You are here

Brazil

, The Big Story: Black Lives Matter, [March 2018], New Internationalist, 2018, pp. 12-25

Introductory article by Amy Hall summarises the growth of BLM in the USA, discusses its global potential and spread to other countries, and notes the relevance of BLM in the UK.  Jamilah King comments on the US movement, both on its strengths and the divisions within it. Other articles examine how BLM relates to a history of  'a policy of black extermination' in Brazil, and to the struggle by Aboriginal people in Australia.

Alonso, Angela ; Costa, Valeriano ; Maciel, Deborah, Environmental Activism in Brazil: The rise of a Social Movement, ed. Thompson, Lisa, Tapscott, Chris V., In Thompson, Lisa ; Tapscott, Chris V., Citizenship and Social Movements: Perspectives from the Global South London, Zed Books, , 2010, pp. 304,

Antoine, Charles, Church and Power in Brazil, London, Sheed and Ward, 1975, pp. 275

Branford, Sue ; Glock, Oriel, The Last Frontier: Fighting over Land in the Amazon, ed. Borras, Saturnino M., Edelman, Mark, Kay, Cristobal, London, Zed Books, 1985, pp. 336

Branford, Sue ; Rocha, Jan, Cutting the Wire, London, Latin American Bureau, 2002, pp. 305

Well researched account of MST.

Branford, Sue ; Wainwright, Hilary, Ructions in Rio, Red Pepper, no. Aug/Sept, 2013, pp. 40-41

Bratman, Eve Z., Contradictions of Green Development, Human Rights and Environmental Norms in light of Belo Monte Dam activities, Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 46, no. 2 (May), 2014, pp. 261-289

Camara, Helder, Spiral of Violence, London, Sheed and Ward, 1971, pp. 83

Statement of case for nonviolent, as opposed to violent, resistance by Archbishop known for his support for the poor and opposition to racism and militarism.

Campos, Nauro F., What drives protests in Brazil? Corruption, ineptitude and elections, VOX, 2013

Economics professor suggests three main causes of the protests.

Carter, Miguel, The Origin of Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement MST: the Natalino Episode in Rio Grande do Sul (1981-84) – a case of ideal interest mobilization, Working Paper Series CBS-43-2003, Oxford, University of Oxford Centre of Brazil Studies, 2003, pp. 71

Corradi, Juan E. ; Fagen, Patricia Weiss ; Garreton, Manuel Antonio, Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America, ed. Corradi, Juan E., Fagen, Patricia Weiss, Garreton, Manuel Antonio, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1992, pp. 301

Documents impact of state terror on society in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay from 1950s to 1980s, and the emergence of resistance in various sectors.

Davis, Nathaniel, The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende, London, I.B. Taurus, 1985, pp. 480

Account of evolving crisis by former US ambassador to Chile.

De Avila, Thiago, Facing domestic violence against women in Brazil: advances and challenges, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy (IJCJ&SJ),, Vol. 7, no. 2, 2018, pp. 15-29

This article offers a critical overview of the Brazilian legal framework for confronting domestic violence. Intimate partner homicides are epidemic in Brazil: there are four deaths of women per day. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law (MPL) introduced integrated polices and transformed criminal procedures to deal with the complexities of gender violence. Reforms included the establishment of The House of Brazilian Women, women‐only police stations, specialised courts, intervention orders, interdisciplinary experts, and perpetrator programs. In 2015, a new law established the crime of femicide and was designed to prevent ‘honour killings’ defences in cases of intimate partner homicides and to avoid impunity. Despite the legal reforms, the structure and articulation of the networks of services remains a challenge. The MPL led to great social change in Brazil by raising awareness of violence against women, and facilitating a broader discussion about gender equality.

de Carvalho, Jesus Mario, Firmeza Permanente: Labor holds the line Brazil, In McManus; Schlabach, Relentless Persistence: Nonviolent Action in Latin America (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies), Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, pp. 33-47

Account by labour activist of protracted struggle from 1962 in PETRUS cement factory in Sao Paolo against strikebreaking, police repression and an employer-created ‘union’.

Della Porta, Donatella, Social Movements in Times of Austerity: Bringing Capitalism Back into Protest Analysis, Cambridge, Polity and Wiley, 2015, pp. 216

Analyzes movements since 2008 (Iceland) challenging corruption and inequality and situating them within the crisis of neoliberalism. Covers Spain, Greece and Portugal anti-austerity movements, but also Peru, Brazil, Russia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Ukraine.

Dent, Alexander S. ; Pinheiro-Machado, Rosana, Protesting Democracy in Brazil, Hot Spots. Cultural Anthropology website, 2013

Series of 22 posts covering numerous aspects of protests, their cause, and issues of policing.

