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E. V.B.b. Individual Countries

So far the only struggles that have attracted a significant literature (as opposed to news reports) are Egypt and (to a lesser extent) Tunisia, because of their degree of initial ‘success’. – an independent ezine from the Arab Studies Institute – is a consistently useful source of information and analysis, with regular country updates. The discussion on Libya is mainly on the military campaigns and controversy about NATO involvement: see for example Hilsum, Lindsey , Sandstorm: Libya in the Time of Revolution London, Faber and Faber, , 2012, pp. 287 (by Channel Four foreign editor).

For other countries see the general references above. NB. Algeria (not usually included because the political uprising was abortive) is discussed in two chapters in: Manji; Ekine, African Awakening: The Emerging Revolutions (E. I.2.3. Third Wave of Protests: 2011 -) , pp. 147-150 and pp. 184-89.

New Internationalist, Syria's Good Guys: Inside a Forgotten Revolution, New Internationalist, issue 485, 01/09/2015, pp. -11

Very useful compendium covering early resistance, the development of civil war and proxy wars providing a timeline, celebrating artistic activity, citizen jourbalism, the White Helmets who rescue the injured, and individual acts of resistance to ISIS. It includes resources on campaigns, web-based analysis and recommended books. 

Note on the "White Helmets": in early 2017 the White Helmets, who have operated in rebel-held areas, have been criticised for exaggerating their role and using misleading videos (a Channel Fact Check disputed a claim by a Canadian journalist that video footage had been recycled). They have also been attacked for their receipt of official western funding, and even accused of extremist factions. Criticisms, which appears to come mostly from pro-Assad and pro-Russian sources, was fuelled by an Oscar nomination for a documentary about their work. 

Shehabi, Ala's ; Owens, Marc, Bahrain's Uprising: Resistance and Repression in the Gulf, London, Zed Books, 2015, pp. 360

A collection of speeches, interviews, short stories and academic analyses showing the development of protest and the role of the occupation od Pearl Roundabout, and also the subsequent crackdown on all form of dissent by the regime.

Shehadeh, Raja ; Johnson, Penny, Shifting Sands: The Unravelling Of The Old Order In The Middle East, London, Profile Books, 2015, pp. 270

See section on 'Syria in Crisis', pp. 191-236.

This section includes essays by Robin Yassin-Nassab, 'Syria Seen and Represented' (based on two visits in 2013 and challenging media representations of Syrian resistance); and by Malu Halasa, 'Defyign the Killers: The Emergence of Street Culture in Syria'.