The success of 1986 prompted a renewed, though much more contestable, expression of people power in January 2001. When President Estrada was impeached by the House of Representatives for major corruption and the Senate hearing narrowly failed to pursue the charges rigorously, tens of thousands took to the streets. drawing on the forces that overthrew Marcos. The demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) – the site of the major 1986 protests: hence the naming of 2001 ‘EDSA II’.
Estrada offered a new election (an offer turned down by his opponents), but then, in the absence of military support, rapidly resigned and was replaced by Gloria Arroyo. Estrada, a former film star, had however been elected on a programme of poverty reduction in a populist election, and retained substantial support. When Estrada was arrested, in April 2001 thousands demonstrated over several days, culminating in an estimated 300,000, demanding Estrada’s release and the resignation of Aroyo. This counter-demonstration of ‘people power’, which did not succeed, drew mainly on the urban poor.