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B.1. Campaigns for Civil, Political and Cultural Rights

Volume Two -> B. Indigenous Movements -> B.1. Campaigns for Civil, Political and Cultural Rights


This section focuses primarily on four countries in which European colonization led to indigenous peoples losing their lands and way of life (and in some cases their almost total destruction): Australia, New Zealand and Canada and the USA. In all four there have been vigorous campaigns for indigenous rights since the 1960s. Some Native American organizations span the USA and Canada, and the US Civil Rights Movement as well as its subsequent Black Power phase, influenced indigenous groups both in North America and in New Zealand and Australia. This section also briefly covers the struggle of the only European indigenous people, the Saami, in northern Scandinavia.

For an overview of the political and legal position of indigenous peoples within these countries and comparative assessments see:

Chesterman, John ; Galligan, Brian, Citizens Without Rights, [1997], Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 288

On Australia. It includes some references to protests.

Dyck, Noel, Indigenous Peoples and the Nation State: ‘Fourth World’ Politics in Canada, Australia and Norway, St John’s Nfld, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1985, pp. 263

Fleras, Augie ; Elliott, Jean Leonard, The Nations Within, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 267

Covers Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Ivanitz, Michele, Democracy and Indigenous Self-Determination, In Carter, April ; Stokes, Geoffrey , Democratic Theory Today: Challenges for the 21st Century Cambridge, Polity, , 2002, pp. 121-148

Compares Australia and Canada

Macklem, Patrick, Distributing Sovereignty: Indian Nations and Equality of Peoples, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 45, issue 5 (May), 1993, pp. 1311-1367

Compares Canada and USA from a legal perspective.