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South Africa

Adler, Glenn ; Steinberg, Jonny, From Comrades to Citizens: The South African Civics Movement and the Transition to Democracy, ed. Adler, Glenn, Steinberg, Jonny, Basingstoke and New York, Macmillan and St Martin's, in association with the Albert Einstein Institution, 2000, pp. 272

Primarily on nonviolent action in townships during apartheid. Combines a national strategic overview by Jeremy Seekings of how the concept of civic struggle evolved in the period 1977-90 with detailed local accounts.

Alexander, Peter ; Sinwell, Luke ; Lekgowa, Thapelo ; Mmope, Botsang ; Xezwi, Bongani, Marikana: A View from the Mountain and a Case to Answer, Johannesburg, Jacana Media, 2013, pp. 144

Interviews with strikers who took part in protests and written from their viewpoint.

Altieri, Rocco, Mohandas K., Gandhi. Guerra Senza Violenza. La Nascita Della Nonviolenza Moderna, Firenze , Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 2005, pp. 307

A narration of Gandhi’s life in South Africa and his battle for the civil rights of the Indian minorities who were living there at the time. The work illustrates how Gandhi’s teaching and practice of nonviolence developed from the South African experience.

Anyang' Nyong'o, Peter, Popular Struggles for Democracy, ed. Anyang' Nyong'o, Peter, London, Zed Books, 1987, pp. 288

Contributors provide case studies of Morocco, Uganda, People’s Republic of Congo, South Africa, Ghana, Liberia, Kenya and Swaziland.

Barchiesi, Franco, Transnational Capital, Urban Globalisation and Cross-Border Solidarity: The Case of the South African Municipal Workers, In , Place, Space and the New Labour Internationalism Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, , 2001, pp. 312, pp. 80-102

Discusses problems faced by union in new global context of neoliberal economic dominance and its resistance to water privatization.

Baskin, Jeremy, Striking Back: a history of COSATU, London, Verso, 1990, pp. 488

Authoritative account of COSATU’s early years by then National Coordinator.

Benson, Mary, The African Patriots: The Story of the African National Congress of South Africa, London, Faber and Faber, 1963, pp. 310

Covers the period 1910- 60.

Biko, SteveArnold, Millard, The Testimony of Steve Biko, ed. Arnold, Millard, London, Maurice Temple Smith, 1978, pp. 298

Biko, a key figure in the move to radical black consciousness, was killed while in custody by the security services.

Buhlungu, Sakhela, The Anti-Privatisation Forum: A Profile of a Post-Apartheid Social Movement, Johannesburg, University of the Witwatersrand, 2004, pp. 22

A case study for the University of KwaZulu-Natal project Globalisation, Marginalisation and new Social Movements in post-Apartheid South Africa.

Callinicos, Alex ; Rogers, John, Southern Africa after Soweto, 2nd edition, London, Pluto Press, 1978, pp. 246

Includes critical assessment of the 1960s campaigns and examination of trade union action in the 1970s.

Cawthra, Gavin ; Kraak, Gerald ; O'Sillivan, Gerald, War and resistance: Southern Africa reports – the struggle for Southern Africa as documented by Resister magazine, ed. Cawthra, Gavin, Kraak, Gerald, O'Sillivan, Gerald, London, Macmillan, 1994, pp. 252

A compilation from the (London) Committee on South African War Resistance.

Chinguno, Crispen, Marikana and the Post-Apartheid Workplace Order, Working Paper 1, Braamfontein, Society, Work and Development Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, 2013, pp. 40

See also: , Marikana Massacre and Strike Violence Post-Apartheid Global Labour Journal, 2013, pp. 160-166

Chinguno, Crispen, Marikana Massacre and Strike Violence Post-Apartheid, Global Labour Journal, Vol. 4, no. 2, 2013, pp. 160-166

Clark, Howard, When the Best Say No: Impressions from a Visit to South Africa in Support of War Resisters, London, War Resisters' International, 1989, pp. 27

Cobbett, William ; Cohen, Robin, Popular Struggles in South Africa, ed. Cobbett, William, Cohen, Robin, London and Trenton NJ, James Curray and Africa World Press, 1988, pp. 234

Includes chapters on political unionism, the township revolts, student politics (school and university). Earlier version of the much-cited article  , The United Democratic Front and the township revolt Durban, South Africa, South African History Archives (SAHA), , 1987, pp. 23 , reprinted here on pp. 90-113, are available online.

