By the end of the 1980s, the Rawlings government in Ghana was under increasing criticism from the Bar Association for its human rights record and at odds with the churches and the trade unions. The Movement for Freedom and Justice (a broad opposition coalition) was formed in August 1990 to press for democratic change. The regime tried to maintain control through constitutional reform and finally legalised political parties to contest presidential and parliamentary elections in November 1992. Rawlings was returned to power with 58.3% of the vote (despite opposition claims of rigging, Commonwealth observers validated the result). However, at least a regular electoral process had been established with the right of opposition parties to contest elections.
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E. I.2.1.a.ii. - Ghana
The author has been prominent in Ghanaian politics and a professor of political science at the University of Legon.