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E. I.1.c. resisting South African military policies

In order to shore up the apartheid regime, the South African government used its security and military forces to prevent majority African rule in other southern African countries such as Namibia. After Portugal agreed to decolonization in Mozambique and Angola, South Africa fomented civil war. Therefore conscripts were sent to fight in neighbouring countries, as well as there was growing resistance to conscription for either purpose, and draft resisters who went abroad also began to organize in the later 1970s.

Cawthra, Gavin ; Kraak, Gerald ; O'Sillivan, Gerald, War and resistance: Southern Africa reports – the struggle for Southern Africa as documented by Resister magazine, London, Macmillan, 1994, pp. 252

A compilation from the (London) Committee on South African War Resistance.

Clark, Howard, When the Best Say No: Impressions from a Visit to South Africa in Support of War Resisters, London, War Resisters' International, 1989, pp. 27

Cock, Jacklyn ; Nathan, Laurie, War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa, New York, St. Martins Press, 1989, pp. 361

See also Nathan, Laurie , Force of Arms, Force of Conscience: A Study of Militarisation, the Military and the Anti-Apartheid War Resisters’ Movement in South Africa, 1970-1988 M. Phil. ThesisBradford, University of Bradford, , 1990 .

Nathan was a leading activist in the End Conscription Campaign.

Conway, Daniel, Masculinities, Militarisation and the End Conscription Campaign: War Resistance in Apartheid South Africa, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2012, pp. 176

See also Conway, Daniel , Contesting the Masculine State: White Male War Resisters in Apartheid South Africa In Parpart, Jane L.; Zalewski, Marysia , Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations London, Zed Books, , 2008, pp. 127-142 .

Relations, Catholic Institute, Out of Step: War Resisters in South Africa, London, Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1989, pp. 141

Seegers, Annette, South Africa: From Laager to Anti-Apartheid, In Moskos, Charles C.; Chambers, John Whitelay, The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance New York, Oxford University Press, , 1993, pp. 127-134

Surveys development of conscientious objection from 1960.