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E. I.2.1.ii. Organizations and Movements

Before the ‘third wave’ of democratization, there was a background of popular protest in many African countries – especially in an urban context – by students, workers, professionals and, sometimes, civil servants, in response to economic and other issues. These protests included demonstrations, strikes and boycotts, as well as riots.

Anyang' Nyong'o, Peter, Popular Struggles for Democracy, London, Zed Books, 1987, pp. 288

Contributors provide case studies of Morocco, Uganda, People’s Republic of Congo, South Africa, Ghana, Liberia, Kenya and Swaziland.

Gifford, Paul, African Christianity: Its Public Role, London, C. Hurst, 1998, pp. 368

Christian Churches have been important in quite a few African movements. This book analyses different churches – Catholic, Protestant (mainstream), Evangelical, Pentecostal and Independent – and their beliefs, and also assesses their role in the emerging of civil society. Case studies of four countries: Ghana, Uganda, Zambia and Cameroon.

Mamdani, Mahmood ; Wamba-dia-Wamba, Ernest, African Studies in Social Movements and Democracy, Dakar, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA), 1995, pp. 636

Covers very wide range of ‘movements’, including trade unions, religious and gender groupings potentially relevant to nonviolent action, but also ‘mafias’. Embraces the whole of Africa.