Nonviolent action and the US Navy, In Hare; Blumberg, Liberation without Violence: A Third Party Approach (A. 5. Nonviolent Intervention and Accompaniment), London, Rex Collings, pp. 178-195

Resistance to the use of Puerto Rican island as a US Navy bombing and gunnery range. Recounts direct action by Puerto Ricans and development of transnational action, involving US Quakers, to build chapel on the island.

Yeo, Andrew, Activists, Alliances and Anti-US Base Protests, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 240

Examines the impact of anti-base movements on politics, and the role of bilateral military alliances influencing results of protest. Findings drawn from interviews with activists, politicians and US base officials in the Philippines, Japan (Okinawa), Ecudaor, Italy and South Korea. See also: Yeo, Andrew , Anti-Base Movements in South Korea: Comparative Perspective on the Asia-Pacific The Asia Pacific Journal, 2010, pp. 39-73

Yeo, Andrew, Activists, Alliances and Anti-US Base Protests, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 240

Examines the impact of anti-base movements on politics, and the role of bilateral military alliances influencing results of protest. Findings drawn from interviews with activists, politicians and US base officials in the Philippines, Japan (Okinawa), Ecudaor, Italy and South Korea. See also: Yeo, Andrew , Anti-Base Movements in South Korea: Comparative Perspective on the Asia-Pacific The Asia Pacific Journal, 2010, pp. 39-73

See also:

Paul Routledge, Terrains of Resistance: Nonviolent Social Movements and the Contestation of Place in India, (A. 6. Nonviolent Action and Social Movements), on 1980s resistance in Orissa, India, to Baliapal missile testing range, pp 39-73.