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, Feminicide: A Global Phenomenon. From Brussels to El Salvador, Brussels, Heinrich Böll Stiftung Report, 2015, pp. 39

Edited every two years on the occasion of the European Union and Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (EU-CELAC) Summit, this fifth edition of the series ‘Feminicide: A Global Phenomenon’ addresses the chapter on gender from the Action Plan, and points to other initiatives aiming at eradicating feminicide/femicide, and also inspiring the implementation of the Action Plan EU-CELAC on this matter.

, Extractivism In Latin America, Action Fund of Latin America, 2016, pp. 59

This report by the feminist civil society body, Urgent Action Fund of Latin America and the Caribbean, focuses on the role of women in protecting and defending nature, and warns of increasing risks to their lives and environment. The report discusses ‘the extractive model’ and the social-environmental conflicts it creates, and also the disturbing militarization and violations of women’s rights, including those defending their environment. The report outlines proposals made by women for defence of territory, and also stresses the diversity of the approaches, organizations and activities developed by Latin American women.

, Colombia femicide: new exhibition aims to raise femicide awareness, 2017

TRT World journalist, Dimitri O’Donnell interviews Adriana Cely Verdadero, a women’s rights activist, and Ana Guezmes Garcia, a representative of UN Women Colombia, who provide background to the exhibition dedicated to the victims of femicide in Colombia and the gaps the social and political systems need to fill. Published on 16 December 2017 on YouTube.

, Colombia: violence against women activists, leaders and defenders, LatinAmericanPost, 2018

Under the slogan "Now is the time: Rural and urban activists transform the lives of women", UN Women draw attention to the work of the movement of women activists in Colombia and the circumstances they have to face on a daily basis.

, VigiaAfro: Observatory on gender-based violence against Afro-Colombians, MADRE, 2018

Afro-Colombian women are documenting testimonies for use by the new online observatory, VigiaAfro, created to report on and raise awareness about sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against Afro-descendants. MADRE is an international women's human rights organization working in partnership with community-based women's organizations worldwide in contexts of conflict, disasters, and their aftermath. It operates within the framework of a project entitled, Afro-Colombian Community Initiative for Sustainable and Inclusive Peace in Colombia.

See also

, Meet 15 Women Leading the Fight Against Climate Change, Time, 2019

This article notes the disproportionate impact on women of climate change in many parts of the world and the recognition of this fact in the UN Paris Agreement, which called for empowerment of women in climate talks. It also points to the prominence of women in the struggle to limit climate change, and selects 15 women from round the world playing varied roles, including Greta Thunberg.

, The Pandemic Strikes: Responding to Colombia’s Mass Protests, International Crisis Group, 2021, pp. 34

The report examines the significance of the mass strikes and demonstrations in Colombia in 2020-21, examines the government's response, and also suggests some of the dangers involved.  It notes that far right vigilantes supporting the police had fired on demonstrators, and that in some areas criminal gangs were taking advantage of the social disorder.

Acevedo, Nicole, For the first time, Colombia prosecutes a transgender woman’s murder as a femicide, NBCNews, 2018

Historic conviction of a 23-year old young man who murdered Anyela Ramos Claros, a transgender woman. This was the first conviction among at least 35 cases in Colombia.

Alther, Gretchen ; Lindsay-Poland, John ; Weintraub, Sarah, Building from the Inside Out: Peace Initiatives in War-Torn Colombia, Philadelphia PA, American Friends Service Committee and Fellowship of Reconciliation USA, 2006, pp. 36

Bouvier, Virginia M., Harbingers of Hope: Peace Initiatives in Colombia, Special Report 169, August 2006, Washington DC, US Institute of Peace, 2006, pp. 20

Bowen, Ceri ; García-Durán, Mauricio, Living And Resisting In The Shadow Of The Colombian Conflict: Forcibly Displaced People Seen Through A Family Therapy Lens, Peace, Conflict and Development, no. 5 (July), 2004, pp. -16

Caretta, Martina ; Zaragocin, Sofia, Women’s resistance against the extractive industry: embodied and water dimensions, Human Geography, Vol. 13, no. 1, 2020

This is a special issue on women’s organized resistance to the extraction of natural resources that has a damaging impact on their lives and environment. Articles cover movements in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico and also Ghana, focusing on the importance of water as a vital resource, and also on women’s embodied experience of suffering from water pollution and scarcity. The articles also discuss gendered critiques of extraction.

