This section focuses primarily on four countries in which European colonization led to indigenous peoples losing their lands and way of life (and in some cases their almost total destruction): Australia, New Zealand and Canada and the USA. In all four there have been vigorous campaigns for indigenous rights since the 1960s. Some Native American organizations span the USA and Canada, and the US Civil Rights Movement as well as its subsequent Black Power phase, influenced indigenous groups both in North America and in New Zealand and Australia. This section also briefly covers the struggle of the only European indigenous people, the Saami, in northern Scandinavia.
For an overview of the political and legal position of indigenous peoples within these countries and comparative assessments see: