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C. I.2.e. Mongolia 1990-91

Mongolia, a client state of the Soviet Union until 1990, is not well documented in the west. But a significant movement, sparked initially by young intellectuals demonstrating for perestroika on Human Rights Day in December 1989, by January 1990 drew much larger crowds and other sectors of the population, and developed into successful demands for regime change. The Communist Party did, however, win the first multi-party election.

Becker, Jasper, The Lost Country: Mongolia Revealed, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1992, pp. 325

Journalist usually based in China gives his perspective on the movement and the broader context.

Rossabi, Morris, Modern Mongolia: From Khan to Communism to Capitalism, Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Press, 2005, pp. 418

Includes assessment of the post-Communist economy: the end of state assistance and role of international finance agencies, leading to growing inequalities.