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, A European Green Deal: Striving to be the first climate-neutral continent, Brussels, European Commission , 2019

The EU Commission presented its plan for updating its targets for cutting greenhouse gas emissions in December 2019. The goal of net zero emissions by 2050 was to be given legal force by a climate law in 2020, and its target for 2030 was a 50-55" cut (lifting its previous 40" target). The plan links these targets to a call for a new growth strategy, decoupled from resource use, and sets out a time line and more detailed aims.

See also: Simon, Frederic, 'The EU releases its Green Deal. Here are the key points' 12 Dec. 2019:  https://www.climatechangenews.com/2019/12/12/eu-releases-green-deal-key-...

Brock, Hannah, The Return of Conscription?, War Resisters' International, 2018

The author, a full time worker at War Resisters' International with a focus on support for conscientious objectors to military service, discusses whether the previous trend towards the abolition of conscription around the world is being reversed. She notes that it has been reintroduced in Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Kuwait (after a short period when it was not in force) and introduced for the first time by Qatar and the United Arab Emirates; in total over 100 states practice, responding with varying degrees of harshness to objectors. Most states impose conscription for men, but both Norway and Sweden (where it h ad been reintroduced) extend it to women. The article discusses the varying regional security situations, which influence states to use conscription and carrying rounds for exemption.

Dryzek, John S. ; Downes, David ; Hunold, Christian ; Schlosberg, David ; Abstract, Hans-Kristian Hernes, Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Norway, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 238

Comparative study of successes and failures of four environmental movements since 1970, exploring implications of inclusion and exclusion from political process.

Dyck, Noel, Indigenous Peoples and the Nation State: ‘Fourth World’ Politics in Canada, Australia and Norway, St John’s Nfld, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1985, pp. 263

Flam, Helena, States and Anti-Nuclear Movements, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1994, pp. 427

Deals with the anti-nuclear power movements and government responses to them and their demands in eight West European states – Austria, Britain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and West Germany.

Kaltefleiter, Werner ; Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Peace Movements in Europe and the United States, London, Croom Helm, 1985, pp. 211

Essays arising out of May 1984 conference at the Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, on peace movements in Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, West Germany, France, Italy, Britain and the US. Focus is on the anti-nuclear movements of the 1980s, though some contributors sketch the earlier history of movements in their countries.

Lawrence, WilliamRennebohm, Max, Saami and Norwegians protest construction of Alta Dam, Norway, 1979-81, 30/01/2011, 2011, pp. 3

Useful summary with references.

McCarthy, Joe, What You Need to Know about Fossil Fuel Divestment, Global Citizen, 2020

Notes that the movement for divestment from fossil fuels has grown 'from picket signs and petitions to a multi-trillion dollar crusade involving more than 350 institutions worldwide'. Cites Norway's Sovereign Wealth fund, the Episcopal Church and the British Medical Association as some of the important bodies that have divested, and that investment firms such as Blackrock have begun to withdraw support from climate polluting industries, as have universities and various companies. But also notes that divestment still often initiated by pressure from below. 

Mez, Lutz, Ziviler Widerstand in Norwegen, Frankfurt am Main, Haag and Herchen, 1976, pp. 376

The resistance by Norwegian teachers and other civil society groups to Quisling’s attempt to impose fascist ideology during th e German occupation is one of the most important and successful examples of resistance during World War Two.

Moskos, Charles C. ; Chambers, John Whiteclay, The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 286

Section 1 suggests ‘the secularization of conscience and modern individ-ualism have been the driving force’ in the rise of conscientious objection. Section 2 looks at the historical record in the USA. Section 3 has articles on France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, the former Communist states in Eastern Europe, Israel and South Africa.

Paine, Robert, Ethnodrama and the “Fourth World”: The Saami Action Group in Norway 1979-81, In Dyck, Indigenous Peoples and the Nation State: ‘Fourth World’ Politics in Canada, Australia and Norway (B.1. Campaigns for Civil, Political and Cultural Rights), St John’s Nfld, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland,

Analysis by social anthropologist of campaign against the Alta Hydropower Dam, and its impact in promoting cultural and political rights.

Schweitzer, Christine ; Johansen, Jorgen, What Can Peace Movements Do?, Wahlenau, Irene Publishing, 2016, pp. 142

The authors examine how far peace movements can stop wars, summarizing a number of attempts to do so in the past – for example in the 1905 conflict between Norway and Sweden – as well as more recent better known movements: against the Vietnam War, and against the Iraq wars of both 1991 and 2003. Their case studies include the movement to resist US support for the Contras in Nicaragua in the 1980s, and the Women in White in Liberia 2002-2003.

Sémelin, Jacques, Unarmed Against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe, 1939-43, [1989 in French], Westport CT, Praeger, 1993, pp. 198

Examines the main traits of Nazi occupation of Europe, the complexities of non-cooperation, and the role of social cohesion and public opinion in mounting effective opposition. Chapter on civilian resistance to genocide considers why the Final Solution was hampered, or even prevented, in certain countries.

Translations: German | French
Thuen, Trond, Quest for Equity: Norway and the Saami Challenge, ed. Rennebohm, Max, St John’s Nfld, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1995, pp. 300