ongoing online update to bibliography
This UPDATE FILE now includes all items added to the publication in 2006 of the original bibliography People Power and Protest Since 1945, and incorporates those included in Supplement published in March 2007.
The update broadly follows the original Table of Contents, but some new sub-sections have been inserted.
Please send suggestions for additional items to howard [at] civilresistance.info
- A. Introduction to Nonviolent Action
- B. Elements of Nonviolent Resistance to Colonialism After 1945
- C. Campaigns for Rights and Democracy in Communist Regimes
- D. Resisting Rigged Elections, Oppression, Dictatorship, or Military Rule
- E. Campaigns for Cultural, Civil and Political Rights
- F. Campaigns for Social and Economic Justice
- G. Nonviolent Action in Social Movements
- H. Bibliographies, Websites and Library Resources
- I. Preparation and Training for Nonviolent Action
1. Nonviolent action: theory, methods and examples
Atack, Iain, 'Nonviolent Political Action and the Limits of Consent', Theoria 111, Dec 2006, pp.87-107
Suggests that "although not fully complementary by any means, the ideas of both Gramsci and Foucault provide resources for developing a more sopisticated and comprehensive version of the consent theory of power relevant to explaining and ensuring the effectiveness of nonviolent political action".
Chenoweth, Erica and Maria Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, New York, Columbia University Press, 2011, pp. 296
Combines statistical analysis of 323 episodes of resistance with four case studies to compare the relative success of violent and nonviolent struggle against state adversaries. Builds on earlier article with same title: Stephan, Maria J and Erica Chenoweth, "Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict", International Security, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Summer 2008), pp. 7–44, online at http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/PDF/IS3301_pp007-044_Stephan_Chenoweth.pdf Translation into castellano of article online at http://nonviolent-conflict.org/images/stories/pdfs/por_que_funciona.pdf
Clark, Howard (ed.), People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity, London, Pluto, 2009, pp. 250
Pays special attention to the role of transnational solidarity in nonviolent struggle. Section I reflects on recent (2000 and after) movements in Serbia, Burma, Zimbabwe, Colombia and India. Section II discusses various forms of Nonviolent Citizens' Intervention across Borders. Section III examines various "bases of solidarity - shared identities, interests and beliefs", while Section IV addesses "Controversies in Transnational Action" over external financing and nonviolence training. Clark himself contributes a substantial introduction and an afterword on "the chain of nonviolence".
Cortright, David, Gandhi and Beyond: Nonviolence for an Age of Terrorism, Boulder CO, Paradigm Publishers, 2006, pp. 265.
Accessible and scholarly account of Gandhian satyagraha and later campaigns in the USA inspired by Gandhi.
Crawshaw, Steve and John Jackson, Small Acts of Resistance: How Courage, Tenacity, and Ingenuity Can Change the World, New York/London, Union Square, 2010, pp. 240
Short stories from many countries grouped into 15 themes, with a preface by Vaclav Havel.
Dudouet, Veronique, Nonviolent Resistance and Conflict Transformation in Power Asymmetries, Berlin, Berghof, 2008, pp. 27, download at http://www.berghof-handbook.net/uploads/download/dudouet_handbook.pdf
Erickson Nepstad, Sharon, Nonviolent Revolutions: Civil Resistance in the late 20th Century, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 200
Makes paired comparisons of one successful and one unsuccessful nonviolent revolt against Socialist Regimes (China/GDR in 1989), Military Regimes (1980s Chile/Panama) and Personal Dictators (Moi, Kenya/Marcos Philippines) 20/Philippines 1986) to draw out factors contributing to success and failure.
Hastings, Tom H, Lessons of Nonviolence: Theory and Practice in a World of Conflict, Foreword by Kathy Kelly, Jefferson NC, McFarland & Co, pp. 228
Draws mainly on US experience from the decline of the Civil Rights movement onwards
Hastings, Tom H, Nonviolent Responses to Terrorism, Jefferson NC, McFarland & Co, 2004, pp. 244
The first part discusses immediate responses, the second long term
Hastings, Tom H, Power: Nonviolent Transformation from the Transpersonal to the Transnational, Lanham MD, Hamilton, 2005, pp. 274
Holmes, Robert L. and Barry L. Gan (eds), Nonviolence in Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Long Grove IL, Waveland Press, 2005, pp. 381
23 readings added to 1990 edition.
Kolb, Felix, Protest and Opportunities: the Political Outcomes of Social Movements, Frankfurt-Mainz, Campus Verlag, 2007, pp 360
Derives propositions about social movements and political change from detailed analyses of the US civil right movements and the transnational movement against nuclear power.
Kurlansky, Mark, Nonviolence: the history of a dangerous idea, Foreword by the Dalai Lama, London, Jonathan Cape, 2006, pp. 203
a lively introduction to nonviolence designed for the general reader; chapters 10 and 11 focus on examples of nonviolent action
Martin, Brian, Justice Ignited: the dynamics of backfire, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007, pp. 236 - extends Gene Sharp's concept of political ju-jitsu by discussing violation of a wider range of norms, and by examining the tactics used by perpetrators of injustice.
Brian Martin's webpage has a section on backfire, including a range of published articles, often written in cooperation with others, and studying episodes of backfire http://www.bmartin.cc/pubs/backfire.html
Meier, Patrick Philippe. "Communication Technology, Repressive Hierarchies and Defiant Networks: Is the State or Civil Society Winning the Information Race?" Paper presented at the 2008 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Meier is carrying out on case studies of Burma, Iran, Tunisia and Zimbabwe, including movement use of and regime counter-measures against facebook, twitter, blogging, cellphone texting, etc. See his webpage: http://irevolution.wordpress.com
Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 424
In addition to introductory and concluding essays by the editors, and a bibliographical survey by April Carter, this book is mainly comprised of case studies by academic authorities: on Gandhi and India; the US Civil Rights Movement; the Northern Ireland Civil Rights movement; Soviet Leaders and the civil resistance in East-Central Europe 1968-91; Czechoslovakia 1968; Poland's Self-Limiting Revolution 1970-89; Portugal 1974-75; Iran 1977-79; the Philippines 1983-86; Chile 1983-88; Apartheid 1983-94; the Baltic states 1987-91; China 1989, German Democratic Republic 1989; Kosovo 1990-98; Serbia 1991-2000; Georgia 2003; Ukraine 2004 and Burma 2007.
'Symposium on Nonviolence - A Force More Powerful', in PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol 33 No 2, June 2000
Peter Ackerman and Jack Duvall, 'Nonviolent Power in the Twentieth Century';
Doug McAdam and Sidney Tarrow, 'Nonviolence as Contentious Interaction';
Ted Robert Gurr, 'Nonviolence in Ethnopolitics: Strategies for the Attainment of Group Rights and Autonomy';
Gay W. Seidman, 'Blurred Lines: Nonviolence in South Africa';
Allison Calhoun-Brown, 'Upon This Rock: The Black Church, Nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement';
Anne N. Costain, 'Women's Movements and Nonviolence'; and
Stephen Zunes, 'Nonviolent Action and Human Rights'
The American Political Science Association has made all these available online at http://www.apsanet.org/section_658.cfm
The article by McAdam and Tarrow is presented as part of their larger project with Charles Tilly, but actually discusses nonviolence more directly than their subsequent book: McAdam, Doug, Sidney Tarrow and Charles Tilly, Dynamics of Contention, Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 407
Stephan, Maria J., ed., Civilian Jihad: Nonviolent struggle, Democratization, and Governance in the Middle East (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, pp. 344.
A compilation of mostly recent articles on a range of movements and issues in the Middle East, but also including reprints of some previously hard-to-access pieces.
Thalhammer, Kristina E., Kristina E. Thalhammer, Paula L. O'Loughlin, Myron Peretz Glazer, Penina Migdal Glazer, Sam McFarland, Sharon Toffey Shepela, and Nathan Stoltzfus, Courageous Resistance: The Power of Ordinary People, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, pp. 224
2. Gandhi and Gandhian campaigns
Brown, Judith, "Gandhi and Civil Resistance in India, 1917-47: Key Issues" in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 43-57
Johnson, Richard L., ed., Gandhi's Experiments with Truth: Essential Writings by and about Mahatma Gandhi, Lanham MD, Lexington Books, 2005, pp. 408
Includes a selection of key texts from Gandhi with essays from Judith Brown, Richard Falk, Michael Nagler, Glenn Paige, Bhikhu Parekh and others.
3. Nonviolent (civilian) resistance and national defence
4. Nonviolent intervention and accompaniment
See also entries from the seminar Unarmed Resistance: the transnational factor
Blincoe, Nicholas, Hussein Khalili, Marissa McLaughlin, Radhika Sainath and Josie Sandercock, eds, Peace Under Fire: Israel, Palestine and the International Solidarity Movement, London, Verso, 2004, pp. 240
Boothe, Ivan and Lee A. Smiley, 'Privilege, Empowerment, and Nonviolent Intervention', Peace and Change, Vol 32 No. 1, January 2007, pp. 39-61
Argues that nonviolent interventions need to address the issue that the relative privilege of foreigners intervening can have a disempowering impact on local movements. (Ivan Boothe's senior honours thesis - Transnational Nonviolent Empowerment - is online at http://quixoticlife.net/journal/2005/04/09/transnational-nonviolent-empowerment)
Clark, Howard, ed., People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity, London, Pluto, 2009, pp.250
Section II is dedicated to Nonviolent Intervention with the following contributions:
Brian Martin, "Making accompaniment effective"
Luis Enrique Eguren, "Developing strategy for accompaniment"
Louise Winstanley, "With Peace Brigades International in Colombia"
Christine Schweitzer, "Civilian Peacekeeping: Providing protection without sticks and carrots?"
Rita Webb, "Making peace practical: with Nonviolent Peaceforce in Sri Lanka"
Veronique Dudouet, "Cross-border nonviolent advocacy during the second Palestinian intifada: The International Solidarity Movement"
Ann Wright, "The work of the Ecumenical Accompaniment Programme in Palestine and Israel (EAPPI)"
Angie Zelter, "International Women's Peace Service in Palestine"
Kathy Kelly and Milan Rai, "Voices in the Wilderness: Campaigning against sanctions on Iraq, 1995-2005"
Coy, Patrick, '"We Use It But We Try Not to Abuse It": Nonviolent Accompaniment and the Use of Privilege by Peace Brigades International', paper to American Sociological Association, Washington, DC, 13 August 2000, pp. 35, online at http://www.peacebrigades.org/1258.html
Eguren, Enrique and Marie Caraj, NewProtection Manual for Human Rights Defenders, Brussels, Protection Online, pp. 208, downloadable from http://www.protectionline.org, supersedes 2004 edition (also mentioned in Section I)
Kelly, Kathy, Other lands Have Dreams: From Baghdad to Pekin Prison, Petrolia, CA, Counterpunch, 2006, pp. 173
Kathy Kelly was a participant in the Gulf Peace Team and later co-founded Voices in the Wilderness, breaking sanctions against Iraq.
Kember, Norman, Hostage in Iraq, London, Darton Longman and Todd, 2007, pp. 224
Personal account by member of Christian Peacemaker Team supporter taken hostage in Iraq
Mahony, Liam, Proactive Presence: Field strategies for civilian protection, Geneva,
Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2006, pp. 160, downloadable from http://www.hdcentre.org
Mahony, Liam, Human Rights defenders under attack, London, Peace Brigades International-UK, pp. 20
downloadable from http://www.peacebrigades.org/publications/books-from-pbi
Marking PBI's 25th anniversary, introduces theory behind PBI's work and describes their work in Guatemala, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, North America, Haiti, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico and Nepal.
Mueller, Barbara, The Balkan Peace Team 1994-2001: Non-violent Intervention in Crisis Areas with the Deployment of Volunteer Teams, Stuttgart, ibidem-Verlag, 2006, pp. 284
Schirch, Lisa, Civilian Peacekeeping: Preventing Violence and Making Space for Democracy, Uppsala, Life and Peace Institute, 2006, pp. 118, downloadable from http://www.life-peace.org
Updated from Schirch's 1995 text Keeping the Peace
Schweitzer, Christine, ed., Civilian Peacekeeping: a Barely Tapped Resource, Wahlenau: Institut fuer Friedensarbeit und Gewalfreie Konfliktaustragung in cooperation with Nonviolent Peace Force,2009, pp. 78. Online at http://www.nonviolentpeaceforce.org/civilian-peacekeeping-barely-tapped-resource
Contributions from Rolf Carriere, Rachel Julian, Christine Schweitzer and Tim Wallis. Addresses issues around international security and the role of global civil society, drawing especially on the experience of Nonviolent Peaceforce.