Cock, Jacklyn ; Nathan, Laurie, War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa, ed. Cock, Jacklyn, Nathan, Laurie, New York, St. Martins Press, 1989, pp. 361

See also , Force of Arms, Force of Conscience: A Study of Militarisation, the Military and the Anti-Apartheid War Resisters’ Movement in South Africa, 1970-1988 M. Phil. ThesisBradford, University of Bradford, , 1990 .

Nathan was a leading activist in the End Conscription Campaign.

Davis, Angela Y., Freedom Is A Constant Struggle: Ferguson, Palestine And The Foundation Of A Movement, Chicago, IL, Haymarket Books, 2016, pp. 180

In this series of interviews conducted by Frank Barat - activist for human rights and Palestinian rights -, Angela Davis reflects on the importance of Black feminism, intersectionality, and prison abolitionism for today's struggles. She discusses the legacies of previous liberation struggles and makes connection between the Black Freedom Movement and the South African anti-apartheid movement, as well as between the events in Ferguson and Palestine. The core message of the book is the emphasis on the importance of establishing transnational networks of solidarity and activism.

Angela Y. Davis is a political activist (who supported the Black Panthers in the late 1960s and became widely known in 1971 when arrested on false charges), scholar, author, and speaker. She is an outspoken advocate for the oppressed and exploited, writing on Black liberation, prison abolition, the intersections of race, gender, and class, and international solidarity with Palestine.

Desai, Ashwin, We Are the Poors: Community Struggles in Post-Apartheid South Africa, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2002, pp. 153

On struggles against neoliberal policies and privatization in the townships, strikes, and the Durban Social Forum.

Drainville, Andre C., A History of World Order and Resistance: The Making and Unmaking of Global Subjects, ed. Development, , London, Routledge, 2011, pp. 216

Looks at Global Justice Movement in a broad historical framework and relates it to case studies of earlier struggles in the USA, UK, France, South Africa, Algeria, the Philippines and Jamaica.

Drewett, Michael, Music in the Struggle to End Apartheid: South Africa, In , Policing Pop Philadelphia PA, Temple University Press, , 2003, pp. 153-165

See also Drewett, Michael , Aesopian Strategies of Textual Resistance in the Struggle to Overcome the Censorship of Popular Music in Apartheid South Africa In Müller, Beate , Censorship & Cultural Regulation in the Modern Age Amsterdam and New York, Rodopi, , 2004, pp. 189-207 .

Dudouet, Véronique, Civil Resistance and Conflict Transformation – Transitions from Armed to Nonviolent Struggle, London, Routledge, 2014, pp. 262

Chapters on: Western Sahara, West Papua, Palestine, South Africa (in 1980s), the Zapatistas. Egypt, Nepal and on indigenous armed struggle and nonviolent resistance in Colombia.

Feit, Edward, African Opposition in South Africa: The Failure of Passive Resistance, Stanford CA, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, 1967, pp. 223

A critical study of the 1954-55 campaigns.

Gandhi, Mohandas K., Satyagraha in South Africa, [1925], Ahmedabad, Navajivan, 1950, pp. 348

Gandhi’s account of the seminal civil disobedience campaigns against legislation discriminating against the Indian population, and the evolution of his strategy and theory of ‘satyagraha’.

Gandhi, Mohandas K.Narayan, Shriman, Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, ed. Narayan, Shriman, Ahmedabad, Navajivan, 1968 6 volumes,

pp. 375, 379-794, 471, 464, 514, 555

Includes Satyagraha in South Africa (vol. 3), as well as Gandhi’s highly personal Autobiography, published 1927 (vols 1-2), important pamphlets such as his translation of Ruskin’s Unto This Last (vol. 4 – influential on Gandhi’s socio-economic thinking), letters on key issues (vol. 5) and speeches on historic occasions (vol. 6).

Gasa, Nomboniso, Women in South African History, ed. Gasa, Nomboniso, Cape Town, Human Sciences Research Council, 2007, pp. 456

Part Three – ‘War: armed and mass struggles as gendered experiences’ – includes Jacklyn Cock, ‘”Another mother for peace”: Women and peace building in South Africa, 1983-2003, pp. 257-280, and Janet Cherry ‘”We were not afraid”: The role of women in the 1980s’ township uprising in the Eastern Cape’, pp. 281-313, and Pat Gibbs, ‘Women, labour and resistance: Case studies from the Port Elizabeth/Uitenhage area, 1972-94’, pp. 315-343.

Good, Kenneth, The capacities of the people versus a predominant, militarist, ethno-nationalist elite: democratisation in South Africa, Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Vol. 3, no. 2, 2011, pp. 311-358

Contends that the ANC ‘showed an increasing intolerance for the values upheld by the UDF, like criticism and self-criticism of elites and nonviolence’.

