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E. I.2.1.a.ii. Ghana and Nigeria: Constitutional Change but Leaders Remain in Power

These two former British colonies in West Africa had both engaged in forms of unarmed struggle under colonialism: Nigeria had a record of significant strikes and tax refusal, and the ‘positive action’ campaign in Ghana became a model of how to achieve independence through nonviolent struggle (see B). Ghana became independent in 1957 and Nigeria in 1960. By the end of the 1980s, however, both had experienced military coups and forms of military rule – in Nigeria the legacy of a bitter war for secession by Biafra 1967-1970, and the divisions between the Muslim North and the Christian South, created particular problems for political stability and democratization.