Wallis, Tim and Claudia Samayoa (eds), 'Civilian Peacekeepers: Creating a Safe Environment for Peacebuilding' in van Tongeren, Paul, Malin Brenk, Marte Hellema and Juliette Verhoeven (eds), Peace Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society, Boulder CO/London, Lynne Rienner, 2005, pp. 363-393, editorial introduction plus four articles on Balkan Peace Team, Peace Brigades International in Colombia, Witness for Peace in Nicaragua, and the Bantay Cease-fire in the Philippines
Wittner, Lawrence S, 'The Forgotten Alliance of African Nationalists and Western Pacifists, George Mason University's History News Network, at http://hnn.us/articles/36279.html
See also Yates and Chester, The Troublemaker below for more detail on Michael Scott's role, and Carter, April, 'The Sahara Protest Team', in either Hare and Blumberg Liberation Without Violence: A third Party Approach, pp. 126-156, or in Moser-Puangsuwan and Weber (eds) Nonviolent Intervention Across Borders: a recurrent vision, pp. 235-254 (both Section A.4 in original bibliography)
Yates, Anne and Lewis Chester, The Troublemaker: Michael Scott and His Lonely Struggle Against Injustice, Foreword by Desmond Tutu, London, Aurum, 2006, pp. 338, listed under Nonviolent intervention as he was co-chair of the World Peace Brigade and had a long history of transnational activism, especially concerning Southern Africa.
No additions to original bibliography
1. Central Africa to 1964
a. Malawi (Nyasaland)
b. Zambia (Northern Rhodesia)
2. Ghana (Gold Coast) to 1957
3. Kenya to 1963
4. Nigeria to 1960
return to Update table of contents
1. a. Comparative studies of dissent
Flam, Helena, 'Anger in Repressive Regimes: A footnote to Domination and the Arts of Resistance by James Scott', European Journal of Social Theory, Vol 7 No 2, pp. 171-188
Draws on Central European experience in the 1980s to argue that in situations of repression and citizen apathy, protest is likely to begin cautiously, taking ambivalent, satirical and carnivalesque forms
Johnston, Hank and Carol Mueller, 'Unobtrusive Practices of Contention in Leninist Regimes', Sociological Perspectives, Vol 44 No 3, 2001, pp. 351-375
Discusses 'precursors to public protest' that prepared the ground for mobilisation against regimes. Johnston has subsequently published further comparative discussions of this theme drawing on experience in the former Soviet Union, Franco's Spain and Latin America under dictatorship. See Johnston, Hank, 'Talking the Walk: Speech Acts and Resistance in Authoritarian Regimes' pp. 108-137 in Davenport, Christian, Hank Johnston and Carol Mueller, eds, Repression and Mobilization, University of Minnesota, 2005. Also '"Let's Get Small": The Dynamics of (Small) Contention in Repressive States', Mobilization: an International Quarterly, Vol 11 No 2, June 2006, pp. 195 - 212
Kramer, Mark, "The Dialectics of Empire: soviet Leaders and the Challenge of Civil Resistance in East-Central Europe, 1968-91" in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 91-109
Tickle, Andrew and Ian Welsh (eds), Environment and Society in Eastern Europe, London, Longman, 1988, pp. 208
'shows how environmental activism maintained an immanent civil society' during Communism - chapters on Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Russia
b. Literature on the revolutions of 1989-90
Kenney, Padraic, A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2003, pp. 352
Oberschall, Anthony, 'Opportunities and framing in the Eastern European revolts of 1989', in McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald (eds),Comparative Perspectives on Social movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 93-121
Emphasises the importance of the nonviolent moral force 'against a fore that held all the cards but one: It had organization, a police and an army, and the mass media, but it lacked moral authority for governance'
Saxonberg, Steven, The Fall: A Comparative Study of the End of Communism in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary and Polands, hdbk Amsterdam, Harwood Academic, 2001, pbk Routledge, 2004, pp. 434
Ch 10 titled 'Nonviolent Revolutions' compares Czechoslovakia and the GDR
2. Baltic States, 1944-91
Anusauskas, Arvydas, ed., The Anti-Soviet Resistance in the Baltic States: Genocide and Resistance, Vilnius. Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, 3rd edn, 2001, pp. 272
Beissinger, Mark, "The Intersection of Ethnic Nationalism and People Power Tactics in the Baltic States, 1987-91", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, `- 231-246
Ruutel, Arnold, Statement at conference of Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation international conference on Nonviolence and Conflict, pp 42-45
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation, Nonviolence and Conflict: Conditions for effective peaceful change, The Hague, UNPO, 1997, online at http://www.unpo.org/downloads/nonviolencereport97.pdf
3. Czechoslovakia, 1948-99
a. The Prague Spring and resistance to occupation, 1968-69
Williams, Kieran, The Prague and its Aftermath: Czechoslovak Politics 1968-70, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 288
Williams, Kieran, "Civil Resistance in Czechoslovakia: From Soviet Invasion to 'Velvet Revolution', 1968-89", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 110-126
b. 'Normalization' to the Velvet Revolution, 1970-89
Saxonberg, Steven, 'The "Velvet Revolution" and the Limits of Rational Choice Models', Czech Sociological Review, VII, 1/1999, pp. 23-36
4. East Germany (GDR), 1945-89
Dale, Gareth, Popular Protest in East Germany, 1945-89, London, Frank Cass, 2004, pp. 256
Maier, Charles S., Dissolution: The Crisis of Communism and the End of East Germany, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1997, pp. 464
Maier, Charles S., "Civil Resistance Civil Society: Lessons from the Collapse of the German Democratic Republic in 1989", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 260-276
a. The 1953 uprising
b. The rise of dissent to the fall of the Berlin Wall, 1960s to 1989
Dale, Gareth, The East German Revolution of 1989, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2007, pp. 256
Final part of Dale trilogy (after Popular Protest and Between State Capitalism and Globalisation: the Collapse of the East German Economy, Peter Lang, 2004
Meier, Charles S, "Civil Resistance and Civil Society: Lessons from the Collapse of the German Democratic Republic in 1989", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 260-276
Opp, Karl-Dieter, 'Repression and Revolutionary Action: East Germany in 1989', Rationality and Society, Vol 6 No 1, 1994, pp 101-138
5. Hungary, 1947-89
a. Destalinization and revolution, 1953-56
b. Gradual growth of dissent, 1960-89
6. Poland, 1945-89
a. Destalinization and mass resistance, 1953-56
b. Reaction and developing dissent, 1960s and 1970s
c. Solidarity: from opposition to government, 1980-89
Barker, Colin, 'Fear, Laughter, and Collective Power: The Making of Solidarity at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland, August 1980', in Goodwin, Jeff, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta, eds, Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements, The University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 175-194
Kaminski, Bartlomiej, The Collapse of State Socialism: the Case of Poland, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 288
Ost, David, Solidarity and the Politics of Anti-Politics: Opposition and Reform in Poland since 1968, Philadelphia PA, Temple University Press, 1990, pp. 279
Smolar, Aleksander, "Towards 'Self-limiting Revolution': Poland, 1970-89", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 127-144
7. Romania, 1945-89
8. Soviet Union, 1945-91
a. Growing dissent, 1965-84
b. The Gorbachev years and popular protest, 1985-90; and resisting the the 1991 coup
Beissinger, Mark R, Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 520
The author's databases on "Mass Demonstrations and Mass Violent Events in the Former USSR, 1987-1992" can be downloaded from http://www.princeton.edu/~mbeissin/research.htm They include information on 6,663 protest demonstrations and 2,177 mass violent events across the entire territory of the former Soviet Union from January 1987 through December 1992.
Zdravomyslova, Elena, 'Opportunities and framing in the transition to democracy: The case of Russia' in in McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald (eds),Comparative Perspectives on Social movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 122-137
Discusses 'political cycles', and especially 'protest cycles', from 1955 to 1991, going into detail specifically about the Soviet-wide Democratic Union and the Leningrad People's Front
9. Yugoslavia, 1945-90
a. Two stages of reform: 1950-54 and 1960s; and dissent 1960s-70s
b. Post-Tito politics in the 1980s
II. China and Tibet, from 1947
a. The Hundred Flowers Movement, 1956-57
b. The Democracy Movement, 1976-79
c. Tiananmen, The mass protests of 1989
Goldman, Merle, "The 1989 Demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and Beyond: Echoes of Gandhi", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp.. 247-259
Zhao, Dingxin The Power of Tiananmen: State-Society Relations and the 1989 Beijing Student Movement, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2001 (cloth), 2004 (paper), pp. 456
d. China since 1990
Chase, Michael S, and James C. Mulvenon, You've Got
Dissent! Chinese Dissident Use of the Internet and Beijing's Counter-Strategies, Santa Monica CA, RAND, 2002, pp. 132
Fayong Shi and Youngshun Cai, 'Disaggregating the State: Networks and Collective Resistance in Shanghai', The China Quarterly, Vol 186, (2006), pp 314-332
Study of Shanghai home owners' resistance that suggests that fragmentation of state power at local level provides opportunities for resistance, and that its success may be helped by social networks between participants of collective action and officials or media workers.
See also Fayong, Shi, 'Social Capital and Collective Resistance in Urban China Neighborhoods: a comunity movement in Shanghai', Working Paper No. 169, Dept of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 2004, pp.43, downloadable from Sociology Blog Singapore socioblogsg.files.wordpress.com/2007/07/shi_wp_169.pdf
Friedman, Edward, Paul G. Pichowicz and Mark Selden, Revolution, Resistance and Reform in Village China, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 368
Jianrong, Yu, 'Social Conflict in Rural China', China Security, Vol 3 No 2, Spring 2007, pp. 2-17, online at http://www.wsichina.org/cs6_1.pdf
O'Brien, Kevin J. and Lianjiang Li, Rightful Resistance in Rural China, New York and Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 201
O'Brien, Kevin J., Popular Protest in China, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 2008, pp. 278
Perry, Elizabeth J. and Mark Selden, Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance, London, Routledge, 2nd edition 2003, p. 296
First edition included in printed bibliography, now with additional chapters on Falun Gong, Christianity and land struggles.
Stalley, Phillip and Dongning Yang, 'An Emerging Environmental Movement in China?', The China Quarterly, Vol 186, (2006), pp. 333-356
Tai, Zixue The Internet in China: Cyberspace and Civil Society, London, Routledge, 2006, pp. 365
Yan, Huang and Guo Qeiqing, 'The Transnational Network and Labor Rights in China', China Rights Forum, 2006, No 3, pp. 57-62, available on line a http://www.hrichina.org/public/PDFs/CRF.3.2006/CRF-2006-3_Transnational.pdf
Journal of Democracy, July 2009, Vol. 20 No. 3, contains a section on 'China since Tiananmen', covering different sources of opposition - labour, rural, human rights activism, and online activism, pp. 5-40
pp. 5-40 'China since Tiananmen' covering different sources of opposition, laour, rural, human rights activism, online activism. Journal of Democracy, July 2009, Vol. 20 No. 3,
return to Update table of contents
D. Resisting Rigged Elections, Oppression, Dictatorship, or Military Rule
‘People power’ has become increasingly controversial because - since the ‘colour revolutions’ in former Soviet states, which received direct and indirect support from the US Administration - it is often associated with pro-Washington movements. (See for example Mark Almond, ‘”People power” is a global brand owned by America’, Guardian (15 August 2006), stressing the bias in treatment of popular protests by the western mass media.) However, the degree and significance of western government support in particular cases is itself much debated, and whilst all external intervention should certainly be assessed critically, the bibliography seeks to cover any genuine example of popular nonviolent resistance. Moreover, people power is also being used against governments supported by Washington, for example Azerbaijan (in the former Soviet Union) and Mexico – if they are under-reported in the mainstream media it is important to record the relevant sources. The civil resistance in Nepal has been widely welcomed, especially on the left. A new sub-section - VI. 'Democracy promotion' and Assistance to Nonviolent Movements - is now included specifically to discuss these issues of external support.
We are particularly interested to receive references for material on campaigns of civil resistance and episodes of people's power in more African countries.
See Section I: Preparation and Training for Nonviolent Action, for more detail on the series produced by the University of Peace Africa Programme:
King, Mary E. (series editor), Nonviolent Transformation of Conflict - Africa, Addis Abada, University of Peace Africa Programme, downloadable from http://www.africa.upeace.org/resources.cfm
1. South Africa, Resisting apartheid to 1994
a. Internal resistance
Presbey, Gail M. 'Evaluating the Legacy of Nonviolence in South Africa', Peace & Change, Vol 31 No 2, 2006, pp. 141–174
Evaluates claims that 'nonviolence, if adhered to more resolutely, would have ended apartheid sooner', reminding readers of the high level of support for the ANC's armed wing. Suggests that, despite some over-simplications, the claims for nonviolence are perhaps speculative but are also plausible. Calls for an expanded concept of active nonviolence and in the future a broader about strategic options.
