So far the only struggles that have attracted a significant literature (as opposed to news reports) are Egypt and (to a lesser extent) Tunisia, because of their degree of initial ‘success’. Jabaliyya.com – an independent ezine from the Arab Studies Institute – is a consistently useful source of information and analysis, with regular country updates. The discussion on Libya is mainly on the military campaigns and controversy about NATO involvement: see for example Hilsum, Lindsey , Sandstorm: Libya in the Time of Revolution London, Faber and Faber, , 2012, pp. 287 (by Channel Four foreign editor).
Conditions in Syria make reliable documentation difficult. By 2012 what had been unarmed resistance had become a civil war, with increasing involvement by ideological extremists, and regional and international intervention. For background see:
- Starr, Stephen , Revolt in Syria: Eye-Witness to the Uprising New York and London, Columbia University Press and Hurst, , 2012, pp. 232 .
For the role of nonviolent action in Syria, as of March 2013, see Zouhour, Line , Whither the Peaceful Movement in Syria? Arab Studies Institute, , 2013 , and from September 2013, three articles in the civil resistance stream of opendemocracy.net: Bartkowski, Maciej J.; Kahf, Mohja , The Syrian resistance: a tale of two struggles London, OpenDemocracy.net, , 2013 , Part 1 on 23 September 2013, and Part 2 on 24 September 2013, and Alwadi, Nada , Voices of Syrian women in civil resistance London, OpenDemocracy.net, , 2013 , 27 September 2013.
Two graphical tools of analysis have been the Syrian Nonviolence movement map of nonviolent activities, updated to July 2013, at http://www.alharak.org/nonviolence_map/en/ and Al Jazeera’s Defection Tracker, which shows defections of senior figures from various sectors of the regime (until May 2013: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/syriadefections/2012730840348158.html.
For other countries see the general references above. NB. Algeria (not usually included because the political uprising was abortive) is discussed in two chapters in: Manji; Ekine, African Awakening: The Emerging Revolutions (E. I.2.3. Third Wave of Protests: 2011 -) , pp. 147-150 and pp. 184-89.