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E. I.2.1.a.i. Malawi and Zambia: Opposition Leads to Regime Change

Two countries that had waged successful unarmed struggle for independence from the white-dominated Central African Federation (see Section B), Zambia and Malawi, also experienced effective campaigns to restore multi-party democracy and to change their leaders through elections – Zambia was a forerunner of the ‘third wave’ of democratization in English-speaking Africa. Church bodies as well as trade unionists and students played a significant role in both cases: see Nugent, Africa Since Independence: A Comparative History (E. I.2.1.i. General Overviews) , pp. 402-407.