Lodge, Tom, "The Interplay of Nonviolent and Violent Actions in the Movement against Apartheid in South Africa, 1983-94" in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 213-230
South African History Online - rewriting history, critically examining our past, strengthening the teaching of history - has sections on people, places and timelines, plus links to SAHO Special Projects on Passive Resistance, including Passive Resistance 1946: a selection of documents compiled by E.S Reddy and Fatima Meer.
b. External boycotts
c. Resisting South African military policies
Conway, Daniel, ‘Contesting the Masculine State: White Male War Resisters in Apartheid South Africa’, in Zalewski, M. and J- Parpart, J., eds., Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations London, Zed Press, 2008,.pp. 127-142
2. Zimbabwe, Resisting Mugabe’s autocracy since 2000
Cherry, Janet, "Zimbabwe - Unarmed resistance, civil society and limits of international solidarity", in Clark, Howard (ed.), People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (London: Pluto, 2009), pp. 50-63.
Account written during the post-electoral negotiations in 2008 but looking electoral issues to the role of civil society in democratic transformation. In the same volume is Carter, April and Janet Cherry, "Worker solidarity and civil society cooperation: Blocking the Chinese arms shipment to Zimbabwe, April 2008", pp. 191-192
International Crisis Group, Zimbabwe: An End to the Stalemate?, Pretoria/Brussels, Africa Report No 122, March 2007, pp. 23, downloadable from http://www.crisisgroup.org
Follows up Zimbabwe: An Opposition Strategy, Africa Report No 117, August 2006, which calls on the democratic opposition to formulate a strategy of nonviolent resistance
United States Institute of Peace, Zimbabwe and the Prospects for Nonviolent Political Change, Special Report No 109, August 2003, pp. 16, downloadable from http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr109.html
Wokoma, Iyenemi, 'Zimbabwe: Women of Zimbabwe Arise WOZA' in George-Williams (ed) ‘Bite Not One Another’: Selected Accounts of Nonviolent Struggle in Africa, Addis Abada, University of Peace Africa Programme, 2006, pp. 95-98, book online at http://www.upeace.org/library/documents/nvtc_bite_not_one_another.pdf
Bratton, Michael and Nicolas van de Walle, Democratic Experiments in Africa, Regime Transition in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge, 1997, pp. 333
Chapter 3, ' Africa's divergent Transitions 1990-94' is a comparison of the different phases and paths of transition in various countries
Clark, John F. and David E. Gardinier, Political reform in Francophone Africa, Boulder CO, Westview Press, 1997, pp. 354
Part Two. (pp 43-126) has chapters dedicated to 'peaceful regime change' in Benin, Congo, Niger and the Central African Republic
Edozie, Rita Kika, People Power and Democracy: The Popular Movement Against Military Despotism in Nigeria 1989-1999, Trenton NJ, Africa World Press, 2001, pp. 480
George-Williams, Desmond, 'Noncooperation and Junta Rule in Sierra Leone 1997' in George-Williams (ed), ‘Bite Not One Another’: Selected Accounts of Nonviolent Struggle in Africa, Addis Abada, University of Peace Africa Programme, 2006, pp. 61-67, book online at http://www.upeace.org/library/documents/nvtc_bite_not_one_another.pdf, and also 'Madagascar: the Soft Revolution', pp. 75-79
Howard, Marc Morje and Philip G. Roesser, ‘Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes’, American Journal of Political Science, vol. 50 (April 2006), pp. 365-81
Makes comparisons between post-communist regimes and Sub-Saharan Africa
With the addition of East Timor, Indonesia and Kashmir, the numbering in this section of the update differs from the printed bibliography. Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan are included under "Post-Soviet Regimes" Section III. Europe.
Boudreau, Vincent Resisting Dictatorship Repression and Protest in Southeast Asia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 306
Highly regarded study based on first-hand research compares strategies of repression and protest in post-war Burma, Indonesia and the Philippines.
1. Burma, Resisting military dictatorship 1988, and ongoing protest
Andrieux, Aurelie, Diana Sarosi and Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan, Speaking Truth to Power: The Methods of Nonviolent Struggle in Burma, Bangkok, Nonviolent International Southeast Asia, 2005, pp. 76, downloadable from http://www.nonviolenceinternational.net
The Burma Campaign UK, Pro-Aid, Pro-Sanctions-Pro-Engagement, London, July 2006, pp. 17
Position paper on humanitarian assistance to Burma, downloadable from http://www.burmacampaign.org.uk/pm/reports.php
Callahan, Mary, 'Riddle of the Tatmadaw', New Left Review, No 60 Nov/Dec 2009, pp.27-64
Fink, Cristina, Living Silence: Burma under Military Rule, London, Zed, 2009 (2nd edn), pp.320
Fink, Christina, "The Moment of the Monks: Burma, 2007", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 354-370
International Crisis Group, Myanmar: New Threats to Humanitarian Aid, Yangon/Brussels, Asia Briefing No 58, December 2006, pp. 17, downloadable from http://www.crisisgroup.org
Discusses the restricted space for humanitarian agencies under pressure from the military regime and the complications of applying the norms proposed by pro-democracy groups
Moser-Puangsuwan, Yeshua, "Burma - Dialogue with the Generals: The sound of one hand clapping" in Clark, Howard (ed.), People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (London: Pluto, 2009), pp. 39-49.
Includes comparison with resistance in Tibet.
Oishi, Mikio, "Creating a 'Ripe Moment' in the Burmese conflict through nonviolent action", Social Alternatives, Vol 21 No 2, 2002, pp. 52-60
The same author's "Nonviolent Struggle of the Burmese People for Democracy", a paper submitted to the 1998 International Peace Research Association Conference, is online at http://www.burmalibrary.org/reg.burma/archives/199807/msg00586.html
Chenoweth, Erica and Maria Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, New York, Columbia University Press, 2011, pp. 172-191.
Burma 1988 is one of the four case studies in the book, and one of the three in the earlier article: Stephan, Maria J and Erica Chenoweth, "Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict", International Security, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Summer 2008), pp. 7–44, online at http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/PDF/IS3301_pp007-044_Stephan_Chenoweth.pdf
Wintle, Justin, Perfect Hostage: A Life of Aung San Suu Kyi, London, Hutchinson (Random House), 2007, pp. 480
ALTSEAN Burma (Alternative ASEAN network on Burma) includes special material on the Saffron revolution and a monthly Burma bulletin. http://www.altsean.org
2. East Timor
Fukuda, Chisako M. 'Peace through Nonviolent Action: the East Timorese Resistance Movement's Strategy for Engagement', Pacifica Review Vol. 12 No 1, Feb 2000, pp. 17-31
Martin, Brian, 'Dili', Ch. 3 , pp. 23-33, in Justice Ignited: the Dynamics of Backfire, Lanham MA, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
An earlier discussion of the Dili massacre and 'backfire' was in Hess, David and Brian Martin, 'Repression, backfire, and the theory of transformative events', Mobilization, Vol. 11, No. 1, June 2006, pp. 249-267, a version of which is at http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/pubs/06mobilization.html. Also see Martin, Brian, Wendey Varner and Adrian Vickers 'Political Jiu-Jitsu against Indonesian Repression: Studying Lower-Profile Nonviolent Resistance', Pacifica Review Vol. 13 No. 2,June 2001, pp. 143-156, a version of which is at http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/pubs/01pr.html
Mason, Christine, 'Women, Violence and Nonviolent Resistance in East Timor', Journal of Peace Research, vol 42, no 46, 2005, pp. 737-749
Montiel, Cristina Jayme, "Political psychology of nonviolent democratic transitions in Southeast Aisa", Journal of Social Issues, Vol 62 No 1, Feb 2006, pp 173-190
Simpson, Brad, 'Solidarity in an Age of Globalization: The Transnational Movement for East Timor and US Foreign Policy', Peace & Change,Vol. 29, No. 3&4, July 2004, pp. 453-482, online at www.etan.org/etanpdf/pdf1/solidarityinage.pdf
Stephan, Maria J, 'Fighting for Statehood: the role of civilian-based resistance in the East Timorese, Palestinian and Kosovo Albanian self-determination movements', Fletcher Forum of World Affairs (Tufts University), vol 30:2, summer 2006, pp. 57-79, downloadable from http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org
East Timor is also discussed in Stephan, Maria J and Erica Chenoweth, "Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict", International Security, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Summer 2008), pp. 7–44, online at http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/PDF/IS3301_pp007-044_Stephan_Chenoweth.pdf
Tanter, Richard, Mark Selden and Stephen R. Shalom, eds, Bitter Flowers, Sweet
Flowers: East Timor, Indonesia, and the World Community Lanham MA, Rowman & Littlefield 2001), pp. 312
Part I - 'East Timor: Resistance, Repression, and the Road to Independence' - focuses particularly on the role of the National Council of Timorese Resistance, the Catholic Church and the student movement.
3. Indonesia: Toppling Suharto in 1998'
Aspinall, Edward, Herb Feith and Gerry van Klinken (eds), The Last Days of Suharto, Melbourne, Monash Asia Institute, Monash University, 1999.
Boudreau, Vincent, Resisting Dictatorship: Repression and Protest in Southeast Asia, Cambridge, CUP, 2004, pp.290.
This is a comparative study of the democracy movements in Indonesia, Burma and the Philippines from a social movement theoretical perspective. It charts the historical evolution in these states since the end of colonialism, and in the case of Indonesia examines the Sukarno years, the 1965 coup and anticommunist massacres, initial students protests in the 1970s under Suharto, and the compexities of the party politics in the 1980s and 1990s. Chapter 10 'Indonesia's Democracy Protests' (pp 215-37) cover the build-up of resistance to Suharto, the role of the student demonstrations and the end of the Suharto regime.
Forrester, Geoff and R.J. May (eds), The Fall of Soeharto, Bathurst, Crawford House, 1998.
Martin, Brian, Wendy Varney and Adrian Vickers, "Political Jiu-Jitsu Against Indonesian Repression: Studying Lower Profile Nonviolent Resistance", Pacifica Review, vol 13, no 2, June 2001, pp. 143-56.
This article compares the problems of resisting repression inside Indonesia 1965-66 and in East Timor after 1975 with the successful protests against Suharto in 1998.
For wider background analysis see:
Anderson, Benedict (ed), Violence and the State in Suharto's Indonesia, Ithaca, Cornell University, Southeast Asia Progress Press, 2001
Vatikiotis, Michael R.J., Indonesian Politics under Suharto: The Rise and Fall of the New Order, 3rd edition, London, Routledge, 1998
4. Jammu and Kashmir
Since the alleged rigging of the 1987 elections, Indian-ruled Jammu and Kashmir has been a site of simmering conflict, with the Indian security forces enjoying special powers since 1990. The massive protests of August 2008 began in reaction to the transfer of land to the organisers of a Hindu pilgrimage, but quickly widened to embrace the demand for "Azadi" (Freedom). On occasions, Indian security forces opened fire killing unarmed protesters.
Roy, Arundhati, "Azadi", in Listening to Grasshopers: Field notes on Democracy, London, Hamish Hamilton, 2009,pp. 161-178
This essay first appeared The Guardian (London) on 22 August 2008 and the Indian magazine Outlook on 1 September 2008. Roy touches on Kashmir in other essays in Listening to Grasshoppers.
5. Korea (South), Demanding democracy, 1979-80 and 1986-87
6. Pakistan, Resisting military rule, 1968 and 1980s
7. Nepal, 1990 and 2006
Nepal’s successful Movement for the Restoration of Democracy in April 1990, which led to a new constitution limiting the powers of the King, was noted briefly in the main bibliography. However, successive democratic governments of the 1990s failed to deliver any material difference to the people and the politicians themselves became increasingly corrupt. In 1996 the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) declared a ‘People’s War’. This did not receive international attention until after November 2001 but was extremely successful, and by 2003 the Maoists controlled the majority of rural Nepal.
In June 2001 King Gyanendra had succeeded to the throne after a palace massacre in which his brother, then King, was murdered. King Gyanendra proved ambitious for power, and using the crisis of the civil war as an opportunity, he dissolved Parliament in October 2002. He dismissed the Prime Minister, taking absolute monarchical power, in February 2005.
In April 2006 a mass movement (in which democrats and Maoists both participated), engaged in prolonged strikes and demonstrations which forced the king to reinstate parliament and to agree to elections to a constituent assembly to redraft the constitution. The newly elected parliament entered into negotiations with the Maoists, culminating in an agreed peace deal in November 2006.