Gurney, Christabel, When the Boycott began to Bite, History Today, Vol. 9, no. 6, 1999

Account by a key organizer of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement.

Hain, Peter, Don’t Play with Apartheid: Background to the Stop the Seventy Tour, London, Allen and Unwin, 1971, pp. 232

Hall, David ; Lobina, Emanuele ; de la Motte, Robin, Public Resistance to Privatisation in Water and Energy, ed. Food Empowerment Project, , Development in Practice, Vol. 15, no. 3-4 (June), 2005

Examines role of different types of opposition in ‘delaying, cancelling or reversing the privatization of water and energy’, including success in Nkondobe (South Africa), Paraguay where parliament voted in 2002 to suspend indefinitely privatization of state-owned water and Poznan in Poland in 2002, and failure of campaigns in UK, Chile and Philippines.

Hanlon, Joseph, South Africa: the Sanctions Report – documents and statistics, ed. Hanlon, Joseph, London, James Currey and Commonwealth Secretariat, 1990, pp. 342

Jika, Thanduxolo ; Mosamo, Sebabatso ; Sadiki, Leon ; Saba, Athandiwe ; Ledwaba, Lucas ; Dlangamandla, Felix, We Are Going to Kill Each Other Today: The Marikana Story, Cape Town, Cape Town, Tafelberg, 2013, pp. 256

Account by City Press reporters and photographers, supplemented by edited evidence from official Enquiry, and including analyses of labour migration.

Karis, Thomas ; Carter, Gwendolen M. ; Gerhart, Gail M. ; Glaser, Clive L., From Protest to Challenge: Documents of African Politics in South Africa 1882-1990, ed. Karis, Thomas, Carter, Gwendolen M., Gerhart, Gail M., Glaser, Clive L., [1973], 2010 6 volumes,

– a six-volume series. Notably vol. 2, ‘Hope and Challenge, 1935-1952’, Thomas Karis, ed., 1973, pp. 550; vol 3, ‘Challenge and Violence, 1953-1964’, 1987, pp. 845; vol. 5, ‘Nadir and Resurgence, 1964-1979’, Thomas G. Karis and Gail M. Gerhart, eds., 1997, pp. 840; vol 6, ‘Challenge and Victory’, Gail M. Gerhart and Clive L. Glaser, 2010, pp. 816. ‘Combines narrative with a wealth of primary source material.’

Khagram, Sanjeev, Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 2004, pp. 288

Focused particularly on the controversy over the major Narmada River dam projects, but also provides comparative perspective by considering dam projects in Brazil, China, Indonesia, South Africa and Lesotho, where the World Bank and other lenders were persuaded to withdraw funding.

Kingsnorth, Paul, One No, Many Yeses: A Journey to the Heart of the Global Resistance Movement, London, Free Press, 2003, pp. 355

Wide ranging exploration of campaigns in all parts of the world seen at first hand. Includes coverage of Sem Terra in Brazil, Cochabamba in Bolivia, township resistance to privatization in South Africa, the Zapatistas, opposition to mining in West Papua, and campaigning groups in the USA. See also his: Kingsnorth, Paul , Protest still matters New Statesman, 08/05/2006 , 8 May, 2006, discussing why the Global Justice Movement has dropped out of the news, the turn away from street demonstrations to social forums, and stressing that struggles still continue, especially in the Global South.

Kinsman, Jeremy ; Bassuener, Kurt, A Diplomat’s Handbook for Democracy Development Support, 3rd edition, Washington, DC, Council for a Community of Democracies, 2009, pp. 450

Tips for diplomats on how they can more effectively support local pro-democracy g roups facing repressive regimes. Case studies from South Africa, Ukraine, Chile, Belarus, Burma/Myanamar, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

Kuper, Leo, Passive Resistance in South Africa, London, Jonathan Cape, 1956, pp. 256

Sociological study of the 1952 ‘Defiance Campaign’.

Lapchick, Richard, The Politics of Race and International Sport: The Case of South Africa, Westport CT, Greenwood Press, 1975, pp. 268

Lodge, Tom, Black Politics in South Africa since 1945, London, Longman, 1983, pp. 389

Covers key campaigns up to Sharpeville and the Soweto student rebellion.

See also Lodge, Tom , The Interplay of Nonviolent and Violent Action in the Movements Against Apartheid in South Africa, 1983-94 In Roberts; Garton Ash, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements)New York, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 213-230 .

