You are here

Chile

, Students lead Chile's #MeToo moment, Guardian Weekly, 2018, pp. 8-8

Describes a new generation of student activists who are waging a struggle against harassment and sexual discrimination in universities through strikes, occupations and protests. When the article was published many university buildings were still being occupied. Polls showed public support and the government promised to meet some (but not all) of the students’ demands.

Ackerman, Peter ; Duvall, Jack, A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict, New York and Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2000, pp. 554

Analysis of a selection of predominantly nonviolent struggles from Russia 1905 to Serbia 2000, arguing against ‘the mythology of violence’. Some of the case studies are standard in books on civil resistance, others – for example the 1990 movement in Mongolia – less familiar. Each chapter has a useful bibliography. The book arose out of a 1999 US documentary television series ‘A Force More Powerful’, now available on DVD, and therefore includes, in the more recent cases, information from interviews.

Adams, Jacqueline, Surviving Dictatorship: A Work of Visual Sociology, New York, Routledge, 2012, pp. 302

Combines extracts from interviews with photos to present varied phenomena of everyday resistance – ‘incidental’ (a by-product of being in a group), ‘reluctant’ (under group pressure) and ‘solidarity’ (helping others) – specifically of women who joined arpillera groups in Pinochet’s Chile. A web page with related resources for students and teachers is http://www.routledge.com/cw/adams-9780415998048.

Agger, Inger ; Jensen, Søren Buus, Trauma and Healing Under State Terrorism, London, Zed Books, 1996, pp. 246

Agosin, Marjorie, Notes on the Poetics of the Acevedo Movement against Torture, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 10, no. 3, 1988, pp. 338-343

Agosin, Marjorie, Surviving Beyond Fear: Women, Children and Human Rights, ed. Agosin, Marjorie, Fredonia NY, White Pine Press, 1993, pp. 217

Collection of essays and documents, including materials on mothers’ resistance in Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, and Guatemala.

Agosin, Marjorie, Tapestries of Hope, Threads of Love: The Arpillera Movement in Chile 1974-1994, [1996], Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2007, pp. 240

Alexander, Robert I., The Tragedy of Chile, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1978, pp. 509

Aman, Kenneth ; Parker, Christian, Popular Culture in Chile: Resistance and Survival, ed. Aman, Kenneth, Parker, Christian, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1991, pp. 225

Especially Isabel Donoso, ‘Human Rights and Popular Organizations’, pp. 189-200.

Arriagada, Genaro, Pinochet: The Politics of Power, Boston, Unwin Hyman, 1988, pp. 196

Opposition leader, active in the 1983 jornadas de protesta, and also in No campaign of 1988. Chapter 7 discusses the protests between 1983 and 1986.

Bacic, Roberta, Stitching together nonviolence and Movement Against Torture, Sebastian Acevedo, Nuremberg, Nürnberger Menschenrechtszentrum, 2012

See also: Rainer Huhle, ‘The dictatorship is a colossus on fragile feet”’: Remembering the movement against torture Sebastian Acevedo in Chile’; and Christopher Ney, ‘The solidarity of God’ – three presentations at the Nuremberg Menschenrechtszentum, July 2012.

Memoirs of the bold nonviolent actions taken from 1983 onwards by the Movement Against Torture Sebastian Acevedo. For other items by Bacic on this movement, see:

http://www.wri-irg.org/node/5186, and http://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/roberta-bacic/saying-no-to-pinochet’s-dictatorship-through-non-violence.

Bartlett, John, Chile’s #MeToo moment: Students protest against sexual harassment, The Guardian, 2018

It explores the wave of student protests that paralysed schools and universities across Chile, demanding protection against sexual harassment and calling for gender equality.

Bitar, Sergio, Chile, Experiment in Democracy, Philadelphia PA, Philadelphia Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1986, pp. 243

By former member of Allende’s cabinet.

Boelens, Rutgerd ; Getches, David ; Gil, Armando Guevara, Out of the Mainstream: Water Rights, Politics and Identity, New York, Routledge, 2011, pp. 384

Compares struggles over water in Andean communities of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia and Native American communities in S .W. USA, noting the combined goals of cultural justice and socio-economic justice.

 

Bunster, Ximena, The mobilization and demobilization of women in militarized Chile, In Isaksson, Eva , Women and the Military System Brighton, Harvester Wheatsheaf, , 1988, pp. 455, pp. 210-222

Discusses how Pinochet regime mobilized women to support it, but also role of women in spearheading resistance in 1979 and their role in 1986.

See also Bunster, Ximena , Surviving beyond Fear: Women and Torture in Latin America In Agosin, Surviving Beyond Fear: Women, Children and Human Rights (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies)Fredonia NY, White Pine Press, 1993, pp. 98-125 .

Cabalin, Cristian, Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise, Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 10, no. 2, 2012, pp. 219-228

Looks at 2006 and 2011 protests.