Routledge, Paul, 'A spatiality of resistances: theory and practice in Nepal's revolution in 1990', in S. Pile and M. Keith (eds.), Geographies of Resistance, London, Routledge, 1997
Daly, Tom, ‘Unarmed resistance in Nepal’, Peace News, no. 2478, October 2006, p.5.
Report by observer inside Nepal.
International Crisis Group, Asia Report no 115, ‘Nepal: From People Power to Peace?’, 10 May 2006 (available at www.crisisgroup.org)
Notes that ‘the people at large’, not just the democratic political parties and the Maoists, ‘forced the king’s final climb down’.
Navin, Mishra, Nepal: Democracy in Transition, Delhi, Authorspress, 2006, pp. 295
Discusses historical background since 1951, the evolution of parliamentary democracy from 1991-2001 and examines in detail the royal takeover and war with the Maoists
Prateek Pradhan, ‘Nepal’s unfinished democratic revolution’, South Asian Journal, no. 13 (July-Sept 2006), pp. 14-23.
US Institute of Peace , Washington DC, Briefing August 2005, ‘Rule of Law and Human Rights Challenges’ by Christine Fair, Kerem Levitas and Collette Rauch.
Brief analysis of gaps in 1990 Constitution and of the King’s February 2005 coup removing the Prime Minister. (available at: http://www.usip.org)
Vishwakarma, RK., People’s Power in Nepal, New Delhi, Manak Publications, 2006.
Vanaik, Achin, 'The New Himalayan Republic', New Left Review, No. 49, Jan/Feb 2008, pp. 47-72.
Analyses the '8Second Democratic Revolution' of April 2006, which led to the end of the Nepali Monarchy in December 2007, and the historical background to the Revoloution, with a particular focus on the role of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).
a. Resisting Marcos, 1983-86
Mendoza Jr, Amado, "'People Power' in the Philippes, 1983-86", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 179-196
Chenoweth, Erica and Maria Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, New York, Columbia University Press, 2011, pp. 147-171.
Philippines 1983-86 is one of the four case studies in the book, and one of the three in the earlier article:
Stephan, Maria J and Erica Chenoweth, "Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict", International Security, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Summer 2008), pp. 7–44, online at http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/PDF/IS3301_pp007-044_Stephan_Chenoweth.pdf
b. Challenging Estrada, 2001, and later mass demonstrations
Tilly, Charles, Social movements, 1768-2004, Boulder CO, Paradigm Publishers, 2004, pp. 204.
Chapter 5, pp. 95-122, 'Social Movements enter the Twenty-First Century', takes as its starting point the January 2001 text-message in Manila, 'Go EDSA, Wear blck' and goes on to discuss the relationship between social movements and communications technology with further details on unrest in Manila
9. Taiwan, 1970s and 1980s
The entry in the main bibliography ends with successful people power against military government in 1992 and noted that Thailand’s history of frequent military coups seemed to have ceased. But the military did intervene again in Thai politics in September 2006 to overthrow the government of Thaksin Shinawatra. The coup had the backing of the king, who is popular and exerts extra-ordinary moral authority in Thailand, and was tacitly supported by residents of Bangkok, though there was some student protest.
The lack of urban resistance to the military takeover was due to the growing opposition to Thaksin, a former telecom tycoon, who as prime minister after 2000 won loyalty among the poor in the countryside through his health reforms, but was increasingly distrusted by the urban middle class for his authoritarian style and human rights violations (for example use of martial law to crush Muslim resistance in the south, and later declaration of a state of emergency) and for corruption and cronyism. When he called an unexpected election in April 2006 to bolster his authority the opposition parties boycotted it and it was annulled. The army stepped in to prevent Thaksin being returned to power again by the rural vote in a re-run election.
Urban protests in Thailand occurred early in 2006 in sustained protests against the Thaksin regime (before the military coup). The anti-Thaksin movement was launched in September 2005, and in the spring of 2006 hundreds of thousands protested in Bangkok. However, Thaksin still seems to retain the support of many of the rural people, who form the majority.
a. Demanding democracy 1973 and 1992
b. 2005 and 2006
Kasian, Tejapira, ‘Toppling Thaksin’, New Left Review II no. 39 (May/June) 2006, pp. 5-37.
Analyses mounting opposition up to April 2006.
Lintner, Bertil, ‘Thais call truce’, World Today vol. 62, no. 4 (April 2006), pp. 20-21.
On mass urban protest against Thaksin.
McGirk, Jan, ‘Advance of the Dharma Army’, Independent, (15 March 2006), pp. 28-29
Pongsudhirak,Thitinan, 'Thailand since the Coup', Journal of Democracy, October 2008, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 140-153
This section includes a group "Post-Soviet Regimes" not in the original bibliography, including Asian former republics of the Soviet Union
1. Former Yugoslavia after 1990
a. Serbia, Resisting Milosevic 1996-2000
Collin, Matthew, This is Serbia Calling: Rock 'n' Roll Radio and Belgrade's Underground Resistance, 2nd edition, London, Five Star, 2004, pp. 282
Updated story of Radio B92 to 2004
Collin Matthew, The Time of the Rebels: Youth Resistance Movements and 21st Century Revolutions, London, Serpent's Tail, 2007, pp. 224
Ilic, Vladimir, Otpor – In or Beyond Politics, Belgrade, Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, Helsinki Files No 5, 2001. Online at: http://www.helsinki.org.yu/publications.html
Jovanovic, Milja, 'Rage Against the Regime: the Otpor Movement in Serbia', in van Tongeren, Paul, Malin Brenk, Marte Hellema and Juliette Verhoeven (eds), Peace Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society, Boulder CO/London, Lynne Rienner, 2005, pp. 545-551
Nenadic, Danijela and Nenad Belcevic, "Serbia - Nonviolent sruggle for democracy: The role of Otpor", in Clark, Howard (ed.), People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (London: Pluto, 2009), pp 26-35.
Former Otpor activists assess its role and criticisms made of the group. Accompanied by critical reflections on "Serbia eight years after" by Ivana Franovic (pp. 35-38)
Smiljanic, Zorana, Plan B: Using Secondary Protests to Undermine Repression, Minneapolis, New Tactics in Human Rights/Centre for Victims of Torture, 2003, pp. 23, online at http://www.newtactics.org/sites/newtactics.org/files/resources/Smiljanic_PlanB_update2007.pdf
Specifically on Otpor's demonstrations at police stations to mark the arrest of activists.
Vejvoda, Ivan, "Civil Society versus Slobodan Milosevic: Serbia, 1991-2000", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 295-316
On Otpor's use of humour, see Majken Jul Soerensen as listed under dissertations or click here
b. Kosovo, Resisting Serbian oppression 1988-98
Clark, Howard, "The Limits of Prudence: Civil Resistance in Kosovo, 1990-98", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 277-294
Kostovicova, Denisa, Kosovo: the politics of identity and space, London and New York, Rouledge, 2005, pp. 322.
Particular emphasis on education and on ethnic segregation
See Stephan, Maria J, 'Fighting for Statehood' in Section D. II. 2.
2. Greece, Resisting the Colonels, 1967-74
3. Spain, Resisting Franco up to 1975
Johnston, Hank, Tales of Nationalism: Catalonia, 1939-1979, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 1991, pp. 261
A study much-cited in the social movement literature on 'framing', Johnston analyses the contribution of resistant sub-cultures under Francoism to the eventual resurgence of Catalan opposition.
4. Post-Soviet Regimes
It makes sense to group these together, even though Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan are not European but Asian.
a. Comparative Assessments
Beissinger, Mark R, 'Structure and Example in Modular Political Phenomena: The Diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip Revolutions', Perspectives on Politics, Vol 5 No 2, June 2007, pp 259-276
Bunce, Valerie J., Michael McFaul and Kathryn Stoner-Weiss, eds., Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 360.
Examines post-1989 "waves of change" in former Communist nations.
Bunce, Valerie J. and Sharon L. Wolchik, Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Post-Communist Countries, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 384
Discusses electoral defeats of authoritarian leaders from 1998 to 2005 (Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrygzstan), but also unsuccessful movements in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus. Analyses local and international actors, and draws comparisons with other parts of the world. The publishers highlight three conclusions: "First, the opposition was victorious because of the hard and creative work of a transnational network composed of local opposition and civil society groups, members of the international democracy assistance community and graduates of successful electoral challenges to authoritarian rule in other countries. Second, the remarkable run of these upset elections reflected the ability of this network to diffuse an ensemble of innovative electoral strategies across state boundaries. Finally, elections can serve as a powerful mechanism for democratic change. This is especially the case when civil society is strong, the transfer of political power is through constitutional means, and opposition leaders win with small mandates."
Some other relevant articles by Bunce and Wolchik:
Bunce, Valerie J. and Sharon L. Wolchik, ‘Favourable conditions and electoral revolutions’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 17 no. 4 (October 2006), pp. 5-18.
Analysis of ‘second wave of democratization’ in post-communist states and why conditions in these states favourable to success, compared for example with failure of protests over fraudulent elections in Ethiopia, Zimbabwe and Cote d’Ivoire.
Bunce, Valerie and Sharon Wolchik, ‘International diffusion and postcommunist electoral revolutions’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, vol. 39 no. 3 (September 2006) , pp. 283-304. Contribution to Special issue ‘Democratic Revolutions in Post-Communist States’ edited by Taras Kuzio. Discusses five factors in the diffusion of electoral revolutions, including the development of civil society and networks between ‘international democracy promoters’.
Bunce, Valerie and Sharon Wolchik, 'Postcommunist Ambiguities' Journal of Democracy, July 2009, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 93-107.
Discusses why since 1996 some authoritarian rulers have been ousted but in Armenia, Azeraijan and Belarus opposition failed (in two successive elections in each country) to secure victory in their electoral challenges.
Collin Matthew, The Time of the Rebels: Youth Resistance Movements and 21st Century Revolutions, London, Serpent's Tail, 2007, pp. 224
Interviews activists from Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Belarus as well as Serbia
D’Anieri, Paul, ‘Explaining the success and failure of post-communist revolutions’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, (September 2006), pp. 331-50.
Argues that while most studies focus on grassroots movements, elites – especially security services – are crucial in determining whether movements reach a ‘tipping point’. Illustrates argument by comparing two failed revolutions (Serbia 1996-97 and Ukraine 2001) with two successful revolutions (Serbia 2000 and Ukraine 2004-2005)
Forbrig, Joerg and Pavol Demes (eds), Reclaiming Democracy: Civil Society and Electoral Change in Central and Eastern Europe, Washington, German Marshall Fund of USA, 2007, pp 254. First section includes contributions from Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Georgia and the Ukraine. Second section is comparative discussion on range of issues by authors including Valerie Bunce and Sharon Wolchik, Taras Kuzio and Vitali Siliski. Hale, Harry E., ‘Democracy, autocracy and revolution in Post-Soviet Eurasia’, World Politics, vol. 58 no. 1 (October 2005), pp. 133-65.
Includes references to Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine.
Hale, Harry E. , ‘Democracy or autocracy on the march? The colored revolutions as normal dynamics of patronal presidentialism’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, (September 2006), pp. 305-29.
Argues that the ‘colour revolutions’ 2003-2005 were fundamentally succession struggles in ‘patronal presidential’ regimes rather than democratic breakthroughs, and therefore can result in retreat from democratic principles, as in Georgia.
Howard, Marc Morje and Philip G. Roesser, ‘Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes’, American Journal of Political Science, vol. 50 (April 2006), pp. 365-81
Makes comparisons between post-communist regimes and Sub-Saharan Africa
Kalandadze, Katya and Mitchell Orenstein, 'Electoral Protests and Democratization: Beyond the Color Revolutions', Comparative Political Studies, Vol 42 No 11, Nov 2009, pp. 1403-1425. Earlier version (2007) online at http://www.maxwell.syr.edu/campbell/programs/sawyer/papers/SLAPP%2006-07/Kalandadze.pdf.
Kuzio, Taras, ‘Civil society, youth and societal mobilization’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, (September 2006), pp. 365-86.
Examines the leading role of youth organizations - Otpor in Serbia (2000), Kmara in Georgia (2003) and Pora in Ukraine (2004) - and conditions for success, including training, western technical and financial assistance, choice of strategies and response of authorities.
