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A. 7. Important Reference Works and Websites

Volume One -> A. Introduction to Nonviolent Action -> A. 7. Important Reference Works and Websites
Bartkowski, Maciej J. ; Merriman, Hardy, Civil Resistance, In in Patrick James (ed.) Oxford Bibliographies in International Relations, New York, Oxford University Press, pp. 34-33

Annotated bibliography, with an emphasis on recently published books and articles, compiled by two researchers in the field of nonviolent resistance, organised under useful analytical subheads.  These include: 'Power and People: The Consent-Based View of Political Power', 'Structure, Agency and Civil Resistance Movements',  'Repression, Backfire and Defections', 'External Actors, Civil Resistance and International Law' 'Civil Resistance against Extreme Violence and Violent Nonstate Actors' and Civilian-Based Defense against Foreign Invasion and Coups' d 'Etat'. Ends with a list of multimedia resources.

Available online at

Goodwin, Jeff ; Jasper, James M., The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, [2003], 2nd edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, pp. 472

McAdam, Doug ; Snow, David A., Readings on Social Movements: Origins, Dynamics and Outcomes, [1997], 2nd edn, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 821

McCarthy, Ronald M. ; Sharp, Gene, Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide, New York, Garland, 1997, pp. 720

An exhaustive, annotated, bibliography, very strong on earlier history of nonviolent action, but also including many recent nonviolent campaigns up to the mid-1990s. Part I covers cases of nonviolent action. Part II the methods and dynamics of nonviolent action and theories of conflict, power and violence. NB the index is seriously flawed (a correct version should be available on the Albert Einstein Institution website), but it is possible to trace campaigns through the list of contents.

Ness, Immanuel, International Encyclopaedia of Revolution and Protest: 1500 to the present, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, , 7 volumespp. 4280

Powers, Roger S. ; Vogele, William B. ; Kruegler, Christopher ; McCarthy, Ronald M., Protest, Power and Change. An Encyclopaedia of Nonviolent Action from ACT-UP to Women’s Suffrage, New York, Garland, 1997, pp. 610

Valuable guide to both the theory and practice of nonviolence, summarizing 104 nonviolent campaigns and actions, listing methods of protest, and examining relevant organisations and personalities.

Randle, Michael ; Sharp, Gene, Annotated Bibliography on Training for Nonviolent Action and Civilian-Based Defence, In UNESCO Yearbook on Peace and Conflict Studies, Westport CT and Paris, Greenwood Press and UNESCO, pp. 63-180

Introductory essay by Randle on training and another by Sharp on civilian-based defence.

Snow, David A. ; Soule, Sarah A. ; Kriesi, Hanspieter, The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, pp. 776

Young, Nigel J., The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace, New York, Oxford University Press, 2010, , 4 volumespp. 2848

Although wide ranging in its theoretical approach to peace and in content, the Encyclopedia includes a strong focus on nonviolence, nonviolent action and groups and movements employing nonviolent methods.

Zunes, Stephen ; Merriman, Hardy ; Stephan, Maria, Nonviolent Struggle, In in Denemark, Robert A., The International Studies Encyclopedia, Robert A. Blackwell Publishing, pp. -30

Analytical article with extensive references to literature on nonviolent struggle, examining definitions and strategy of nonviolent action, and covering a wide range of relevant topics. These include the Gandhian legacy, comparison of violent and nonviolent struggles, theories of power and dependency relationships, backfire and  security force defections, nonviolent third party intervention, democratization, transnational networks, and collections of case studies and data bases. 

Republished by Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies, International Studies Association and Oxford University Press.

Websites recommended

(New) Albert Einstein Institution - ,

Offers news and information about nonviolent action and especially the work of Gene Sharp, including various downloads and translations.

(New) - ,

the site associated with this Guide. As well as offering both editions of this bibliography, it includes updates and offers access to several books on nonviolence.

(New) Global Nonviolent Action Database - ,

A project of Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, and includes summaries of nonviolent action campaigns from around the world with additions every week.

(New) International Center on Nonviolent Conflict - ,

Includes the bi-weekly ICNC News Digest on Nonviolent Conflicts, campaign summaries, texts to download, other learning resources, and links to videos and webinars. ICNC also maintains a specialist e-classroom – – for people teaching about civil resistance.

(New) New Tactics in Human Rights - ,

Includes database of new tactics, tactical notebooks describing particular campaigns, a list of training tools, and monthly ‘online dialogues’.

(New) Nonviolent and Violent Campaigns and Outcomes (NAVCO) Data Project - ,

referred to especially in Chenoweth; Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict (A. 1.b. Strategic Theory, Dynamics, Methods and Movements) , was upgraded in May 2013, to NAVCO 2.00.

See  Chenoweth, Erica ; Lewis, Orion A., Unpacking nonviolent campaigns: Introducing NAVCO 2.0 Journal of Peace Research, 2013, pp. 415-422 , pp. 415-23.

(New) Peace News - ,

monthly Peace News plus additional material.

(New) Resistance Studies Network - ,

School of Global Studies, University of Goteborg

(New) Waging Nonviolence - ,

‘People-powered news and analysis’, reportage plus regular bloggers.