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, Defendants in Manresa gang-rape case escape sexual assault convictions, El Pais, 2019

Reports that five out of six men involved in a gang rape of a 14-year old girl were convicted of sexual abuse of a minor, rather than the more serious crime of sexual assault; the girl was for part of the time in an 'unconscious state'.  The report also provides an update on the Pamplona case, noting the  the Spanish Supreme Court ruled the men were guilty of rape and raised their prison sentences to 15 years. El Pais records in addition that the commission created after the Pamplona case to revise the legal definition of  sexual violence has reported, and recommended eliminating the lesser charge of  sexual abuse; but the Socialist Party government has not yet acted.

Aguirre, Xavier ; Ajangiz, Rafael ; Ibarra, Pedro ; de Rozas, Rafael Sainz, La insumisión, un singular ciclo histórico de desobediencia civil, Madrid, Technos, 1998, pp. 171

Primarily an account of the movement of conscientious objection and ‘insumision’ in Spain, but including analysis and proposals. It was written by university teachers who joined the movement and assisted from inside. Published in the final stage of the movement, when the end of conscription was announced. but there were still objectors jailed in military prisons.

Argilés, Ramón Adell ; Martínez, Miguel Ángel, ¿Dónde están las llaves? El movimiento okupa: prácticas y contextos sociales, Madrid, Catarata, 2004, pp. 352

Balfour, Sebastian, Dictatorship, Workers and the City: Labour in Greater Barcelona: Since 1939, Oxford, Clarendon, 1989, pp. 290

Beatley, Meaghan, How #Me Too changed this year's Running of the Bulls, PRI Global Post, 2018

When the five men involved in the 2017 gang rape were released from prison in June 2018, weeks before the Pamplona festival, feminists around Spain protested and called for revision of the legal definition of rape, which required 'violence or intimidation', terms that allowed many rapists to escape conviction. The new Minister for Equality, Carmen Calvo, promised to redefine rape in terms of consent.  Many feminists planned to demonstrate in relation to the Pamplona festival, either by a boycott or by dressing in black during the festival (challenging the traditional wearing of white). But they called off this plan in response to pleas from women in Pamplona, who had long campaigned to take part in the ceremonial supporting events and eventually won that right 15 years earlier. 

Beatley, Meaghan, How #Me Too changed this year's Running of the Bulls, PRI Global Post, 2018

When the five men involved in the 2017 gang rape were released from prison in June 2018, weeks before the Pamplona festival, feminists around Spain protested and called for revision of the legal definition of rape, which required 'violence or intimidation', terms that allowed many rapists to escape conviction. The new Minister for Equality, Carmen Calvo, promised to redefine rape in terms of consent.  Many feminists planned to demonstrate in relation to the Pamplona festival, either by a boycott or by dressing in black during the festival (challenging the traditional wearing of white). But they called off this plan in response to pleas from women in Pamplona, who had long campaigned to take part in the ceremonial supporting events and eventually won that right 15 years earlier. 

Beatley, Meaghan, How #Me Too changed this year's Running of the Bulls, PRI Global Post, 2018

When the five men involved in the 2017 gang rape were released from prison in June 2018, weeks before the Pamplona festival, feminists around Spain protested and called for revision of the legal definition of rape, which required 'violence or intimidation', terms that allowed many rapists to escape conviction. The new Minister for Equality, Carmen Calvo, promised to redefine rape in terms of consent.  Many feminists planned to demonstrate in relation to the Pamplona festival, either by a boycott or by dressing in black during the festival (challenging the traditional wearing of white). But they called off this plan in response to pleas from women in Pamplona, who had long campaigned to take part in the ceremonial supporting events and eventually won that right 15 years earlier. 

Beatley, Meaghan, The shocking rape trial that galvanised Spain's feminists - and the far right, The Guardian, 2019

This 'long read' article provides a detailed account of the notorious rape of an 18-year-old woman at the Pamplona bull run festival in 2016 and the five man 'wolf pack' responsible.  It assesses the impact of the trial, which in April 2018 found the men guilty of 'sexual abuse', instead of rape, because the woman had not been violently coerced. The rape and the verdict sparked widespread anger among women, who demonstrated across the country, and journalist Cristina Fallaras tweeted about her own experiences of sexual violence and launched the hashtag #Cuentalo (tell your story). The five men were released from jail in June 2018 on bail whilst appealing their prison sentences. Beatley describes the impact on the feminist movement - police estimated 350,000 demonstrated in Madrid and 200,000 in Barcelona and many thousands in other cities and towns on International Women's Day 2019.  But the case has also mobilised the far right party Vox to attack feminists and to claim that the danger of violence against women comes from non-European immigrants.