Cavanaugh, William T., Torture and Eucharist: Theology, Politics, and the Body of Christ, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 1998, pp. 304

Takes Chile as case study of Christian response to torture. The Catholic Church’s Vicaria de la Solidaridad (pp. 264-7) was the major human rights monitoring body in the country, while the more ecumenical Sebastian Acevedo Movement against Torture (pp. 273-7) organized lightning protests to hightlight places or institutions implicated in torture.

Chavkin, Samuel, Storm Over Chile: The Junta Under Seige, Westport CT, Lawrence Hill, 1985, pp. 303

Chapter 9 focuses on protests of 1983-84.

Cohen, Margot, The language of violence: gender-based murder and the patriarchal state. A feminist case study of femicide in Chile from 2010-2017, 2018

PowerPoint presentation where Margot Cohen briefly addresses which factors can explain institutional responses to gender-based violence; how state institutions have responded to femicide in Chile up until 2017, and what are the implications of these responses for reducing levels of femicide.

Constable, Pamela ; Valenzuela, Arturo, A Nations of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet, New York, W.W. Norton, 1991, pp. 368

Contreras, Dan, Chile’s Educational and Social Movement: Quality Education for Everyone...Now!, The Broken Rifle, no. 90 (December), 2011

Briefly explains problem in higher education and how privatization promotes gap between rich and poor. Describes wide range of nonviolent direct action used by the students, but notes wider support and activism.

Corradi, Juan E. ; Fagen, Patricia Weiss ; Garreton, Manuel Antonio, Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America, ed. Corradi, Juan E., Fagen, Patricia Weiss, Garreton, Manuel Antonio, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1992, pp. 301

Documents impact of state terror on society in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay from 1950s to 1980s, and the emergence of resistance in various sectors.

Dessi, Giulia, Occupying against the patriarchy, New Internationalist, 2018

Journalist Giulia Dessi reports on the series of students’ occupations (particularly by young women) that started in Southern Chile on 17 April 2018 and prompted a new wave of feminist civil disobedience. These demonstrations were responding to a case of sexual harassment by a university professor, Carlos Carmona, former president of the Constitutional Court. He was suspended for lack of integrity for only three months after eight months of protests. The students wanted to raise awareness of the systemic character of sexism and they campaigned for the university to put in place policies against sexual harassment. In addition, the students voiced a broader theoretical challenge to free-market capitalism. Following the protest Chilean President, Sebatsian Piñera, announced the ‘Women’s Agenda’ consisting of measures that address gender inequality in the areas of harassment, childcare and health. In November 2018, Chile signed a joint agreement with Peru at the Second Binational Cabinet that established increased sanctions for gender violence and domestic abuse.

Drake, Paul, Labor Movements and Dictatorships: the Southern Cone in Comparative Perspective, Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 1996, pp. 253

In addition to detailed analysis of Argentine, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, has comparative discussion with European dictatorships – Greece, Portugal, and Spain.

Drake, Paul ; Jaksic, Ivan, The Struggle for Democracy in Chile, 1982-1990, ed. Drake, Paul, Jaksic, Ivan, Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1991, pp. 321

Engler, Mark ; Engler, Paul, This is an Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt is Shaping the Twenty-First Century, New York, Nation Books, 2016, pp. 368

The book examines how contemporary movements are using strategic nonviolent action to promote social change, covering a range of protests including climate change, immigrant rights, gay rights, Occupy and Black Lives Matter. The authors argue that nonviolent uprisings are becoming more common than violent rebellion, and look back to twentieth century antecedents in the Indian Independence and US Civil Rights movements, examine the nature of effective strategy and discuss organizational discipline. Their analysis includes the Arab Spring, but notes its discouraging implications.

Ensalaco, Mark, Chile Under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth, Philadelphia PA, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999, pp. 296

Fernando, Aiaga Rojas, How we won democracy in Chile, In Martin, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), London, War Resisters' International, pp. 51-54

Figueroa-Clark, Victor, The Meaning behind Protests in Chile, International Affairs at LSE, 2011

Discusses context of protest, the school and university education system, extent of inequality in Chilean society, and implications if movement successful.

Fleet, Michael ; Smith, Brian H., The Catholic Church and Democracy in Chile and Peru, [1997], Notre Dame IN, University of Notre Dame Press, 2000, pp. 379

Hall, David ; Lobina, Emanuele ; de la Motte, Robin, Public Resistance to Privatisation in Water and Energy, ed. Food Empowerment Project, , Development in Practice, Vol. 15, no. 3-4 (June), 2005

Examines role of different types of opposition in ‘delaying, cancelling or reversing the privatization of water and energy’, including success in Nkondobe (South Africa), Paraguay where parliament voted in 2002 to suspend indefinitely privatization of state-owned water and Poznan in Poland in 2002, and failure of campaigns in UK, Chile and Philippines.