Drake, Paul, Labor Movements and Dictatorships: the Southern Cone in Comparative Perspective, Baltimore MD, John Hopkins University Press, 1996, pp. 253

In addition to detailed analysis of Argentine, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, has comparative discussion with European dictatorships – Greece, Portugal, and Spain.

Engler, Mark ; Engler, Paul, This is an Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt is Shaping the Twenty-First Century, New York, Nation Books, 2016, pp. 368

The book examines how contemporary movements are using strategic nonviolent action to promote social change, covering a range of protests including climate change, immigrant rights, gay rights, Occupy and Black Lives Matter. The authors argue that nonviolent uprisings are becoming more common than violent rebellion, and look back to twentieth century antecedents in the Indian Independence and US Civil Rights movements, examine the nature of effective strategy and discuss organizational discipline. Their analysis includes the Arab Spring, but notes its discouraging implications.

Erikson, Kenneth P., The Brazilian Corrporate State and Working Class Politics, Berkeley CA, University of California Press, 1977, pp. 225

Gatehouse, Tom, Copa de Cash: saying this is a World Cup for everyone is a cruel joke, Red Pepper, no. Jun/Jul, 2014, pp. 38-39

On the negative impact of preparations for the World Cup and increasingly repressive police tactics.

Gedicks, Al, International Native Resistance to the New Resource Wars, ed. Taylor, Bron Raymond, In Taylor, Ecological Resistance Movements: The Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism (C.1.a. General and International Studies), Albany NY, State University of New York Press, pp. 89-108

Covers resistance by Cree and Inuit, supported by Kayapo Indians in Brazil and transnational green groups, to major hydro-electric project in Quebec.

Hammond, John L., Law and Disorder: The Brazilian Landless Farmworkers Movement, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 18, no. 4, 1991, pp. 269-289

See also Hammond, John L., The MST and the media: Competing images of the Brazilian Landless Farmworkers’ Movement Latin American Politics and Society, 2004, pp. 61-90

Hammond, John L., The MST and the media: Competing images of the Brazilian Landless Farmworkers’ Movement, Latin American Politics and Society, Vol. 4, no. 4 (Winter), 2004, pp. 61-90

Hurley, Judith, Brazil: A Troubled Journey to the Promised Land, In McManus; Schlabach, Relentless Persistence: Nonviolent Action in Latin America (E. IV.1. General and Comparative Studies), Philadelphia PA, New Society Publishers, pp. 174-196

The author, who founded a US support group for the landless, provides excerpts from her journal of visiting sites of land struggle in 1987. She notes intensified confrontations in 1980s between the landed elite and the landless, who resorted to lawsuits, demonstrations, fasts, vigils, marches, mock funerals and, above all, land occupations.

Khagram, Sanjeev, Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 2004, pp. 288

Focused particularly on the controversy over the major Narmada River dam projects, but also provides comparative perspective by considering dam projects in Brazil, China, Indonesia, South Africa and Lesotho, where the World Bank and other lenders were persuaded to withdraw funding.

Kingsnorth, Paul, One No, Many Yeses: A Journey to the Heart of the Global Resistance Movement, London, Free Press, 2003, pp. 355

Wide ranging exploration of campaigns in all parts of the world seen at first hand. Includes coverage of Sem Terra in Brazil, Cochabamba in Bolivia, township resistance to privatization in South Africa, the Zapatistas, opposition to mining in West Papua, and campaigning groups in the USA. See also his: Kingsnorth, Paul , Protest still matters New Statesman, 08/05/2006 , 8 May, 2006, discussing why the Global Justice Movement has dropped out of the news, the turn away from street demonstrations to social forums, and stressing that struggles still continue, especially in the Global South.

Klipic, Irma, Government responses to feminicides in Latin America, Växjö‎ & ‎Kalmar‎, ‎Småland‎ (Sweden), Linnæeus University, 2018

This thesis examines how government responses affected femicide rates in five selected countries: Costa Rica, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. The study is a qualitative comparative multi-case study using social inclusion and exclusion theory to understand if policies are inclusive or exclusive, and if the nature of legislation has an impact on the femicide rates.

Latin American Perspectives, Peasant Movements in Latin America, no. 4 (issue 167) (July), Vol. 30, Latin American Perspectives Inc, 2009, pp. 213

The whole issue is dedicated to ‘Peasant Movements in Latin America’ including 2 articles on MST.

Lynn, Stephen, Women and Social Movements in Latin America: Power from Below, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 1997, pp. 352

Covers six cases of grassroots activism in Mexico, El Salvador, Brazil and Chile, which use interviews with activists and provide histories of organizations and movements involved. The activists are concerned with economic and health issues, but also stress problems relating to contraception and abortion, rape and domestic violence.

