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E. I.2.1.a.i. - Zambia

Bratton, Michael, Economic Crisis and Political Realignment in Zambia, In Widner, Jennifer A., Economic Change and Political Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, , 1994, pp. 101-128

Rakner, Lise, Trade Unions in Processes of Democratization: A Study of Party Labour Relations in Zambia, Bergen, Norway, Christian Michelsen Institute, CMI Report, 1992, pp. 6

Examines role of labour in the transition to multi-party democracy in 1991, and concludes that the trade union movement has remained autonomous from the state (despite efforts to incorporate it) and that this is the key reason why the unions led the transition.

See also:

Richard Joseph, Conflict and Democracy in Africa, (E. I.2.1.i. General Overviews), which includes a chapter on the ‘second elections’ in 1996.