Kinsman, Jeremy ; Bassuener, Kurt, A Diplomat’s Handbook for Democracy Development Support, 3rd edition, Washington, DC, Council for a Community of Democracies, 2009, pp. 450

Tips for diplomats on how they can more effectively support local pro-democracy g roups facing repressive regimes. Case studies from South Africa, Ukraine, Chile, Belarus, Burma/Myanamar, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

Klipic, Irma, Government responses to feminicides in Latin America, Växjö‎ & ‎Kalmar‎, ‎Småland‎ (Sweden), Linnæeus University, 2018

This thesis examines how government responses affected femicide rates in five selected countries: Costa Rica, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. The study is a qualitative comparative multi-case study using social inclusion and exclusion theory to understand if policies are inclusive or exclusive, and if the nature of legislation has an impact on the femicide rates.

Loveman, Mara, High-Risk Collective Action: Defending Human Rights in Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 104, no. 2, 1998, pp. 477-525

Lowden, Pamela, Moral Opposition to Authoritarian Rule in Chile, 1973-1990, New York, St. Martins Press, 1996, pp. 216

Primarily a detailed history of the Vicaria de la Solidaridad and the changing context of its work.

Lynn, Stephen, Women and Social Movements in Latin America: Power from Below, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 1997, pp. 352

Covers six cases of grassroots activism in Mexico, El Salvador, Brazil and Chile, which use interviews with activists and provide histories of organizations and movements involved. The activists are concerned with economic and health issues, but also stress problems relating to contraception and abortion, rape and domestic violence.

McIntyre, Jody, How to Grow a Student Movement, Chilean Style, New Internationalist, no. October, 2012, pp. 26-27

Stresses challenge to Pinochet legacy and links with workers’ unions. Includes timeline of protests from May 2011 – August 2012.

Muñoz-Lamartine, Ernesto, Chile: Student Leaders Reinvent the Movement, Berkeley Review of Latin American Studies, no. Fall, 2011

Account of talk by Giorgio Jackson, President of the Catholic University’s Student Association in Chile.

Nepstad, Sharon Erickson, Nonviolent Revolutions: Civil Resistance in the Late Twentieth Century, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 178

Compares ‘unsuccessful’ and ‘successful’ movements against Socialist regimes (Tiananmen and East Germany 1989), against military regimes (Panama and Chile in the 1980s) and against personal dictators (Kenyan opposition to Moi and the Philippines struggle against Marcos). Draws some fairly brief general conclusions.

Parissi, Rosa, Sebastian Acevedo Movement Against Torture: A Project for the Dignity of Life, In Tyndale, Wendy R., Visions of Development: Faith-based Initiatives Farnham, Ashgate, , 2006, pp. 188, pp. 137-144

References to the Sebastian Acevedo Movement also occur in Agger, Inger ; Jensen, Søren Buus, Trauma and Healing Under State Terrorism London, Zed Books, , 1996, pp. 246 , who see it as ‘an expression both of psychological counter-strategies at the private and political level and of healing strategies at the societal level’ (p. 184) but do not describe its methodology. Lloyd, Vincent W., The Problem with Grace: Reconfiguring Political Theology Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, , 2011, pp. 256 , pp. 109-11, discusses its liturgical aspects in comparison with contemporary Critical Mass bicycle rides.

Petras, James ; Morley, Morris A., How Allende Fell: A Study in US-Chilean Relations, Nottingham, Spokesman Books, 1974, pp. 125

Quiroz, Nelson, A most feminist year: how female voices were heard in Chile, Chile Today, 2019

Highlights the rapid rise of a new wave of feminism in Chile thanks to students’ demonstrations across the country aiming at tackling femicide and impunity.

Salinas, Daniel ; Fraser, Pablo, Educational Opportunity and Contentious Politics: The 2011 Chilean Student Movement, Berkeley Review of Education, Vol. 3, no. 1, 2012, pp. 17-47

Considers the reasons for emergence of movement and its challenge to free market provision of education. Argues experience of this education provides both mobilizing grievances and resources for political mobilization.

Somma, Nicolas M., The Chilean Student Movement of 2011-2012: Challenging the Marketization of Education, Interface: a journal about social movements, Vol. 4, no. 2 (Nov), 2012, pp. 296-309

The author is assistant professor of sociology at the Catholic University of Chile. Examines causes of protests and educational system, ‘horizontalism’ of student organization, tactics, use of media and maintenance of internal unity.

Valenzuela, Samuel J. ; Valenzuela, Arturo, Military Rule in Chile: Dictatorship and Opposition, Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 1986, pp. 331

Vidal, Hernán, El Movimiento Contra la Tortura ‘Sebastián Acevedo’, [1986], Minneapolis, Institute for the Study of Ideologies and Literature, 2002, pp. 568

Yanes Berrios, Blanca ; Lopez, Omar Williams, Cultural action for liberation in Chile, In McManus; Schlabach, Relentless Persistence: Nonviolent Action in Latin America (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies), Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, pp. 117-135

Discusses role of SERPAJ in struggle for survival by poor, including community organization and ingenious protests against hunger and unemployment, e.g. blocking supermarket checkouts with trolleys.