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E. I.2.1.a. Movements for Multi-Party Democracy in English-Speaking Countries

Very different conditions prevailed within the various Anglophone countries in East, West, Central and Southern Africa, and therefore the development of multi-party parliamentary democracy (and how far authoritarian government and/or extensive corruption flourished despite the growth of opposition parties) also varied considerably. There were popular protests and demands for political change in a number of countries around 1990 – five of which are covered below.

In addition, a strong women’s movement, which had a significant impact later in the 1990s in securing greater gender political equality, emerged in Uganda – see:

In Botswana women also began to mobilize, and the San (Bushmen) became active in demanding their rights Botswana had been a relatively stable country, in which the ruling party contested and won multi-party elections, but in 1995, when protests by school and university students were violently suppressed, the Trade Unions, the Coalition of Women’s NGOs and the Catholic Church sided with the students. See:

Good, Kenneth, Towards Popular Participation in Botswana, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 34, issue 1, 1996, pp. 101-129

Tripp, Aili Mari, Women and Politics in Uganda, Kampala and Wisconsin, James Currey, Fountain Publishers and the University of Wisconsin Press, 2000, pp. 336