Beristain, Carlos M., La insumisión encarcelada, Barcelona, Virus, 1992, pp. 158

A compilation of the voices and experiences of seven objectors in prison, as well as of their relatives and supporting groups, in the context of the first years of the campaign of disobedience to military service in Spain. This book arose out of the need to train activists to face jail.

Carr, Raymond ; Fusi, Juan Pablo, Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy, 2nd edition, London, Allen and Unwin, 1981, pp. 288

Especially chapter 7, ‘From “conformism” to confrontation’, pp. 134-67, which covers not only regional, worker and student resistance, but also changes within the Catholic Church; and chapter 9 ‘The regime in crisis: Carrero Blanco and Arras Navarro 1969-1975’, pp. 189-206.

Carrión, María, Spaniards Take On the Banks, The Progressive, no. Nov, 2012

Examines campaign against the banks’ ruthless treatment of those unable to pay mortgages and other campaigns such as defiance by doctors and health care workers of law requiring them to refuse treatment to immigrants.

Casquette, Jesus, The Sociopolitical Context of Mobilization: The Case of the Anti-Militarist Movement in the Basque Country, Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol. 1, no. 2 (Sept), 1996, pp. 203-212

Castaneda, Ernesto, The Indignados of Spain: A Precedent to Occupy Wall Street, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social and Cultural Political Protest, Vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 309-319

Builds on participant observation in Barcelona in summer of 2011.

Castells, Manuel, Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age, Cambridge, Polity, 2012, pp. 200

Well known theorist of global networks examines the mass uprisings across the world in 2011, giving account of events in ‘Arab Spring’ and the reaction to the bank collapse and austerity policies in the west in Iceland, Spain, Greece and the USA, and stressing the causal role of the internet.

Clark, Howard, No More Mortgage Suicides! Spain’s Social Movements Struggle for Housing Justice, Peace News, no. 2552-2553 (Dec-Jan), 2012

On the vigorous campaign to support mortgage defaulters and the wider 15M movement.

Cockburn, Cynthia, Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements, London, Pluto Press, 2012, pp. 320

Feminist peace activist provides her theoretical perspective on cross-national case studies including UK peace movement, War Resisters’ International, anti-militarist campaigns in Spain, Korea and Japan, and the anti-NATO demonstrations in Strasbourg 2009.

de Blaye, Edouard, Franco and the Politics of Spain, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1976, pp. 576

Especially chapter 18 ‘The Oppositions’, pp. 490-513.

Della Porta, Donatella, Social Movements in Times of Austerity: Bringing Capitalism Back into Protest Analysis, Cambridge, Polity and Wiley, 2015, pp. 216

Analyzes movements since 2008 (Iceland) challenging corruption and inequality and situating them within the crisis of neoliberalism. Covers Spain, Greece and Portugal anti-austerity movements, but also Peru, Brazil, Russia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Ukraine.

Dhaliwal, Puneet, Public Squares and Resistance: The Politics of Space in the Indignados Movement, Interface: A Journal for and about Social Movements, Vol. 4, no. 1 (May), 2012, pp. 251-273

Domínguez, Rosario, La Insumisión. Una forma de vida, Madrid, La Malatesta Editorial, 2012, pp. 147

Tells the story of the insumisos from the point of view of one of the mothers. It begins with a summary of the historical process and then introduces a personal narrative of the experience of trials and jail, and the struggle of the conscientious objectors’ mothers association. Includes press articles and pictures which illustrate each element of the story.

Drake, Paul, Labor Movements and Dictatorships: the Southern Cone in Comparative Perspective, Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 1996, pp. 253

In addition to detailed analysis of Argentine, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, has comparative discussion with European dictatorships – Greece, Portugal, and Spain.

Fominaya, Cristina Flesher, Debunking Spontaneity: Spain’s 15-M/Indignados as Autonomous Movement, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social and Cultural Political Protest, Vol. 14, no. 2, 2015, pp. 142-163

Argues emergence of movement not ‘new’ and ‘spontaneous’ but product of evolution of a collective identity and culture stressing deliberative democracy since the 1980s.
See also her blog on the OpenDemocracy website: ‘Spain is Different: Podemos and 15-M’ on the rise of the leftist but non-ideological Podemos party in the European Parliamentary elections of June 2014, and influence of 15-M movement on the nature of the new party.

Garcia, Ter, A Year of Small Victories for the Spanish Foreclosure Movement, Waging Nonviolence, 2011

Survey of first year of PAH.

