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F.5.b.i. General

Rape during conflict: The Wolves of War; the Nobel Peace Prize honours two campaigners against rape in war, The Economist, 13/10/2018, pp. 59-58

Reports on the Nobel Peace Prize jointly awarded to Nadia Murad, a Yazidi in Iraq who was made a sex slave by Isis and wrote a book, The Last Girl, on her experience, and Dr. Mukwege in the Democratic Republic of Congo who runs a hospital that has treated over 40,000 women and children, survivors of rape and mutilation by militias.  He has survived an assassination attempt in 2012.

See also: 'Nobel winner vows to use honour in fight to protect Congolese women', Observer, 7 October 2018, pp. 28-9.

Attwood, Margaret, Am I a bad feminist?, The Globe And Mail, 15/01/2018,

Margaret Attwood’s argument that the #MeToo movement should not turn into ‘vigilante justice’ – i.e. condemnation without a trial. She voiced her opinion following the firing of an employee, Prof. Steven Galloway, from the University of British Columbia in Canada. Serious allegations were cited without further comments on their nature. The accusations were presumably related to allegations of sexual assaults, but the hearing found no evidence and Galloway was fired after signing a non-disclosure agreement. Attwood’s view met with a backlash of accusations that she used her power to silence less powerful victims.

For a follow-up by The Guardian, please visit:

Bhattacharyya, Rituparna, #Metoo Movement: An Awareness Campaign, International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, Vol. 3, issue 4, 2018, pp. 1-12

In the aftermath of the series of sexual allegations faced by Harvey Weinstein, one of the most powerful faces of Hollywood, the #MeToo movement went viral in social media. This movement was initially launched in 2006 by Tarana Burke aimed at helping survivors of sexual harassment. Taking examples from different countries, this commentary attempts to analyse the #MeToo movement and answer the question of why most victims of sexual harassment chose to remain silent.

Collier, Cheryl ; Raney, Tracey, Understanding Sexism and Sexual Harassment in Politics: A Comparison of Westminster Parliaments in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, Vol. 25, issue 3, 2018, pp. 432-455

The widespread problem of sexual harassment has made headlines around the world, including in political legislatures. Using public reports of sexism and sexual harassment, the authors highlight these problems in three countries: Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Although sexual harassment is a global issue, the aim of this article is to show how the shared rules, practices, and norms of these Westminster-style bodies perpetuate sexist cultures that produce unequal and unsafe work conditions for female politicians. The findings highlight some of the unique challenges women face in their representational and policy-making roles.

Commissioner, UN Human Righ, Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, 0

Access to this link connects to the annual reports and up-to –date highlights on violence against women worldwide by the UN Special Rapporteur on gender-based violence. Includes Annual Reports; country visits; relevant publications and documents; consultations with civil society; links about cooperation between global and regional initiatives; and existing legal frameworks amongst many other information.

Diehl, Sophie, Is Social Media Only For White Women? From #MeToo to #Mmiw, Master Thesis, Northern Arizona University, 2019, pp. 62

This thesis scrutinises the conversation about violence against women on social media. The main research question is: ‘Does social media reproduce colonial ideologies such as racism and sexism?’ Indigenous women experience the highest rates of sexual violence in the United States: they are twice as likely to be as all other women. Social media is praised as a tool for activists and marginalized groups to raise awareness. The thesis explores whether this applies to Indigenous women and sexual violence, or whether their voices are generally overlooked.

Fileborn, Bianca ; Loney-Howes, Rachel, #MeToo and the Politics of Social Change, Cham, Switzerland, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, pp. 376

#MeToo has sparked a global re-emergence of debate about and opposition to sexual violence. This edited collection uses the #MeToo movement as a starting point for examining contemporary debates among those engaged in combatting sexual violence. Academics and anti-sexual violence activists across the globe provide perspectives on the broader implications of the movement. It taps into wider conversations about the nature, history, and complexities of anti-rape and anti-sexual harassment politics, noting the limitations of the movement, including in the Global South. Contributors span the disciplines of criminology, media and communications, film studies, gender and queer studies, and law.

Greene, Linda ; Inniss, Lolita Buckner ; Crawford, Bridget J. ; Baradaran, Mehrsa ; Ben-Asher, Noa ; Capers, Bennett ; James, Osamudia R. ; Lindsay, Keisha, Talking About Black Lives Matter and #MeToo, Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender & Society, Vol. 34, issue 2, 2019, pp. 1-69

This article, which explores both differences and similarities between the two movements, begins by comparing both internal and external definitions of success within Black Lives Matter and MeToo. It also considers both movements from the standpoint of ‘intersectionality’. The authors then assess how both movements have influenced scholars, teachers, lawyers and community activists, their impacts on law and popular culture and how these external factors influence the movements. Finally they ask what the next steps should be for each movement.

Hinsliff, Gaby, The rapist is you!’: why a Chilean protest chant is being sung around the world, The Guardian, 03/02/2020,

Devised by a little-known South American feminist collective, the song ‘Un Violador en Tu Camino’ (‘A rapist in your path’) has been performed by women from Washington to Istanbul. This article sheds light on the reason why the song has become the hymn of feminist movements against sexual harassment.