Nikolayenko, Olena, Youth Movements in Post-Communist Societies: A Model of Nonviolent Resistance, Center on Democracy, Development, and The Rule of Law (Stanford University), Working Paper No 114, June 2009, pp.50, online at http://cddrl.stanford.edu/publications/youth_movements_in_postcommunist_societies_a_model_of_nonviolent_resistance/
Tucker, Joshua A, 'Enough! Electoral Fraud, Collective Action Problems, and the Second Wave of Post-Communist Democratic Revolutions', Perspectives on Politics, September 2007, Vol 5 No 3, pp. 537-553. Downloadable from http://homepages.nyu.edu/~jat7/POP_5_3_Tucker.pdf
Tudoriou, Theodor, 'Rose, Orange and Tulip: the failed post-Soviet revolutions', Communist and Post-Communist Studies 40 (2007), pp 315-342
Way, Lucan, 'The Real Causes of the Color Revolutions', Journal of Democracy, vol. 19. no. 3. July 2008, pp. 55-69;
and follow-up debate:
'Debating the Color Revolutions', Journal of Democracy, vol. 20, no. 1, January 2009, pp. 69-97 (includes contributions from Valerie Bunce and Sharon Wolchik, Mark Beissinger, Charles Fairbanks, Vitali Silitski and Martin Dimitrou, with reply by Lucan Way).
A campaign group (inspired by Georgia and later Ukraine) has been trying to promote popular resistance to electoral fraud and repression of opposition since 2003. But in this ex-Soviet state western governments are not actively encouraging opponents of the regime, because the Azerbaijan government is happy to supply oil and cooperate with the west in their anti-terrorism strategy.
Presidential elections in 2003 had confirmed Ilham Aliyev, son of President Heydar Aliyev (former First Secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party) as successor to his father. These elections were criticized by the OSCE, but accepted internationally, and left the electorate disillusioned and apathetic when parliamentary elections were called in November 2005. So only 50 per cent of the electorate voted. But the opposition Azadlig bloc ran 115 candidates and tried with public demonstrations to launch their own ‘orange revolution’. The OSCE and Council of Europe condemned human rights abuses and government manipulation of the elections, but western diplomats encouraged the opposition to limit their protest to the courts and authorized rallies.
Alieva, Leila, ‘Azerbaijan’s frustrating elections’, Journal of Democracyl. 17 no. 2 (April 2006), pp. 147-60.
Analysis of background and context of elections regime role and actions of the opposition.
Bunce, Valerie and Sharon L. Wolchik, Azerbaijan's 2005 Parliamentary Elections: A Failed Attempt at Transition, Center on Democracy, Development and The Rule of Law (Stanford University) Working Paper No 89, September 2008, pp. 52, online at http://cddrl.stanford.edu/publications/azerbaijans_2005_parliamentary_elections__a_failed_attempt_at_transition/
International Crisis Group, ‘Azerbaijan’s 2005 Elections: Lost Opportunity’, Europe Briefing no. 40, (21 November 2005).
Valiyev, Anar M., ‘Parliamentary elections in Azerbaijan: A failed revolution’, Problems of Post-Communism, vol. 53 no 3 (May/June 2006), pp. 17-35.
Argues that despite violence used against opposition and shattered hopes, the protests have promoted increased political participation.
The emergence of protest in Belarus was noted very briefly in our original bibliography. This protest has now extended to opposition to electoral manipulation in the March 2006 presidential elections, but lack of success means the literature is still limited.
Center for Political Education Minsk, The Fading Pillars of Power in Belarus: 100 Days of Milinkevich, Bratislava, Eurasian Home/Pontis Foundation’s Institute for Civic Diplomacy, 2006, pp. 12.
Available at: www.eurasianhome.org/doc_files/100_days _of_ milinkevicz.pdf
Marples, David R. ‘Color revolutions: The Belarus case’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, (September 2006), pp. 351-64.
Examines why protesters failed to achieve regime change in the 2006 presidential elections. Argues that the historical background of the regime, the popularity of the president, and electors’ concern with economic rather than democratic issues were all important. Also considers role of Russia and its ambivalence towards the Belarus regime.
Silitski, Vitali, ‘Belarus: Learning from defeat’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 17 no. 4 (October 2006), pp. 138-52.
Examines presidential election of March 2006 and argues that, although the popular protests against abuses appeared to fail, they created a ‘network of solidarity’ and a ‘revolution of the spirit’.
Silitski, Vitali, ‘Pre-empting Democracy: The Case of Belarus’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 16 no. 4, (October 2005), pp. 83-97
d. Georgia, Challenging ‘rigged’ elections 2003
The successful movement to contest the outcome of parliamentary elections in Georgia in 2003 by resorting to mass demonstrations, covered in the main bibliography, ignited a continuing debate about ‘people power’ protests which have diplomatic support and other forms of support from the west, and in particular the USA. There has also been time now to assess the effects of the ‘Rose Revolution’ on the subsequent regime.
Amnesty Report, ‘Georgia: Torture and ill-treatment still a concern after the “Rose Revolution”’, London, International Section, 2005, pp. 62
Anable, David, "The Role of Georgia's Media - and Western Aid - in Georgia's Rose Revolution", The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, Vol. 11, No. 3, 7-43 (2006). Same title online as Joan Shorenstein Center Working Paper No 3, 2006, at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/presspol/publications/papers.html, pp. 32
Coppieters, Bruno and Robert Levgold (eds.), Statehood and Security: Georgia After the Rose Revolution, Cambridge MA, MIT, 2005, pp. 406
Jawad, Pamela, Democratic consolidation in Georgia after the “Rose Revolution”?, Frankfurt, Peace Research Institute, 2005, pp. 48
Jones, Stephen, "Georgia's 'Rose Revolution' of 2003: Enforcing Peaceful Change", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 317-334
Kandelaki, Giorgi, Georgia’s Rose Revolution: A Participant’s Perspective, Washington DC, US Institute of Peace, Special Report no. 167, July 2006.
Account and analysis by a student leader and a founder of Kmara. Discusses background of Shevardnadze regime, comments on why protesters and the government avoided violence, assesses role of internal media (especially Rustavi-2), and argues that the role of foreign support was limited by lack of information and by caution. Summary and full report available from: www.usip.org
Lansky, Miriam and Georgi Areshidze, 'Georgia's Year of Turmoil', Journal of Democracy, vol 19. no. 4, pp. 154-68.
Summary: 'A domestic crisis began brewing in Georgia long before the current conflict with Russia. Since the Rose Revolution, the country has been troubled by flawed elections, a "superpresidency" and a malleable constitution'.
Papava, Vladimir, ‘Becoming European: Georgia’s strategy for joining the EU’, Problems of Post-Communism, vol. 35, no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2006), pp. 26-32.
Examines political and economic impact of the ‘Rose Revolution’: the institutional reforms, new role for civil society and for business enterprises, paving the way for entry to EU.
Welt, Cory, Regime Vulnerability and Popular Mobilization in Georgia's Rose Revolution, Center on Democracy, Development and The Rule of Law (Stanford University) Working Paper No 67, September 2006, pp.60, downloadable from http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/061005_ruseura_no67welt.pdf
Includes discussion of US involvement and assesses the "Serbian factor" in diffusing strategic ideas.
Wheatley, Jonathan, Georgia from National Awakening to Rose Revolution, London, Ashgate, 2005, pp. 252.
Most of the book is on the period 1989-2002 and on the nature of the Shevardnadze regime, but chapter 6 covers ‘pressure from below’ and chapter 7 the ‘Rose Revolutio
The confusing events surrounding the ‘Tulip Revolution’ against rigged elections in Kyrgyzstan in March 2005 are briefly outlined in the main bibliography (under the Asia section D.II.). The literature remains limited. The opposition has since Spring 2006 taken to the streets to demand further reforms, and mass demonstrations in early November called on the President to sign a new constitution limiting his powers. He did so on November 9, but tension between pro and anti-government demonstrators threatened political breakdown.
International Crisis Group, Kyrgyzstan on the Edge, Asia Briefing no. 55, 9 November 2006.
Summarizes developments in struggle for political reform in 2006.
Kulikova, Svetlana V. and David D. Perlmutter, "Blogging Down the Dictator? The Kyrgyz Revolution and Samizdat Websites", International Communication Gazette, Feb 2007, vol. 69: pp. 29-50.
Marat, Erica (ed.), The Tulip Revolution: Kyrgyzstan One Year After, James Foundation, 2006, pp. 151.
A chronological collection of articles from Jamestown’s Eurasia Daily Monitor published electronically and available at: www.jamestown.org/images/pdf/Jamestown-TulipRevolution.pdf
Radnitz, Scott, ‘What really happened in Kyrgyzstan?’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 17 (April 2006), pp. 132-46
Stresses that the ‘Tulip Revolution’ was very different from other ‘colour revolutions’ and the importance of localism.
Pippidi, Alina Mungui and Igor Monteanu, 'Moldova's "Twitter Revolution"', Journal of Democracy, July 2009, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 136-142
Covers mass protests in April 2009 against a disputed election and discusses why it failed.
g. Ukraine, People power and elections, 2004-2005
The ‘Orange Revolution’ in the Ukraine in 2004-5 revealed some of the political complexities of ‘people power’ when there is an ideologically divided population. The original bibliography referenced some initial responses and debates between supporters of the protesters and critics on the left. More substantial academic analyses are listed below.
Aslund, Anders and Michael McFaul, (eds.), Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine’s Democratic Breakthrough, Carnegie Endowment, 2006, pp. 216.
Selection of essays including assessments of the role of civil society and of the youth group Pora, an examination of western influence, and a concluding analysis of the ‘revolution’ in comparative perspective.
Binnendijk, Anika Locke and Ivan Marovic, ‘Power and persuasion: Nonviolent strategies to influence state security forces in Serbia (2000) and Ukraine (2004)’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, (September 2006), pp. 411-29.
Examines the explicit strategies developed in both Serbia and Ukraine to increase costs of repression and reduce the willingness of state security forces to resort to violence. By combining degrees of persuasion and deterrence the organizers were able to avert major repression of their movements.
D’Anieri, Paul, ‘What has changed in Ukrainian politics? Assessing the implications of the Orange Revolution’, Problems of Post-Communism, vol. 52 no. 3 (Sept-Oct 2005), pp. 82-91.
Goldstein, Joshua, The Role of Digital Networked Technologies in the Ukrainian Orange Revolution, Cambridge, MA, Berkman Center for Internet & Society Research Publication No 2007-14, 2007, pp. 20 (download gratis from )
Kempe, Iris and Iryna Solonenko, 'International Orientation and Foreign Support', pp. 109-148 in Kurth, Helmut and Iris Kempe (eds), Presidential Election and Orange Revolution: Implications for Ukraine's Transition, Kyiv, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 2005, pp. 152 online at http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/ukraine/02938.pdf
Kuzio, Taras and Paul D’Anieri (eds.), Special Issue ‘Ukraine: Elections and democratisation’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, vol. 38 no. 2 (June 2005), pp. 131-292.
Much of this issue analyses the previous Kuchma regime and parliamentary elections in 1994, 1998 and 2002, but there are also two articles on the 2004 presidential elections and the impact of the ‘Orange Revolution’, one by Kuzio: ‘From Kuchma to Yushchenko’, pp. 229-44.
Kuzio, Taras (ed.), Special issue of The Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol 23 No 1, March 2007, on ‘Kuchmagate Crisis to Orange Revolution: Civil society, Elections and Democratisation in Ukraine’, with eight contributions analysing various aspects of Ukraine society from schools to rock 'n' roll, from politics to gender. Available as zipped pdf files from http://www.taraskuzio.net/journals/2007-march.zip
Wilson, Andrew, Ukraine’s Orange Revolution, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 232.
Lively analysis by academic expert on the country, stressing the complexity of Ukraine’s regional politics, and of the ‘Orange Revolution’ itself.
Wilson, Andrew, "Ukraine's 'Orange Revolution' of 2004: The Paradoxes of Negotiation", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 335-353
Special issue of National Security and Defence, Kyiv, Razumkov Centre, No 5 (53), 2004, on 'External Factors in Presidential Elections', especially 'Actors, Goals and Mechanisms of External Influence', pp. 14-32, online at http://www.uceps.org/additional/NSD53_eng.pdf
IV. Latin America
The introduction to this section in the printed bibliography includes a few references to Colombia, Guatemala and Venezuela. Here the numbering has been altered to include these countries in the hope of attracting more suggestions.
For references to land occupations, go to section F.1
1. Argentina, Resisting the military dictatorship, 1977-81
Arditti, Rita, Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared Children of Argentina, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 251
Bosco, Fernando, 'The Madres de Plaza de Mayo and Three Decades of Human Rights Activism: Embeddedness, Emotions and Social Movements, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol 96 No 2, 2006, pp. 342-365
2. Bolivia, Resisting repression, 1964-82
3. Brazil, Resisting military rule, 1964-85
a. The right mobilizes against Salvador Allende, 1972-73
b. Resisting the Pinochet dictatorship, 1973-90
Angell, Alan, "International Support for the Chilean Opposition, 1973-1989: Political Parties and the Role of Exiles", in Whitehead, Laurence (ed.), The International Dimensions of Democratization, Europe and the Americas, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 175-200
Huneeus, Carlos, "Political Mass Mobilization against Authoritarian Rule: Pinochet's Chile, 1983-88", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 197-212
The term 'resistencia civil' is widely used in Colombia to refer to a strategy for peace based on a popular commitment to nonviolence and on non-cooperation with all the 'armed actors', state, paramilitary or guerrilla.