Moreira Alvez, Maria Helena, State and Opposition in Military Brazil, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 1985, pp. 352

Neuwirth, Robert, Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters: A New Urban World, London, Routledge, 2006, pp. 335

Author lived in squatter communities in Rio, Bombay, Nairobi (where squatting was linked to building new homes) and Istanbul.

Rosset, Peter M. ; Patel, Roy ; Courville, Michael, Promised Land: Competing Visions of Agrarian Reform, ed. Latin American Perspectives, , Oakland CA, Food First, 2006, pp. 380

Includes chapters on Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, India, Mexico, South Africa and Zimbabwe (the latter refrains from discussing the human rights issues of the government sponsored post 1996 land occupations). Not all chapters discuss social movements, but the book does cover gender and indigenous issues.

Saad-Filho, Alfredo, Mass Protests under “Left Neoliberalism”: Brazil, June-July 2013, ed. Dent, Alexander S., Pinheiro-Machado, Rosana, Critical Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 5 (Sep.), 2013, pp. 657-669

Examines causes, range of demands, social base and ‘contradictory frustrations’ of the mass protests. Discusses political dilemmas and proposes ‘constructive alternatives for the left’.

Schock, Kurt, People Power and Alternative Politics, ed. Barnell, Peter, Randall, Vicky, In Barnell, Peter ; Randall, Vicky , Politics in the Developing World Oxford, Oxford University Press, , 2008, pp. 496, pp. 186-207

Pays special attention to Ekta Parishad (an Indian land rights organization), the Assembly of the Poor in Thailand and MST in Brazil.

Schock, Kurt, Land Struggles in the Global South: Strategic Innovations in Brazil and India, In Maney; Kutz-Flamenbaum; Rohlinger; Goodwin, Strategies for Social Change (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements), Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, pp. 221-244

Singer, André, Rebellion in Brazil, New Left Review, no. 85 (Jan/Feb), 2014, pp. 19-38

Analyzes varied class, age and political beliefs of the protesters (sometimes resulting in conflict between them).

Stedile, Joao Pedro, Landless Battalions, New Left Review, no. 15 (May/June), 2002, pp. 77-104

Account by participant in evolution of land seizures and of how MST eventually achieved legal possession.

Stepan, Alfred, Democratizing Brazil, ed. Stepan, Alfred, New York, Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 404

Includes chapters on local social movements, and on the role of strikes in promoting popular unrest and encouraging move to elections.

Taylor, Julie, Leveraging the Global to Empower Local Struggles: Resistance and Efficacy in Transnational Feminist Networks, ed. Ross, Andrew, St Antony's International Review, Vol. 1, no. 2 (Nov), 2005, pp. 102-117

Three case studies of networks based in Latin America and Caribbean supporting garment workers (the Maquilla network created 1996) and domestic workers in Trinidad and Tobago; and promoting women’s health in rural and urban Brazil.

Vergara-Camus, Leandro, The Legacy of Social Conflicts over Property Rights in Rural Brazil and Mexico: Current Land Struggles in Historical Perspective, Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 39, no. 5, 2012, pp. 1133-1158

Vinthagen, Stellan, A Theory of Nonviolent Action: How Civil Resistance Works, London, Zed Books, 2105, pp. 400

Vinthagen develops a new general theory of nonviolent action which embraces Gandhian concepts and commitments, but relates these to modern sociological theory (for example, Haberms's conception of rationality) and reinterprets them within a more contemporary ethos. Four key dimensions explored are: dialogue facilitation; 'power breaking': 'utopian enactment' - Gandhi's constructive programme; and nonviolent training. Theoretical analysis is illustrated by examples drawn from a range of movements such as US Civil Rights, Movimento Sem Terra and radical protests against nuclear weapons. 

Welch, Cliff, Movement Histories: A Preliminary Historiography of the Brazil Landless Laborers Movement (MST), Latin American Research Review, Vol. 41, no. 1, 2006, pp. 198-210

Winters, Matthew S. ; Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca, Partisan and Nonpartisan Protests in Brazil, Journal of Politics in Latin America, Vol. 6, no. 1, 2014, pp. 137-150

Uses evidence of two surveys to examine effects of protests on party-alignment and suggests a drop in support for the ruling Workers’ Party, but that no other party gained in support.

Wright, Angus ; Wolford, Wendy, To Inherit the Earth: The Landless Movement and the Struggle for a New Brazil, Oakland CA, Food First Books, 2003, pp. 357

Situates MST in the broader context of Brazilian history but also based on first hand research at MST settlements.