Hollings, James, It Does Become Personal: Lessons From a News Organisation’s #Metoo Campaign, Journalism Practice, Vol. 14, issue 2, 2020, pp. 225-239

This paper reports on a #MeToo campaign by a mainstream news organisation. The ‘Me Too’ campaign led to a large number of disclosures adopted a survivor-led approach to minimise potential harm. It offers lessons for reporting on #MeToo issues, including the best practice for dealing with survivors, campaign management and ultimately the implications for changing editorial news values. Journalists showed greater awareness of the feelings of survivors and were able to reconcile this with traditional journalistic norms.

Hébert, Camille, Is MeToo only a social movement or a legal movement too?, Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal, Vol. 22, issue 321, 2018, pp. 321-336

Discusses the possibility of ‘MeToo’ of becoming a legal movement which could help shape the legislation on sexual harassment.

Kantor, Jodi ; Twohey, Meg, She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story that Helped Ignite a Movement, London, Bloomsbury Circus, 2019, pp. 336

Widely reviewed and recommended account by the two journalists who wrote the New York Times article that exposed and documented Harvey Weinstein’s systematic abuse of women actors and employees over decades. The book reveals the unfolding story they uncovered, exposes in detail the mechanisms of power that silenced many women, and reveals those who resisted these pressures. The second part of the book covers the Senate hearings for Trump’s Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanagh and Blasey Ford’s accusation against him.

Mended, Kaitlynn ; Ringrosea, Jessica ; Keller, Jessalynn, #MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism, European Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 25, issue 2, 2018, pp. 236-246

Explores the preparation behind the organisation of a feminist campaign and the use and impact of hashtags in discussing experiences of sexual violence.

Mendes, Kaitlynn ; Ringrose, Jessica ; Keller, Jessalynn, # MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism, European Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 25, issue 2, 2018

A study of how digital technologies and social media are used to challenge rape culture, misogyny and harassment, conducted after the #MeToo movement’s explosion in October 2017.

Mhadavi, Pardis, How #MeToo became a global movement, Foreign Affairs, 06/03/2018,

The article covers movements in countries such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Guatemala, Chile, India and Egypt that have preceded the #MeToo movement and have in some way created the conditions through which the #MeToo movement acquired international resonance.

Nadeau, Kathleen ; Rayamajhi, Sanjita, Women and Violence: Global Lives in Focus, Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, 2020, pp. 268

The authors examine violence against women and gender-based discrimination around the world, today. They provide a global perspective on the history, causes, and complex underpinnings of gender and violence from a multidimensional and cross-disciplinary perspective. The regions covered are North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central and East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Each chapter begins with an overview of its world region, and then focuses on particular forms of violence against women in the more specific contexts of particular countries and in relation to the wider region.

Rentschier, Carrie A., #MeToo and Student Activism against Sexual Violence, Communication, Culture and Critique, Vol. 11, issue 3, 2018, pp. 503-507

Examines student organizing and media activism in universities against sexual violence, including faculty/student relationships and adequacy of institutional measures.

Shiva, Negar ; Kharazmi, Zohreh Nosrat, The Fourth Wave of Feminism and the Lack of Social Realism in Cyberspace, Journal of Cyberspace Studies, Vol. 3, issue 2, 2019, pp. 129-146

The authors link the rise of ‘the fourth wave of feminism’ to the impact of cyberspace on social movements. They argue that social media offer accessibility, a potentially wide audience, low cost and a user-friendly environment, which encourage women to publicise sexual violence, and to then tackle wider issues such as the gender pay gap. The Internet-based feminist movement is also trying to highlight intersectionality, i.e. the impact of multiple forms of institutionalized oppression based on sex, gender, race, class, etc.

Sturgess, Sara ; Burns, Kellie, Ending the Silence of Sexual Assault Victims: The #metoo Campaign on Twitter, in Yook., Bora and Zifei Fay Chen (eds.) 21st International Public Relations Research Conference, 8-10 March 2018, 2018, pp. 343-356

A grassroots movement exploded on Twitter after actress Alyssa Milano invited users who had been sexually harassed or assaulted to tweet with the hashtag #MeToo. This study examines opinion leadership within the context of social network analysis and explores how users engaged with the campaign and others on Twitter.

Taylor, Michele P. ; Tyson, Tahl ; Neeser, Renata ; Vigil, Heather, A look at the #MeToo movement’s impact in the US, Brazil and the UK, TLNT, 08/08/2018,

This article compares the positive impacts of the #MeToo movement in two different jurisdictions in the United States of America - namely California and Texas - in Brazil, and in the United Kingdom. It highlights the reforms promoting the prosecution and prevention of sexual harassment in the workplace.

Women, UN, 16 Days of Activism, 2018

A comprehensive report on the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence Campaign held from 25 November 2018 (the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women) to 10 December 2018 (Human Rights Day) to galvanize action to end violence against women and girls around the world. The report provides links to previous years’ campaigns.

Zarkov, Dubravka ; Davis, Kathy, Ambiguities and dilemmas around #MeToo: #ForHow Long and #WhereTo?, European Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 25, issue 1, 2018, pp. 3-9

The authors explore some concerns about #MeToo and how feminist have responded to sexual harassment and sexual violence. #MeToo started in the USA a decade ago as activism by Black women who had experienced sexual violence to ‘let other survivors know they are not alone’ and create solidarity with the victims. The #MeToo campaign claims to be doing this now, but the authors query if this is actually what is being accomplished.