Clark, Howard, An Obstacle to Progress, Peace News, no. 2449, 2002

Campaign of the U’wa people of Colombia to prevent oil drilling.

Cockburn, Cynthia, From Where We Stand: War, Women’s Activism and Feminist Analysis, London and New York, Zed Books, 2007, pp. 288

Examines women’s resistance to war in many parts of the world, including Sierra Leone, Colombia and Gujarat, India. It also covers women’s cooperation across enemy lines in the former Yugoslavia and in Israel/Palestine, and resistance in the west to imperialist war, and develops theoretical questions about gender and militarism. See also:  Cockburn, Cynthia , Women in Black: The Stony Path to “Solidarity” In Clark, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)London, Pluto Press, 2009, pp. 156-163

Darkin, Elly, Making femicide visible, The Bogotà Post, 2017

Journalist Elly Draking interviews Isabel Agatón, human rights lawyer and director of CIJUSTICIA (Centre for Research in Justice and Critical Studies of Law) to highlight her key role in the creation and implementation of Law 1761 in 2015 in Colombia, which made femicide a legally defined crime, punishable with up to 50 years in jail. It also highlights the obstacles the Colombian government still faces in implementing this law, fully.

Delgado, Esperanza Hernández, Resistencia civil artesana de paz: Experiencias indígenas, afrodescendientes y campesinas, Bogotá, Editorial de la Universidad Javeriana, 2004, pp. 468

This is a key book about the Colombian peace communities and the civil resistance of indigenous peoples, Afro Americans and peasants in the context of a bloody civil war. It focuses in particular on the civil resistance of the Nasa people (Paez) in the Cauca department. This is not only the strongest movement (with their Indigenous Guard able to confront guerrillas, the army and paramilitaries), but also the one which has lasted longest and influenced the others. In addition there are studies of the Asociacíon Campesina Integral del Atrato (ACIA), Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos de Carare (ATCC), Comunidad de Paz de San José de Apartadó and the Asamblea Municipal Constituyente de Tarso.

Dudouet, Véronique, Civil Resistance and Conflict Transformation – Transitions from Armed to Nonviolent Struggle, London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 262

Chapters on: Western Sahara, West Papua, Palestine, South Africa (in 1980s), the Zapatistas. Egypt, Nepal and on indigenous armed struggle and nonviolent resistance in Colombia.

Elster, Ellen ; Sørensen, Majken Jul, Women Conscientious Objectors: An Anthology, London, War Resisters' International, 2010, pp. 156

A collection of essays by and about women COs in USA, Europe, Turkey, Israel, Eritrea, Korea, Paraguay and Colombia.

Translations: Spanish
Forero, Eduardo Andrés Sa, La Guardia Indígena Nasa y el Arte de la Resistencia Pacifica, Ediciones Colección Étnica: Diálogos Interculturales, Fundación Hemera, 2008, pp. 143

This book combines an anthropological with a political approach, describing the origin, development and activities of the Indigenous Guard of the Nasa People of Cauca (Colombia) with testimonies from some of their leaders.

Franceschet, Susan ; Krook, Mona Lena ; Tan, Netina, The Palgrave Handbook of Women’s Political Rights, ed. Ennaji, Moha, Sadiqi, Fatima, Vintges, Karen, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, pp. 784

Covers women’s political rights across all major regions of the world, focusing both on women’s right to vote and women’s right to run for political office. The countries explored are Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Bolivia, Canada, Cameroon, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, New Zealand, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, South Korea, Slovenia, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, Turkey, the United States, Uganda, Uruguay, and Zimbabwe.

García-Durán, Mauricio, Alternatives to War: Colombia’s Peace Processes, ed. García-Durán, Mauricio, Sepcial issue: Accord: the Journal of Conflict Resources, no. 14, London, Conciliation Resources, 2004

Gatehouse, Mike, To end gender-based violence (GBV). Children Aid’s campaign in Latin America and the Caribbean, LAB, 2018

Report on grassroots initiatives promoted by Christian Aid and Latin America civil society aimed at developing a national system of data and statistics on violence against women in El Salvador. It also discusses women’s deprivation of citizen rights in the Dominican Republic; the struggle of women defending their community in the Brazilian Amazon; the need to protect the rights of LGBTIQ people in Colombia; the need to enhance the participation of women in the labour market in Guatemala, and to tackle gender based violence and its legitimisation by the Church in Bolivia.