Gerbaudo, Paolo, Los Indignados, Red Pepper, no. Aug/Sept, 2011, pp. 33-35

On launch of movement by Real Democracy Now! on 15 May 2011 with marches and protest camp in Madrid, its spread across Spain and to Greece.

Hancox, Dan, Utopia and the Valley of Tears, 2012, pp. 76

Hancox, Dan, The Village Against the World, London, Verso, 2013, pp. 252

(Successor to ebook Hancox, Dan , Utopia and the Valley of Tears , 2012, pp. 76 , on same topic.)
Discusses the small village, Marinaleda, in southern Spain that has battled for decades with the state and capitalist policies, but gained international attention in 2012 when its mayor (and farmers union leader) organized the filling of ten shopping trolleys, refused to pay, and distributed them to the poor from a military base and mansion of a local large landowner.

Heine, Hartmut, La oposición al franquismo: de 1939 a 1952, Critica, 1983, pp. 502

Hekma, Gert ; Oosterhuis, Harry, Gay Men and the Sexual History of the Political Left, New York, Harrington Press, 1995, pp. 408

Includes chapters on the often difficult relationship between socialist, anarchist or social democratic movements and homosexuality in countries such as pre-First World War Netherlands, Civil-War Spain, the German Weimar Republic and post-1945 East Germany.

Hilary, John, The Poverty of Capitalism: Economic Meltdown and the Struggle for What Comes Next, London, Pluto Press, 2013, pp. 240

Analysis by War on Want director of how neoliberal elite is using the 2008 crisis to entrench its own power and impose neoliberal policies on Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland. The book ends with a sketch of the growing worldwide struggle against neoliberalism and suggesting how alternatives might be strengthened.

Ibarra, Pedro, Objeción e insumisión, claves ideológicas y sociales, Madrid, Fundamentos, 1992, pp. 319

This collective work analyzes the origins and early stages of conscientious objection and insumision in Spain, its ideological debates and evolution. It includes an analysis of the national and international political context, a chapter on alternative civilian service in the Federal Republic of Germany, and a guide to becoming an objector.

Jimenez, Manuel, Mobilizing Against the Iraq War in Spain: Background, Participants and Electoral Implications, ed. Yukich, Grace, Ortiz, David, McVeigh, Rory, Myers, Dan, South European Society and Politics, Vol. 12, no. 3, 2007, pp. 399-420

Jimenez, Manuel, The Environmental Movement in Spain. A Growing Source of Contention, (Special Issue on ‘New and Alternative Movements in Spain), South European Society and Politics, Vol. 12, no. 3, 2007, pp. 359-378

Lamarca, Melissa Garcia, Sparks from the Spanish Crucible: Resisting evictions Spanish style, New Internationalist, no. April, 2013

On the Platform for Mortgage Affected People (PAH) set up in February2009 to campaign about the hundreds of thousands of foreclosures and evictions of people unable to keep up mortgages on their homes, and often faced with a huge debt to the banks even after eviction. The group organized mass resistance to evictions, occupied foreclosed flats and houses to provide shelter for those made homeless, and to lobby Parliament to end evictions, promote affordable rents and changes to the mortgage law.

Linz, Juan, Opposition to and under an Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Spain, In Dahl, Robert A., Regimes and Opposition New Haven CT, Yale University Press, , 1973, pp. 171-259

Much-cited essay discussing categories of opposition.

Lliso, Juan Carlos Dal, La Objecion Fiscal a los gastos militares, Madrid, Technos, 1996

Study of the Spanish tax resistance campaign against military expenditure, launched in the early 1980s and still continuing.

Maravall, Jose, Dictatorship and Political Dissent: Workers and Students in Franco’s Spain, London, Tavistock, 1978, pp. 199

Morán-Breña, Carmen, Spanish #MeToo movement demands justice for victims of sexual abuse, El Pais, 2018

The anti-sexual harassment group Pandora's Box, composed of 3,000 women  involved in the arts, called for institutional protection against harassment and demanded allegations should not be ignored. The appeal was part of a campaign to support the dancer Carmen Tome, who had accused a curator at a cultural centre in Alicante of groping her. The group was still organising itself and considering both educational and legal means of preventing gender violence.

Movimiento de Objeción de Conciencia, En Legitima Desobediencia, Madrid, Proyecto Editorial Traficantes de Sueños, 2002, pp. 348

This is the major compilation of declarations, press statements and articles by the protagonists of the insumisión campaign at the time of their disobedience. Therefore it includes accounts of various stages of movement, such as the formation of the first objectors’ groups, and defiance of the Conscientious Objection Act, and the struggle inside the prison in Pamplona. There are also manifestoes, letters of support and internal documents which record these struggles and others that arose out of them: for example the gender issue raised by antimilitarist-feminist women, and the campaign against military expenditure involving tax refusal.

