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Engler, Mark ; Engler, Paul, This is an Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt is Shaping the Twenty-First Century, New York, Nation Books, 2016, pp. 368

The book examines how contemporary movements are using strategic nonviolent action to promote social change, covering a range of protests including climate change, immigrant rights, gay rights, Occupy and Black Lives Matter. The authors argue that nonviolent uprisings are becoming more common than violent rebellion, and look back to twentieth century antecedents in the Indian Independence and US Civil Rights movements, examine the nature of effective strategy and discuss organizational discipline. Their analysis includes the Arab Spring, but notes its discouraging implications.

Heilbrunn, John, Social Origins of National Conferences in Benin and Togo, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 31, no. 2 (June), 1993, pp. 277-299

Stresses the role of voluntary associations in Benin.

Joseph, Richard, Conflict and Democracy in Africa, ed. Joseph, Richard, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 1999, pp. 527

Wide-ranging collection of comparative essays on democratic transitions, the state and economic and social factors. Considers developments since the early 1990s and degrees of democracy achieved (in Benin and Zambia), continuing obstacles to democracy and ‘second elections’.

Nwajaku, Kathryn, The National Conferences in Benin and Togo Revisited, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 32, no. 3, 1994, pp. 429-447

Robinson, Pearl, The National Conference Phenomenon in Francophone Africa, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 36, no. 3 (July), 1994, pp. 575-610

Begins with the Benin Conference in February 1990.