Gill, Lesley, ”Right There With You”: Coca-Cola Labor Restructuring and Political Violence in Colombia, Critique of Anthropology, Vol. 27, no. (Sept), 2007, pp. 235-260

Glotsky, Genevieve, Colombian Protests: Poverty and the Pandemic Collide with Conflict and Migration, The New Humanitarian, 2021

An informative survey of the protests that broke out in April 2021 and the immediate government responses. The articles suggests the demonstrations were essentially a revival of the 2019 movement that was interrupted by Covid-19, but notes differences  - for example the much greater protest in rural areas in 2021. Glotsky also situates the protests in the context of Columbia's social and economic problems, which have been exacerbated by the impact of Covid.

Hooker, Juliet, Black and indigenous resistance in the Americas: from multiculturalism to racist Backlash, Lanham, U.S., Lexington Books, 2020, pp. 340

This book is the outcome of long term research by the Antiracist Research and Action Network of the Americas into rising racial intolerance, but also increasing resistance by both Black and indigenous people throughout the Americas. It covers six Latin American countries - Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico - as well as the US, and discusses the backlash against earlier gains in rights within nation states. The book argues that this nation-based strategy, pursued in a neo-liberal capitalist context, was inadequate and that the focus should now be on resisting ‘racial capitalism’ which bolsters white supremacy. The rise of militant anti-racial activism in the US and around the world in 2020 makes the book especially relevant.

Hylton, Forrest, Something is Happening in Colombia, OpenDemocracy, 2020

Hylton discusses the sudden emergence of nation-wide protests mostly led by young people, but uniting diverse sectors of society in opposition to neo-liberal government measures. The article looks back at the historical context, and suggests the protest could strengthen' new movements of the progressive centre'.

Lewis, Simon ; Maslin, Mark, The Human Planet: How We Created the Anthropocene, London , Penguin, 2018, pp. 480 (pb)

The authors are proponents of the theory that there is a geological epoch, which can be defined by the irreversible impact of human activity. The early stages of human development, from hunter-gatherers to settled farmers, had some environmental impact. But Lewis and Maslin trace the beginnings of a decisive human impact on the planet to the 16th-17th centuries when western colonialism, linked to the rise of global capitalism, began to transform the Americas, followed by the industrial revolution and the growth in population and consumption. The book concludes by calling for a new stage in human development involving radical economic change (away from profit-driven ownership of energy and food supplies), linked to comprehensive technological changes and much closer global cooperation. Two goals they set out are a re-wilding of half the planet and a universal basic income.

Naucke, Philipp, Der Stein im Schuh: ueber friedlichen, zivilen Widerstand in gewaltsamen Konfliktregionen - eine Fallstudie der Friedensgemeinde San Jose de Apartado, Kolumbien, Marburg, Curupira, 2011

During the forty years of armed conflict in Colombia, civil society was continuously assaulted by violent infringement of rights by both left wing guerrilla movements and paramilitary groups. Nevertheless, since the end of the 1990s many communities declared themselves 'municipalities of peace'. Their members commit themselves to behave neutrally and to reject any collaboration with armed actors. Naucke investigates the origin, function and structure of San Jose de Apartado, which is one of the peaceful communities that decided to confront repression.

Noriega, Christina, As Colombian Protests Dissipate, Activists Hit by Wave of Arrests, AlJazeera, 2021

The article begins with the arrest of Alejandro Gaitan, who had led peaceful marches during the recent national strike.  He was accused of belonging to 'Primera Linea[, a protest collective singled out for attack by President Duque.  The collective attacked the government for trying to weaken the movement for change through arrests and court cases.

Peñaranda, Isabel ; Gomez-Delgado, Julian, Colombia's New Awakening, Jacobin, 2019, pp. 6-6

This article, written at the beginning of the mass protest movement that began in Colombia in November 2019, examines the political and economic context of the emergence of socio-economic protest and discusses its possible future significance for Colombia and the left.