Lodge, Tom ; Nasson, Bill, All, Here, and Now: Black Politics in South Africa in the 1980s, ed. Lodge, Tom, Nasson, Bill, London, Hurst, 1992, pp. 400

Luckhardt, Ken ; Wall, Brenda, Organize or Starve: The History of the South African Congress of Trade Unions, New York, International Publishers, 1980, pp. 485

Luthuli, Albert, Let My People Go!, London, Collins, 1962, pp. 256

Autobiography of President of ANC from 1952 to 1967, and Nobel Prize winner.

Mandela, Nelson, No Easy Walk to Freedom, [1965], London, Heinemann, 1986, pp. 189

Mandela, Nelson, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela, London, Little Brown, 1994, pp. 768

Includes views on nonviolence and support for the turn to violent resistance. Mandela’s earlier articles, speeches and addresses at his trials are published in: Mandela, Nelson , No Easy Walk to Freedom [1965] London, Heinemann, , 1986, pp. 189 .

Marx, Anthony, Lessons of Struggle: South African Internal Opposition, 1960-1990, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 347

Examines relationship between strategies and different ideologies of resistance based on race, nation or class.

Mayekiso, Mzwanele, Township Politics: Civic Struggles in the New South Africa, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1996, pp. 288

McKinley, Dale T., Lessons of Struggle: The Rise and Fall of the Anti-Privatisation Forum, South African Civil Society Information Service, 2012

Critical analysis of failings of Forum, which was set up in 2000 and active for 10 years, but also noting its positive role as voice for marginalised and promoter of grass roots activism.

Meredith, Martin, Nelson Mandela: A Biography, London, Hamish Hamilton, 1997, pp. 596

Michelson, Cherry, The Black Sash of South Africa: A Case Study in Liberalism, London, Oxford University Press, 1975, pp. 204

Analysis of (predominantly) white women’s organization publicly opposing apartheid since 1950, known especially for its vigils.

Moskos, Charles C. ; Chambers, John Whiteclay, The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 286

Section 1 suggests ‘the secularization of conscience and modern individ-ualism have been the driving force’ in the rise of conscientious objection. Section 2 looks at the historical record in the USA. Section 3 has articles on France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, the former Communist states in Eastern Europe, Israel and South Africa.

Mufson, Steven, The Fighting Years: The Struggle for a New South Africa, Boston, Beacon Press, 1990, pp. 360

Washington Post journalist, who was in South Africa 1984-86, interviewed leaders of banned organizations and more conservative Africans. Less strong on post-1986 period.

Neocosmos, Michael, From People’s Politics to State Politics: Aspects of National Liberation in South Africa, In Olukoshi, The Politics of Opposition in Contemporary Africa (E. I.2.1.i. General Overviews), Uppsala, Nordiska Afikrainstitutet, pp. 195-241

Discusses the post-1990 statist supplanting of ‘the popular emancipatory project’.

Nepstad, Sharon Erickson, Nonviolent Struggle: Theories, Strategies, and Dynamics, New York, Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 264

Designed as a textbook, it covers history, theoretical developments and debates about the results of nonviolent movements. It categorizes nine types of nonviolent action, which are illustrated by case studies.  A separate chapter explores key issues of why and when sections of the armed services defect from a regime challenged by a nonviolent movement. 

Ngwane, Trevor, Sparks in the township, New Left Review, Vol. II, no. 22 (July/Aug), 2003, pp. 37-56

Olukoshi, Adebayo, The Politics of Opposition in Contemporary Africa, ed. Olukoshi, Adebayo, Uppsala, Nordiska Afikrainstitutet, 1998, pp. 328

Contributors assess the efforts and problems of oppositions in difficult circumstances, and also consider issues of leadership and organization. The book includes case studies of Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Zimbabwe.

Orkin, Mark, Sanctions Against Apartheid, ed. Orkin, Mark, New York, St. Martins Press, 1989, pp. 328

Pillay, Pearl, The Marikana Massacre: ‘the sub-altern cannot speak', The Broken Rifle, no. 98 (December), 2013

Brief article which details evolution of strike from 10-16 August.

Presbey, Gail, Evaluating the Legacy of Nonviolence in South Africa, Peace and Change, Vol. 31, no. 2, 2006, pp. 141-174

Evaluates claims that ‘nonviolence, if adhered to more resolutely, would have ended apartheid sooner’, reminding readers of the high level of support for the ANC’s armed wing. Suggests that despite some over-simplifications, the claims for nonviolence, though speculative, are plausible.

