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E. IV.7. Ecuador

As in other Latin American countries, there was growing resistance in Ecuador in the 1990s and early 2000s to neo-liberal ‘structural adjustment’ programmes and to privatization – a threat to privatize communal lands led to road blocks across the country in 1994, and there was a popular rebellion (with support from sections of the armed forces) in 2000, with occupation of government buildings and popular assemblies, but it was co-opted by sections of the military. In 2005 a political revolt, the Rebellion of the Forajidos (outlaws), brought to an end the presidency of Lucio Gutierrez, who had reneged on electoral promises over privatization and was blatantly corrupt. The nonviolent revolt was triggered by the Supreme Court decision to drop charges against former President Abdala Bucaram, so permitting Bucaram’s return to Ecuador.

Burbach, Roger, Ecuador: The Popular Rebellion against the “Partidocracia” and the Neo-Liberal State, Global Alternatives, Berkeley CA, Center for the Study of the Americas, 2007

Gerlach, Allen, Indians, Oil, and Politics: A Recent History of Ecuador, Willimantic CT, Scholarly Resources Inc., 2003, pp. 286

Leiter, Benjamin, The Rebellion of the Forajidos: The Movement to Overthrow President Lucio Gutierrez, Nonviolent Social Change, issue 34, 2007, pp. -9

Sawyer, Suzana, Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil and Neoliberalism in Ecuador, Durham NC, Duke University Press, 2004, pp. 312