Indonesia declared independence after Japanese withdrawal in 1945 and in 1949 the Netherlands accepted defeat in their attempt to recolonise the archipelago. At that time, Indonesia took over (Dutch) West Timor, and subsequently expanded by incorporating Aceh (North Sumatra) in 1950 and invading Papua in 1962 and East Timor in 1975. From 1965 onwards, hundreds of thousands of regime opponents have been slaughtered – not only by the military and its special units, but also by vigilantes acting on government instructions. The fall of General Suharto in 1998 offered a window of opportunity for pro-democracy and self-determination movements. The movements for self-determination in Aceh, East Timor, and Papua are all significant examples of rethinking a strategy of armed struggle.