Relations, Catholic Institute, Out of Step: War Resisters in South Africa, London, Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1989, pp. 141

Rosset, Peter M. ; Patel, Roy ; Courville, Michael, Promised Land: Competing Visions of Agrarian Reform, ed. Latin American Perspectives, , Oakland CA, Food First, 2006, pp. 380

Includes chapters on Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, India, Mexico, South Africa and Zimbabwe (the latter refrains from discussing the human rights issues of the government sponsored post 1996 land occupations). Not all chapters discuss social movements, but the book does cover gender and indigenous issues.

Schock, Kurt, Unarmed Insurrections: People Power Movements in Nondemocracies, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2005, pp. 228

Seeks to address the lack of explicitly comparative analysis of how nonviolent methods promote political transformation. Examines success of the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa (1983-90), and pro-democracy movements in the Philippines (1983-86), Nepal (1990) and Thailand (1991-92), and explores failure of such as movements in China (1989) and Burma (1988). Lists major actions in each movement. Includes analysis and criticism of ‘consent’ theory of power.

Translations: Spanish
Scott, Michael, A Time to Speak, London, Faber, 1959, pp. 365

Autobiography of Anglican priest who took the case of the Herero people of South West Africa to the UN, opposing their incorporation into the Union of South Africa. Chapter 8 describes the Indian resistance to discriminatory legislation in 1946.

Seegers, Annette, South Africa: From Laager to Anti-Apartheid, In , The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance New York, Oxford University Press, , 1993, pp. 296, pp. 127-134

Surveys development of conscientious objection from 1960.

Seekings, Jeremy, The UDF: A History of the United Democratic Front in South Africa, 1983-1991, Cape Town and Oxford, David Philip amd James Currey, 2000, pp. 371

Authoritative organizational history (commissioned by the UDF at the point when it disbanded).

Seidman, Gay, Guerrillas in their midst: armed struggle in the South African anti-apartheid movement, Mobilization, Vol. 6, no. 2 (Fall), 2001, pp. 111-127

Seidman, Gay, Beyond the Boycott: Labor Rights, Human rights, and Transnational Activism, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 2007, pp. 176

Especially ch. 3, pp. 47-71, ‘Monitoring multinationals: lessons from the anti-apartheid era’.

Smuts, Dene ; Westcott, Shauna, The Purple Shall Govern: A South Africa A to Z of Nonviolent Action, Cape Town, Oxford University Press and Centre for Intergroup Studies, 1991, pp. 165

Examples of nonviolent action from the 1950s to the 1990s. Brief extracts illustrate tactics such as boycotts, courting arrest, funerals, graffiti, ostracism, prayer, resisting removal, voluntary exile and ‘wading-in’ (against segregated beaches).

Suttner, Raymond, Legacies and Meanings of the United Democratic Front (UDF) Period for Contemporary South Africa, In , From National Liberation to Democratic Renaissance in Southern Africa Dakar, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESIRA), , 2006, pp. 212, pp. 59-81

Suttner, Raymond ; Cronin, Jeremy, 30 Years of the Freedom Charter, Johannesburg, Ravan Press, 1986, pp. 266

Suttner, Raymond ; Cronin, Jeremy, 50 Years of the Freedom Charter, Pretoria, Unisa Press, 2006, pp. 246

Revised and updated from the banned book Suttner, Raymond ; Cronin, Jeremy , 30 Years of the Freedom Charter Johannesburg, Ravan Press, , 1986, pp. 266 . Recounts the process of formulating as well as discussing the political implications of the Freedom Charter adopted in 1955. (Part of Unisa’s series ‘Hidden Histories’.)

Swilling, Mark, The United Democratic Front and the township revolt, Durban, South Africa, South African History Archives (SAHA), 1987, HWS 405 volumes, pp. 23

Tutu, DesmondAllen, John, The Rainbow People of God, ed. Allen, John, London, Bantam, 1995, pp. 286

Tutu influenced world opinion in the 1980s and 1990s and chaired the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

Twala, Chitja, The Marikana Massacre: A Historical overview of the Labour Unrest in the Mining Sector in South Africa, Southern African Peace and Security Studies, Vol. 1, no. 2, 2013, pp. 61-67

van Kessel, Ineke, Beyond Our Wildest Dreams: The United Democratic Front and the Transformation of South Africa, Charlottesville and London, University of Virginia Press, 2000, pp. 367

Uses three case studies to illustrate the complexity of the UDF. Addresses generational tensions and conflicts between belief systems that the UDF itself, and most studies of it, tended to ignore.