Oliver, Pedro, La utopía insumisa de Pepe Beunza. Una objeción subversiva durante el franquismo, Barcelona, Virus, 2002, pp. 174

A book about the beginning of the conscientious objection movement in Spain, which tells the story of Pepe Beunza, the first C.O. in Spain who embarked on disobedience under the Franco dictatorship. It is not only about Pepe’s personal experience, but also an account of the supporting campaigns and of the next conscientious objectors and the creation of MOC, the C.O. movement that still exists.

Ormazabal, Sabino, 500 ejemplos de noviolencia. Otra forma de contar la historia, Bilbao, Fundación Manu Robles-Arangiz, 2009

This book is a compendium of many examples of nonviolent action, mainly in the Basque country, but also from the rest of the world. The examples are presented individually, without a connecting link, so this is not a history, but a compendium of cases.

Penedo, Suzana Lopez, Queer Politics in Spain: There is Life after Same-Sex Marriage Legislation, Jindal Global Law Review, Vol. 4, no. 1, 2012, pp. 238-263

Prentoulis, Marina ; Thomassen, Lasse, The Legacy of the Indignados, OpenDemocracy, 2013

Discusses impact two years later of Spanish and Greek movements: their new form of political activism and extended definition of politics.

Preston, Paul, Spain in Crisis: Evolution and Decline of the Franco Regime, ed. Preston, Paul, Hassocks, Harvester Press, 1976, pp. 341

Preston, Paul, The Triumph of Democracy in Spain, London, Routledge, 1986, pp. 274

Chapter 1, ‘Internal contradictions of Francoism 1939-69’, covers some of the major strikes and demonstrations, and chapters 2 & 3 the Carrero Blanco years 1969-73 and the Arias Navarro government of 1974-76. For political developments from 1939 to 1975, see also: Preston, Paul , Spain in Crisis: Evolution and Decline of the Franco Regime Hassocks, Harvester Press, , 1976, pp. 341 .

Radcliff, Pamela Beth, Making Democratic Citizens in Spain: Civil Society and the Popular Origins of the Transition, 1960-1978, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, pp. 440

In the early 1960s, the dictatorship approved the formation of various types of family and neighbours associations, which in fact opened spaces for oppositional networking.

Reyes, Oscar, Rooted in the Neighbourhood, Red Pepper, no. Oct/Nov, 2012, pp. 36-37

Comments on decline in the neighbourhood assemblies that arose in 2011, but argues widespread willingness to take part in local initiatives survives, and is (for example) strengthening the campaign against eviction of those unable to pay their mortgage.

Romanos, Eduardo, Evictions, Petitions and Escraches: Contentious Housing in Austerity Spain, Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social and Cultural Political Protest, Vol. 13, no. 2, 2013, pp. 296-302

Examines different types of action used by movement against evictions and how a range of people drawn into movement.

Sitrin, Marina ; Azzellini, Dario, They Can’t Represent Us! Reinventing Democracy from Greece to Occupy, London, Verso, 2014, pp. 192

Combines history of direct democracy from classical Greece to the Indignados, drawing on interviews with activists in contemporary movements, including Occupy, that are based on forms of participatory democracy and reject liberal parliamentary democracy.

Squatting Europe Kollektive, ; Cattaneo, Claudia ; Martínez, Miguel Ángel, The Squatters’ Movement in Europe: Commons and Autonomy as Alternatives to Capitalism, London, Pluto Press, 2014, pp. 288

Case studies from most of Europe (excluding eastern Europe and Greece) covering direct action to create social housing and other community services over 30 year period.

Threlfall, Monica, The Women’s Movement in Spain, New Left Review, no. 151 (May/June), 1985, pp. 44-73

Discusses post-Franco development of feminist movement and legislative results.

Tritto, Vigliamo, The Working Class Dimension of “1968”, In Horn, Gerd-Rainer , The Spirit of ‘68: Rebellion in Western Europe and North America, 1956-1976 Oxford, Oxford University Press, , 2007, pp. 264,

Tritto’s comparative chapter on worker protest starts with the important 1962 strike by the Asturian miners.

Welles, Benjamin, Spain: The Gentle Anarchy, London, Pall Mall Press, 1965, pp. 386

By US journalist in Spain. See chapter 7, ‘The Opposition’, pp. 185-228.