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E. I.2.1.a.i. - Malawi

Englund, Harri, Democracy of Chameleons: Politics and Culture in the New Malawi, Uppsala, Nordic Africa Institute, 2002, pp. 208 pb

This book explores how far the ending of one-man rule in 1994 had achieved wider economic, social and cultural changes and explores the continuing problems such as political intolerance and hate speech.  The contributors, mostly from Malawi, criticize both 'chameleon' political leaders and aid donors for supporting superficial democratization.

Nowack, Daniel, Process Tracing the Term Limit Struggle in Malawi: The Role of International Democracy Promotion in Muluzi's Bid for a Third Term, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 55, issue 3, 2021, pp. 291-300

Nowack examines the struggle between 1999 and 2003 to prevent the President serving a third term contrary to the constitution. Drawing on newspaper reports and interviews he argues that a decline in party support and a strong civil society were key, conditions imposed by aid donors and international democracy promotion influenced both these internal factors.

van Donge, Jan Kees, Kamuzu’s Legacy: The democratization of Malawi, African Affairs, Vol. 94, issue 375, 1995, pp. 227-257