Alther, Gretchen, John Lindsay-Poland, and Sarah Weintraub,Building from the Inside Out: Peace Initiatives in
War-Torn Colombia, Philadelphia PA, American Friends Service Committee and Fellowship of Reconciliation, 2004, pp. 36. Online at http://www.forusa.org/programs/colombia/Buildingfrominsidefinal1.html
Bouvier, Virginia M, Harbingers of Hope: Peace initiatives in Colombia, Washington, US Institute of Peace Special Report 169, august 2006, pp. 20, online at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr169.pdf
Bowen, Ceri and Mauricio Garcia-Duran, "Living And Resisting in the Shadow of the Colombian Conflict:
Forcibly Displaced People seen through a Family Therapy Lens", Peace, Conflict and Development, Issue Five: July 2004, pp. 17, online at http://www.peacestudiesjournal.org.uk/edition/17
Garcia-Duran, "Colombia - Nonviolent movement for peace and international solidarity", in Clark, Howard (ed.), People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity (London: Pluto, 2009), pp. 64-75
Rojas, Catalina, 'Islands in the Stream: A Comparative analysis of Zones of Peace within Colombia's Civil War' in Hancock, Landon E. and Christopher Mitchell, eds, Zones of Peace, Bloomfield CT, Kumarian, 2007, pp. 71-89.
This chapter is partly based on Rojas' article 'The People's Peace Processes: Local Resistance Processes and the Development of "Zones of Peace" in Colombia', Reflexión Política, vol 006 no 011 (junio 2004), pp. 70-87, Universidad Autonoma de Bucaramanga, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
6. Ecuador 2005
The Rebellion of the Forajidos (outlaws) brought to an end the presidency of Lucio Gutierrez, who had reneged on electoral promises over privatisation and was blatantly corrupt. The nonviolent revolt was triggered by a Supreme Court decision to drop charges against former President Abdala Bucaram, so permitting Bucaram's return to Ecuador.
Leiter, Benjamin, "The Rebellion of the Forajidos: The Movement to Overthrow President Lucio Gutierrez", Nonviolent Social Change, No 34, 2007, at http://www.manchester.edu/academics/departments/peace_studies/bulletin/2007/articles/forajidos.htm
Brockett, Charles D, Political Movements and Violence in Central America, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 404
Analyzes the confrontation between popular movements - urban and rural - and repressive regimes, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, in particular discussing the 'repression-protest paradox'
8. Mexico 2006
People power to contest rigged elections spread to Latin America when Lopez Obrador mobilized 500,000 and then a million demonstrators to protest in July 2006 against the dubious victory of Felipe Calderon in the presidential elections and called for a recount. But they failed to force the authorities to review the results. Here the left was protesting against a candidate favoured by Washington.
The presidential election protests are only one aspect of political ferment in Mexico in 2006 – Oaxaca city and province have been convulsed by protests, also partially inspired by anger at the fraudulent election of the governor in which 60 per cent of the people abstained. Unrest began in May when the teachers demanded a pay rise, and has over six months become a major popular revolt, which is creating its own democratic institutions. This has not been a strictly nonviolent rebellion – for example students and local citizens fought with the police to maintain their occupation of the university - but mass involvement has been encouraged by attempts at violent repression by the government. (Navarro, Luis Hernandez, ‘Popular revolt in Oaxaca’, Red Pepper, (Dec 2006/Jan 2007), pp. 34-35.
Crotte, Salvador F, 'The Resistance', translated from Gatopardo, no 72, September 2006, in Mirada Global, http://www.miradaglobal.com
Giordano, Al, ‘Mexico’s presidential swindle’, New Left Review, II no. 41 (Sept/Oct 2006), pp.5-27.
Analysis of fraud and manipulation of elections to favour the ruling candidate Felipe Calderon and account of opposition’s response.
Latin American Perspectives, vol. 33 no. 2 (March 2006)
This issue focuses on Mexican politics, society and economy and provides background to the July confrontation. Articles include: Rus, Jan and Miguel Tinker Solas, ‘Introduction. Mexico 2006-2007: High stakes, daunting challenges’, pp. 5-15; Gilly, Adolfo, ‘One triangle, two campaigns’, pp. 78-83; Semo, Enrique, ‘What is left of the Mexican Left?’, pp. 84-89.
Middlebrook, Kevin J., ‘Breakthrough or breakdown?’, World Today, vol. 62 no. 6 (June 2006), pp. 24-27.
Article assessing background to July elections.
Quezada, Sergio Aguayo, ‘Mexico’s turbulent election ride’, OpenDemocracy.net, (16 May 2005) online
Very brief commentary on background to July election, noting invitation to EU to observe it.
Ross, John, 'Mexican Civil Resistance in Five Acts', Counterpunch, 2 August 2006, at http://www.counterpunch.org/ross08012006.html
Rubio, Luis and Jeffrey Davidow, ‘Mexico’s disputed election’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 85 no.5 (Septermber/October 2006), p. 75-85.
Argues that the July election represented a choice between continuing economic liberalization and a return to the past, but neither provide a solution to Mexico’s problems.
Whalen, Christopher, ‘Washington’s potential Mexico problem’, The International Economy, vol. 20 no. 2 (Spring 2006), pp. 40-44.
9. Panama, Resisting Noriega 1987-89
10. Uruguay, Resisting military rule 1973-84
11. Venezuela 2002
Cannon, Barry, 'Coup or popular rebellion? The myth of a united Venezuela', Bulletin of Latin American Research, vol 23 no.3 (July 2004), pp. 285-302
El Libertario, 'the journal of autonomous social movements' in Venezuela, offers English-language commentary on its web page http://www.nodo50.org/ellibertario/english.html, including some commenting on the 2002 coup and anti-coup - such as Rafael Uzcategui's 'Venezuela today: complexities and outright lies'
V. Middle East
a. Overthrowing the Shah 1978-1979
Abrahamian, Ervand, "Mass Protersts in the Iranian Revolution, 1977-79", in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 162-178
Chenoweth, Erica and Maria Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, New York, Columbia University Press, 2011, pp. 92-118
Iran 1977-79 is one of the four case studies in this book.
b. Green Movement 2009
Buchan,James, 'Impasse in Iran', New Left Review, No. 59 Sep/Oct 2009, pp. 73-87. Mostly an analysis of broader Iranian history, but discusses June protests and their aftermath.
Journal of Democracy, October 2009, Vol 20, No 3, - a special section on 'Iran in Ferment', pp.6-20, includes three articles: Afshan, Ali and Graham Underwood, 'The Green Wave'; Abbas Milani, 'Cracks in the Regime' (focusing on role of Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and dissent in Ministry of Intelligence); and Ladan Bouroumand 'Civil Society's Choice' stressing human rights issues and referring back to her article 'Iran's Resilient Civil Society: the Untold Story of the Fight for Human Rights' in Journal of Democracy, October 2007.
a. Pearlman, Wendy, Violence, Nonviolence, and the Palestinian National Movement, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp.304
Qumsiyeh, Mazin,Popular Resistance in Palestine: A History of Hope and Empowerment, London, Pluto, 2010, 304 pp
Rigby, Andrew, Palestinian Resistance and Nonviolence, Jerusalem, PASSIA, 2010, pp. 80
b. Palestinian resistance after 1967, including the First Intifada, 1987-1992
Alimi, Eitan Y, 'Constructing Political Opportunity': 1987 - The Palestinian Year of Discontent', Mobilization: an International Quarterly, Vol 11 No 1, Feb 2006, pp. 67-80
An analysis of Palestinian print media in 1987 illustrates a convergence in calls for action
Barghouti, Riham and Helen Murray, 'The Struggle for Academic Freedom in Palestine', paper to conference 'Problems and Challenges in Arab Countries', Alexandria, Egypt, September 2005, pp. 13, online at http://right2edu.birzeit.edu/downloads/pdfs/AcademicFreedomPaper.pdf
Begins with first intifada and concludes with the current Academic Boycott campaign.
Chenoweth, Erica and Maria Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: the Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, New York, Columbia University Press, 2011, pp. 119-146
The first intifada is one of the four case studies in this book.
King, Mary Elizabeth, A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and a Strategy for Non-violent Resistance, New York, Thunder's Mouth Press, 2007, pp. 304
Argues that the First Intifada represented a mass nonviolent moblization in which women played a significant role, and looks at the wider history of nonviolent resistance, for example in the US Civil Rights movement and in Czechoslovakia 1989 and Serbia 1996-2000, to suggest that nonviolent strategies are the way to achieve a just peace with Israel.
See Stephan, Maria J, 'Fighting for Statehood' in Section D. II. 2.
c. Nonviolent action in the second intifada
Carter Hallward, Maia, "Creative Responses to Separation: Israeli and Palestinian Joint Activism in Bil'in", Journal of Peace Research, 2009, No. 46, pp. 541-558.
Carter Hallward, Maia, Struggling for a Just Peace: Israeli and Palestinian Activism in the Second Intifada, Gainesville FL, University of Florida Press, 2011, pp. 286
Carter Hallward, Maia, and Julie M. Norman, eds, Nonviolent Resistance in the Second Intifada: Activism and Advocacy, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, pp. 196
Norman, Julie, The Second Palestinian Intifada: Civil Resistance (London: Taylor & Francis, 2010), 176pp.
Shows Palestinians frequently resorted to nonviolent tactics, especially when these were framed as a practical strategy rather than just as a moral preference.
Julie Norman's papers to the 2009 and 2010 meetings of the International Studies Association are now available online: "The Activist and the Olive Tree: Reframing Nonviolent Resistance"(ISA, 2009) at http//www.allacademic.com/meta/p310647_index.html and "'We Do Not Work for Peace': Re-Framing Nonviolence in Post-Oslo Palestine" (ISA 2010), http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p413194_index.html
Pearlman, Wendy, and Laura Junker, Occupied Voices: Stories of Everyday Life from the Second Intifada, New York, Tunder's Mouth Press / Nation Books, 2003, pp. 250 pp
(see separate entries under Nonviolent Intervention for international solidarity activity)
c. Israeli opposition to Israel’s occupation
Kaufman, Edy, Walid Salem and Juliette Verhoeven (eds.), Bridging the Divide: Peacebuilding in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Boulder and London, Lynne Rienner, 2006, pp. 320, includes a chapter by Mohammed Abu Nimer, 'Nonviolent Action in Israel and Palestine: a growing force' (pp. 135-171) and others on the role of civil society and NGOs in both Israel and Palestine. Plus profiles of a range of Israeli and Palestinian organisations
VI. 'Democracy promotion' and assistance to nonviolent movements
This new sub-section includes some general arguments on the theme of 'democracy promotion', and in particular the 'backlash against democracy promotion' - meaning the restraints imposed by various governments on foreign financing for civil society bodies, and especially 'free media' and electoral monitoring organisations. However, the specific focus is on foreign (so far 'Western') financial support and training for nonviolent pro-democracy movements facing repression. This issue also is discussed in a number of references that are not repeated here from Section D.III. 4 Post-Soviet regimes - especially in sub-section a. Comparative Assessments and especially those concerning the colour revolutions. Particularly relevant are articles by Valerie Bunce and Sharon Wolchik and by Lucan Way.
A number of leftist internet sites have denounced as 'pro-imperialist' the activities of those who have worked with opposition groups interested in nonviolent action tactics and strategies. As such articles are often reprinted on a range of web sites. The author who has most energetically taken issue with them is Stephen Zunes who also circulated an Open Letter in support of Gene Sharp and Strategic Nonviolent Action, signed by many prominent leftist scholars and activists. Both the Albert Einstein Institution http://aeinstein.org/organizations_attack_responses.html and the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict http://nonviolent-conflict.org have published statements on their own websites answering the critics.
In view of the amount of recycling and repetition in the web denunciations, the attacks are not listed separately but the most websites most actively involved will be included in this paragraph. [TO BE ADDED]
Ackerman, Peter, "Between Hard and Soft Power: The Rise of Civilian-Based Struggle and Democratic Change", Presentation at the US State Department, 29 June 2004, online at http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/index.php/learning-and-resources/resources-on-nonviolent-conflict
The co-founder of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict argues that "the difference between civilian-based power and hard and soft power is that civilian-based power is indigenous. It is not something controlled or imposed by great powers on others; civilian-based power is local, and its springs from the concerted, collective, strategic, nonviolent actions of large groups of people within a country of conflict". This site also includes other texts on the right to rise up and the responsibility to help those in nonviolent struggle against repressive regimes.