Rojas, Catalina, Islands in the Stream: A Comparative analysis of Zones of Peace within Colombia’s Civil War, In Hancock, Landon E.; Mitchell, Christopher , Zones of Peace Bloomfield CT, Kumarian, , 2007, pp. 238, pp. 71-89

Rosset, Peter M. ; Patel, Roy ; Courville, Michael, Promised Land: Competing Visions of Agrarian Reform, ed. Latin American Perspectives, , Oakland CA, Food First, 2006, pp. 380

Includes chapters on Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, India, Mexico, South Africa and Zimbabwe (the latter refrains from discussing the human rights issues of the government sponsored post 1996 land occupations). Not all chapters discuss social movements, but the book does cover gender and indigenous issues.

Ruiz, Felipe ; Vallejo, Juan Pablo, The Post-Political Link Between Gender and Climate Change: The Case of the Nationally Determined Contributions Support Programme, Contexto Internacional, Vol. 41, no. 2, 2019

This is an article querying the emphasis on gender in the UN Development Programme. Examining how gender was incorporated into Colombia’s Low-Carbon Development Strategy, they suggest that there are various risks in promoting feminist ideas within ‘mainstream institutional frameworks’.

Ruiz-Navarro, Catalina, A feminist peace in Colombia?, ReliefWeb, 2019

Ruiz-Navarro provides an analysis of the 2016 Colombia Peace agreement that incorporates the inclusion of women within the peace talk process. He also discusses the mobilisation in the country in support of the agreement, the role of Norway and Sweden in supporting this goal, the role played by women and the obstacles to the implementation of the agreement.

Sanford, Victoria, Peacebuilding in a War Zone; The Case of Colombia Peace Communities, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 10, no. 2, 1999, pp. 107-108

Sherriff, Lucy, Colombia was just starting to deliver justice to women. Will a new president get in the way?, Time, 2018

The article discusses the use of sexual violence against women during the conflict between the government, far-right paramilitary groups, left-wing guerrillas and drug cartels that began in Colombia in the 1960s. It then suggests the election of Conservative Ivan Duque, who has repeatedly pledged to roll back parts of the landmark 2016 peace agreement with rebels from the FARC group, is a risk factor for the protection and promotion of women’s rights.

Trent, Steve, As indigenous people protest in Colombia, we must rally with them, Environmental Justice Foundation, 2020

With a yearly figure of 251 activists assassinated in Colombia in 2020, and an average of 4 every week since the Paris agreement’s adoption in December 2015, indigenous activists in Colombia have risen against violence and environmental destruction with protests beginning in Bogota last month in October 2020.

Turkewitz, Julie, Why Are Colombians Protesting?, New York Times, 2021

This article provides a useful overview of the immediate and longer term causes of the May 2021 protests, the responses by the government and the international reactions. It notes that New York Times videos showed police firing on demonstrators, as well as gas canisters and other 'low lethal' devices, but also considers briefly whether the protesters too have used violence and the impact of road blocks.

Wadhwa, tanya, Massive mobilizations against femicides across Latina America and Caribbean, Peoplesdispacth, 2019

Reports on three major Latin American countries, Argentina, Colombia and Mexico that witnessed mobilizations against femicide and gender-based crimes in February 2019 comments also on the social and human rights organisations that are demonstrating against gender-based violence.

Willow, Anna, Understanding ExtrACTIVISM. Culture and Power in Natural Resource Disputes, London and New York, Routledge, 2019, pp. 312

The author analyzes the nature and power of extractive industries,  their impact on local people, and how they prompt active resistance in North and Latin America. The book covers a wide range of extractive industries, including logging, hydroelectric dams, mining, and oil and natural gas.

Zulver, Julia, Colectiva Matamba Resists, NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol. 50, no. 4, 2018, pp. 377-380

This article provides an account of the Colectiva Matamba Acción Afrodiaspórica (Matamba Afro-Diasporic Action Collective)’s group of women activists fighting racism, sexism, colonialism and capitalism. They argue for an intersectional feminism and discuss a distinction between Black women’s feminism and white women’s lack of acknowledgment of white supremacy within the context of their feminist struggles. The work also establishes a comparison between displacement and sexual violence pre- and post-conflict that formally ended in 2019 with a peace agreement between the Colombian government and the FARC in 2016.