A Diplomat's Handbook for Democracy Development Support, Washington DC, Council for a Community of Democracies, 2008, pp. 136. Electronic update, 2009, pp. 155, online at http://www.diplomatshandbook.org/index.html
Tips for diplomats on how they can more effectively support local pro-democracy groups facing repressive regimes, with case studies from Case Study: South Africa, Ukraine, Chile, Belarus, Burma/Myanmar, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.
Carothers, Thomas, 'The Backlash Against Democracy Promotion', Foreign Affairs, Vol 85 No 2, March/April 2006, pp. 55-68
Dudouet, Veronique and Howard Clark, Nonviolent Civic Action in Support of Human Rights and Democratization (Brussels: European Parliament PE407.008, May 2009), online at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/committees/studies.do?language=EN
Scholarly study commissioned by the Human Rights Subcommittee of the European Parliament, evaluating European Union practice and making recommendations on principles that should guide European Union support for nonviolent action for human rights and democratisation, including concrete proposals on how to make it more effective.
Gershman, Carl and Michael Allen, 'New Threats to Freedom: the Assault on Democracy Promotion', Journal of Democracy, April 2006, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 36-51.
Gershman is the president of the (US) National Endowment for Democracy which publishes this Journal. This articles details the restrictions introduced by a number of governments on the receipt of foreign democracy assistance. Journal of Democracy has, unsurprisingly, published many well-informed articles on the theme of 'democracy assistance'.
Johansen, Jorgen, 'External financing of opposition movements', in Clark, Howard, ed, People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity, London, Pluto, 2009, pp. 198-205
Lakey, George, 'Nonviolence training and charges of Western imperialism: A guide for worried activists', in Clark,Howard, ed,People Power: Unarmed Resistance and Global Solidarity, London, Pluto, 2009, pp. 206-213
Experienced nonviolence trainer poses questions for trainers to ask themselves about their work, and for others to pose those who denounce nonviolence training as 'pro-imperialist'. "Does anyone believe that it would be better if grassroots movements wouldn't explore their [strategic] options before choosing? Or is the critic more afraid - as are those who have defended Milosevic in Serbia and Mugabe in Zimbabwe - that the people might succeed?"
McFaul, Michael, Advancing Democracy Abroad: Why We Should and How We Can, Lanham MA, Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 302
McFaul is a firm champion of "democracy promotion" (which he distinguishes from promoting US geostrategic interests), and head of Stanford University's Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. Many of his articles can be downloaded from the CDDRK website, as can a series of working papers published in 2008-2009 on external influences in transitions to democracy in Chile, Mexico, Poland, Serbia, Turkey and the Ukraine. http://cddrl.stanford.edu/publications/list/
McKie, Kristin. "The Process of Donor Funding as the Cause of Social Movement Decline: A Case Study of the Barabaig Land Rights Movement in Tanzania", Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, April 2007 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p197933_index.html
Shows how international funding has demobilized social movements in East Africa, with particular reference to the Barabaig in Landmark.
Youngs, Richard, ed., Is the European Union supporting Democracy in its Neighbourhood? Madrid, FRIDE, 2008, pp. 150, online at http://www.fride.org/publication/540/is-the-european-union-supporting-democracy-in-its-neighbourhood
Includes case studies with critical evaluation of EU support for human rights defenders and civil society development in Morocco, Jordan, Lebanon, Ukraine, Belarus and Azerbaijan
Zunes, Stephen, 'Nonviolent action and pro-democracy struggles', Foreign Policy in Focus, 24 January 2008, at http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/4923, and also 'Sharp attack unwarranted', 27 June 2008, at http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/5327
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E. Campaigns for Cultural, Civil and Political Rights
I. Nationalist Rights or Self Determination
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation, Nonviolence and Conflict: Conditions for effective peaceful change, The Hague, UNPO, 1997, online at http://www.unpo.org/downloads/nonviolencereport97.pdf
Proceedings of July 1997 international conference in Tallinn, Estonia, on the use of nonviolent action by a range of movements for self-determination.
1. Welsh Nationalism and nonviolent action
2. Western Sahara
Stephan, Maria J. and Jacob Mundy, 'A battlefield transformed: From guerrilla resistance to mass nonviolent struggle in the Western Sahara', Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, vol. 8. no. 3 (Spring 2006), 32pp, downloadable from http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org
II. Campaigns for Civil Rights
1. The Civil Rights Movement and Black Power in the USA, 1955-68
Calhoun-Brown, Allison, 'Upon This Rock: The Black Church, Nonviolence and the Civil Rights Movement', PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol 33 No 2, June 2000, pp 169-174
Crawford, Vicki L., Jacqueline Anne Rouse, and Barbara Woods, eds., Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941–1965, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1993, pp. 320
Franklin, Vincent P., and Bettye Collier-Thomas, eds., Sisters in the Struggle: African-American Women in the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements, New York, New York University Press, 2001, pp. 400
Hall, Simon, Peace and Freedom: the Civil Rights and Antiwar Movements in the 1960s, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004 hardback, 2006 paperback, pp. 280.
Hall's other writings on the civil rights movement include 'Marching on Washington: the Civil Rights and Anti-War Movements of the 1960s', in Matthias Reiss (ed.) The Street as Stage: Protest Marches and Public Rallies since the Nineteenth Century Oxford University Press, 2007, Ch 12. The extensive bibliography for Hall's course on the civil rights movement is on the University of Leeds website
McAdam, Doug, Freedom Summer, New York, Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 368
One of the leading theorists of 'contentious politics', McAdam has written widely on the civil rights movement - including Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970 University of Chicago Press, 1982, 2nd edn 1999, pp. 346) and essays such as 'The framing function of movement tactics: Strategic dramaturgy in the American civil rights movement', in McAdam, Doug, John D. Mcarthy and Mayer N. Zald (eds), Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 338-357
McAdam, Doug, "The US Civil Rights Movement: Power from Below and Above, 1945-70" in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 58-74
Payne, Charles, I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 2nd edn with new preface, 2007, pp. 55.
See also Payne's chapter "Men Led, but Women Organized: Movement participation of Women in the Mississippi Delta", in Crawford et al. Women in the Civil Rights Movement.
Williams, Juan, My Soul Looks Back in Wonder: Voices of the Civil Rights Experience, New York, Sterling, 2004, pp. 240
Part of the ambitious Voices of Civil Rights project, the book offers more than 30 personal narratives from the civil rights movement out of the thousands collected. The Voices of Civil Rights web page http://www.voicesofcivilrights.org also lists a number of other collections of oral history archives on the civil rights movement - most are available online
See also Kolb, Felix, Protest and Opportunities: The Political Outcomes of Social Movements, Frankfurt-Mainz, Campus Verlag, 2007, pp 360, chapters 5-9
A select bibliography on Martin Luther King, the US civil rights movement and nonviolence is online at http://www.thekingcenter.org/mlk/info.html
2. Northern Ireland
The CAIN web page (Conflict Archive on the Internet) contains a host of documents on Northern Ireland politics since 1968 http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/index.html
a. The Civil Rights Movement 1967-72
English, Richard, "The Interplay of Nonviolent and Violent Action in Northern Ireland, 1967-72" in Roberts, Adam and Timothy Garton-Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Nonviolent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 75-90
b. The Protestant workers’ strike 1974
c. The Peace People, nonviolent intervention to halt violence 1976-1979
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F. Campaigns for Social and Economic Justice
1. Demands for land reform and land occupations
Borras, Saturnino M. Jr, Marc Edelman and Cristobal Kay (eds.) Transnational Agrarian Movements: Confronting Globalization, Oxford, Wiley Blackwell, 2008, pp. 376
Carter, Miguel, The Origins of Brazil's Landless Workers' Movement MST: the Natalino Episode in Rio Grande do Sul (1981-84) - a case of ideal interest mobilization, University of Oxford Centre for Brazil Studies Working Paper Series CBS-43-2003, 2003, pp. 71 online at http://www.brazil.ox.ac.uk/carter43.pdf
Chabot, Sean and Stellan Vinthagen, 'Rethinking Nonviolent Action and Contentious Politics: Political Cultures of Nonviolent Opposition in the Indian Independence Movement and Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement', Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change, Vol. 27, 2007, pp. 91-121
Desmarais, Annette Aurelie, La Vía Campesina: Globalization and the Power of Peasants, London, Pluto, 2007, pp. 254
Rosset, Peter M., Raj Patel and Michael Courville (eds), Promised Land: Competing Visions of Agrarian Reform, Oakland, CA, Food First, 2006, pp. 380. Online at http://www.foodfirst.org/promisedland
Includes chapters on Brazil (three, including ch 14 - Monica Dias Martins, "Learning to Participate: the MST experience in Brazil"), Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, India, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe (which refrains from discussing the human rights issues involved in the post-1996 land occupations), plus the gender dimension and issues affecting indigenous people Not all chapters discuss the work of social movements.
Salete Caldart, Roseli (translated by Thomas L. Burns), Movement of the Landless Rural Workers (MST): Pedagogical Lessons, November 2002, online at http://www.landless-voices.org/vieira, a website which is part of the University of Nottingham Landless Voices multimedia project on landless culture and activism, and which includes a section on the 'emerging culture of the MST' as well as a section of essays on the MST and statements by leading figures
Schock, Kurt, "People Power and Alternative Politics", in Burnell, Peter and Vicky Randall, eds., Politics in the Developing World, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp, 186-207
Pays special attention to Ekta Parishad (an Indian land riights organisation), the Assembly of the Poor in Thailand, MST in Brazil.
Welch, Cliff, 'Movement Histories: A Preliminary Historiography of the Brazil's Landless Laborers' Movement (MST)', Latin American Research Review,Vol 41, No 1, 2006, pp. 198-210
Wright, Angus Lindsay and Wendy Wolford, To Inherit the Earth: the Landless Movement and the Struggle for a New Brazil, Oakland, CA, Food First, 2003, pp. 368
The whole issue of Latin American Perspectives, July 2009, Vol. 30 No. 4 (Issue 167) is dedicated on 'Peasant Movements in Latin America', including two articles on MST in Brazil.
See Corr, Anders No Trespassing, F5 below
2. Protests by the unemployed
a. Dolci and the reverse strike
3. Factory occupations
a. Britain and Europe
4. Significant strikes
a. California grape pickers’ strike, 1965-1970
Casey, Conor, 'Cultivating Creativity: The Arts and the Farm Workers' Movement During the 1960s and '70s - Symbolism and History of the Movement', at http://www.library.sfsu.edu/exhibits/cultivating/history.html provides a framework for a range of online materials drawn from the movement, and a bibliography
Dalton, Frederick John, The Moral Vision of Cesar Chavez, Maryknoll NY, Orbis, 2003, pp 200
Ferris, Susan and Ricardo Sandoval, The fight for the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Movement, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1998, pp. 333
Ganz, Marshall, Why David Sometimes Wins: Leadership, Organization, and Strategy in the California Farm Worker Movement, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 368
Excellent insider study, emphasising development of the United Farmworkers' 'strategic capacity' - a combination of motivation, understanding the context and the ability to learn.
Living Voices, La Causa: Teacher's Guide, Seattle WA, Living Voices, no date, pp. 16 downloadable from http://www.livingvoices.org/teachguide/lcguide.pdf
Orosco, Jose-Antonio, Cesar Chavez and the Common Sense of Nonviolence, Albuquerque NM, 2008, pp. 160
Rosales, Francisco Arturo, Chicano! The History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement, Houston TX, Arte Publico, 1997, pp. 304
Rose, Margaret, 'Woman Power Will Stop Those Grapes: Chicana Organizers and Middle-Class Female Supporters in the Farmworkers' Grape Boycott in Philadelpha, 1969-70', Journal of Women's History, Winter 1995, pp. 6-33
A select bibliography on Cesar Chavez can be found at http://www.colapublib.org/chavez/bibliography.htm
b. The British miners’ strike, 1984-1985
5. Campaigns by homeless (squatting)
Corr, Anders, No Trespassing: Squatting, Rent Strikes and Land Struggles Worldwide, Cambridge MA, South End Press, 1999, pp 256
Wide-ranging book covering Homes Not Jails (USA) and other western squatting movements, movements of homeless and landless in Latin America (especially Brazil and Honduras) and Asia, and rent strikes in Africa.
Ward, Colin, Cotters and Squatters: The hidden history of housing, Nottingham, Five Leaves Publications, 2002, pp. 196
A social history that comes to the end of the 20th century, primarily discusses British experience but has references to many other countries.
6. Protests against unjust taxes and rents
i. Poll tax protests, Britain, 1989-90
Hoggett, Paul and Danny Burns, "The revenge of the poor: The anti-poll tax campaign in Britain", Critical Social Policy, Dec 1991; vol. 11: pp. 95-110, and reply by Lavlette, Michael and Gerry Mooney, "The poll tax struggle in Britain: a reply to Hoggett and Burns, CSP 33", Critical Social Policy, Jan 1993; vol. 12: pp. 96-108
ii. Fuel tax protests, 2000
b. Rent Strikes
return to Update table of contents
G. Nonviolent Action in Social Movements
a. National/area studies
Doherty, Brian, with Matthew Paterson, Alexandra Plows and Derek Wall, 'The Brian Doherty Working Papers Series' on 'Explaining the Fuel Protests', 'Capacity Building in the British Direct Action Environmental Movement', 'Covert Repertoires: Ecotage in the UK', 'Comparing Radical Environmentalism in Manchester, Oxford and North Wales', 'Reaching Out: Direct Action Community Politics in Manchester in the 1970s', 'Studying Local Activist Communities Over Time: Direct Action in Manchester, Oxford and North Wales 1970-2001', Keele University School of Politics, International Relations and Philosophy, online at http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/spire/Working_Papers/Brian_Doherty_working_papers/Brian_Doherty_working_papers.htm
b. Transnational issues and campaigns
1. The New Left and student movements, 1960s
a. General and comparative
c. France, May Events of 1968
d. Germany (West)
2. Resistance to the Vietnam War, 1961-73
c. South Vietnam (Buddhists)
Hall, Simon, Peace and Freedom: the Civil Rights and Antiwar Movements in the 1960s, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004 hardback, 2006 paperback, pp. 280.
3. Peace movements since 1945
a. General: national and transnational movements
Cortright, David, Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas, Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 376.
Chapters 7 and 8 cover anti-nuclear weapon campaigns during the Cold War, opposition to the Vietnam and Iraq Wars, resistance in military and also draft resistance/cosncientious objection.
Mollin, Marian, Radical Pacifism in Modern America: Egalitarianism and Protest, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, pp. 255
Argues that 'radical pacifists repeatedly fell into patterns of action and evaluation that had more in common with the dominant culture they opposed than with the egalitarian alternatives they sought to create'
Nehring, Holger, 'Demonstrating for "Peace" in the Cold War: The British and West German Easter Marches, 1958-1964', in Matthias Reiss (ed.) The Street as Stage: Protest Marches and Public Rallies since the Nineteenth Century Oxford University Press, 2007, Ch 15. Related articles have been published in Contemporary European History, 2004, vol 14 no 4, pp. 559-582, Contemporary British History, 2005, vol 19, no 2, pp. 223-241 and Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History, 2005, vol 2 no 2, pp. 180-202
b. Pacifist protest, conscientious objection and draft resistance
i. Pacifist and nonviolent thought
ii. Conscientious resistance and legal frameworks
Ajangiz, Rafa, 'Empowerment for demilitarisation: civil disobedience gets rid of conscription in Spain, 1985-2000', at http://www.wri-irg.org/archive/nvse2001/nvse/nvsecase-en.htm
Ajangiz, Rafa, 'The European Farewell to Conscription', in Mjoset, Lars, and Stephen Van Holde, eds, The Comparative Study of Conscription the Armed Forces, Oxford, JAI/Elseveir, Comparative Social Research series Vol 20, 2002, pp. 307-333, discusses the relative impact of 'reasons of state' and 'social mobilisation' (against conscription) as factors leading to the abandonment of conscription.
Casquette, Jesús, ''The Sociopolitical Context of Mobilization: The Case of the Anti-Military Movement in the Basque Country', Mobilization: an International Quarterly, Vol 1 No 2, Sept 1996, pp. 203-212
Heval Cinar, Ozgur and Coskun Usterci, eds., Conscientious Objection: Resisting Militarized Society, London: Zed Press, 2009, pp. 272
Collection of essays combining perspectives from Turkey that include gender analysis of conscription, with accounts of some international experiences and perspectives on international law.
Lainer-Vos, Dan, 'Social Movements and Citizenship: Conscientious Objection in France, the United States, and Israel', Mobilization: an International Quarterly, Vol 11 No 3, Oct 2006, pp. 277 - 295
Compares movements of objection to the French war in Algeria, the US war in Vietnam, and Israel's invasion of the Lebanon
Speck, Andreas, 'Refusal in the international war resistance movement: An outline of contemporary refusal and refusal movements in various political circumstances throughout the world', http://www.wri-irg.org/co/refusal-context.htm
c. Opposition to nuclear weapons since the 1950s
i. Theoretical debates about nuclear weapons
ii. Comparative and general studies
Wittner, Lawrence S, Confronting the Bomb: A Short History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, Stanford CA, Stanford University Press, 2009, pp. 272
A greatly condensed version of Wittner's three-volume The Struggle against the Bomb, nos 737-739 in Section G3.c.ii of printed bibliography
iii. Studies of particular countries, campaigns or actions
Erickson Nepstad, Sharon, Religion and War Resistance in the Plowshares Movement, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 284
Study of Ploughshares groups in the USA, Australia and Europe
'Protests Stop Devastating Nuclear Tests: the Nevada-Semipalatinsk Anti-Nuclear Movement in Kazakhstan', in van Tongeren, Paul, Malin Brenk, Marte Hellema and Juliette Verhoeven (eds), Peace Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society, Boulder CO/London, Lynne Rienner, 2005, pp. 552-557
d. Campaigns against other (non-nuclear) weapons
Cameron, Maxwell A, Robert J. Lawson and Brian W. Tomlin (eds), To Walk without Fear: The Global Movement to Ban Landmines, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 512
e. Campaigns against specific wars or acts of aggression (excluding Vietnam)
Lainer-Vos, Dan, 'Social Movements and Citizenship: Conscientious Objection in France, the United States, and Israel', Mobilization: An International Quarterly, Vol 11 No 3, 2006, pp. 357-375
Traces movements of conscientious objection in France during the Algerian war, the US during the Vietnam war and Israel after the invasion of Lebanon.
'Leaving Lebanon: Four Mothers Movement in Israel' in van Tongeren, Paul, Malin Brenk, Marte Hellema, and Juliette Verhoeven, People Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society, Boulder CO/London, Lynne Rienner, 2005, pp.141-146
f. Protests against militarism
4. Feminist Protest since the 1960s
a. Protest for Women’s Rights
b. Women’s strikes
c. Feminist direct action for peace
Cockburn, Cynthia, From where we stand: war, women's activism and feminist analysis, London, Zed, 2007, pp. 286
Prominent activist and analyst in the global Women in Black network discusses women's anti-militarism in situations such as former-Yugoslavia, Israel/Palestine, Colombia, Sierra Leone and India
Giles, Wenona, Malathi de Alwis, Edith Klein and Neluka Silva (co-eds.), Feminists Under Fire: Exchanges Across War Zones, Toronto, Between the Lines, 2003, pp. 238
Examines role of women's organizations in the civil wars in the former Yugoslavia and in Sri Lanka.
Hanmer, Jalna, 'Nuclear Issues: Gendered Protest and Resistance', paper to Gender and Power in the New Europe, Fifth European Feminist Research Conference, Lund, 2003, pp. 13, online at http://www.5thfeminist.lu.se/filer/paper_398.pdf
Korac, Maja, Linking arms: Women and War in Post-Yugoslav States, Uppsala, Life and Peace Institute, 1998, pp. 90
5. Green Campaigns since the 1970s
a. General studies and transnational protest
Carmin, JoAnn and Deborah B. Balser, 'Selecting repertoires of Action in Environment Movements: an interpretive approach', Organization & Environment, Vol 15, No 4, 2002, pp365-388
Centres on a comparison of North American Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace
b. Country studies
Rucht, Dieter, 'The Profile of Recent Environmental Protest in Germany', paper presented to the workshop on 'Environmental Protest in Comparative Perspective' at the 27th Joint Sessions of the European Consortium for Political Research Workshop in Mannheim, March 1999, pp. 22, pdf file available at http://www.essex.ac.uk/ecpr/events/jointsessions/paperarchive/mannheim/w21/rucht.pdf
c. Campaigns against nuclear power
Opp, Karl-Dieter, Wolfgang Roehl, 'Repression, Micromobilization, and Political Protest', Social Forces, Vol 69 No 2, Dec 1990, pp. 521-547. Also available in McAdam, Doug and and David A. Snow, ed, Social Movements: Readings on Their Emergence, Mobilization and Dynamics, Los Angeles, Roxbury Press, 1997.
Uses experience of West German anti-nuclear energy movement to discuss issue of impact of repression on protest.
Welsh, Ian, 'Anti-nuclear movement: Failed Projects or Heralds of a Direct Action Milieu', Sociological
Research Online, 2001, 6/3, www.socresonline.org.uk, revised version of Cardiff University School of Sciences Working Paper 11, 2001, pp. 35, online at http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/socsi/resources/wrkgpaper11.pdf
Discusses impact of Torness Alliance on subsequent British direct action networks
Welsh, Ian, Mobilising modernity: the nuclear moment, London, Routledge, 2000, pp. 256
Especially Ch 6 'The moment of direct action' and Ch 7 'Networking: direct action and collective refusal'
See also Kolb, Felix, Protest and Opportunities: The Political Outcomes of Social movements, Frankfurt-Mainz, Campus Verlag, 2007, pp 360, chapters 10-13
d. Campaigns against deforestation
Walter, Emily, 'From Disobedience to Obedient Consumerism? Influences of Market-based Activism and Eco-Certification on Forest Governance', Osgoode Hall Law Journal (York University, Toronto), Vol 41 Nos 2 & 3, 2003, pp. 531-536, online at http://www.ohlj.ca/archive/articles/41_23_walter.pdf
Reports on the anti-logging campaigns in British Columbia, Canada in the 1980s and 1990s and discusses their shift from pressuring the state to directly confronting lumber corporations. Critiques the approach leading to the establishment of a global regulatory institution, the Forestry Security Council, that offers the 'carrot' of 'certification' in combination with the campaigners' 'stick' of boycott.
e. Campaigns against dams
Khagram, Sanjeev, 'Restructuring the Global Politics of Development: The Case of India's Narmada Valley Dams', and Kothari, Smitu, 'Globalization, Global Alliances, and the Narmada Movement', in Khagram Sanjeev, James V. Riker and Kathryn Sikkink (eds.), Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks, and Norms, Minneapolis, Univ of Minnesota Press, 2002, Khagram pp. 206-230, Kothari pp. 231-244
Khagram, Sanjeev, Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press, 2004, pp. 288
Routledge, Paul, 'Voices of the dammed: Discourse resistance amidst erasure in the Narmada Valley, India', Political Geography, vol. 22 no. 3 (2003), pp. 243-70
Roy, Arundhati, The Greater Common Good, Bombay, IndiaBook, 1999, pp. 76
Comments by well known novelist and prominent Narmada dam activist on the struggle against the Sardar Sarvar Dam and wider implications of government policy on building dams as strategy for providing water.
f. Campaigns against mining and pollution
See new entries below under G.7.c.i.
g. Campaigns against roads, airports, redevelopment etc.
Butler, Beverley, "The Tree, the Tower and the Shaman: The Material Culture of Resistance of the No M11 Link Roads Protest of Wanstead and Leytonstone, London", Journal of Material Culture, Nov 1996, vol. 1, pp. 337-363
Lee, Martha F, Earth First! Environmental apocalypse, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 1995, pp. 221
Welsh, Ian, and Phil McLeish, "The European Road to Nowhere: Anarchism and
direct action against the UK roads programme", Anarchist Studies Vol 4. No 1 (1996), pp. 27-44.
Zakin, Susan, Coyotes and town dogs: Earth First! and the environmental movement, Tucson, University of Arizona Press, 2002, pp. 483
6. Campaigns for Indigenous Rights since the 1960s
c. New Zealand
7. Global Justice Movement against Global Neoliberalism and Multinational Corporations
Conway, Janet, 'Civil Resistance and the "Diversity of Tactics" in the anti-globalization movement: problems of violence, silence and solidarity in activist politics', Osgoode Hall Law Journal (York University, Toronto), Vol 41 Nos 2 & 3, 2003, pp. 505-529, online at http://www.ohlj.ca/archive/articles/41_23_conway.pdf
Eschle, Catherine, and Bice Maiguashca (eds), Critical Theories, International Relations and the 'Anti-Globalisation Movement': the Politics of Global Resistance, Routledge, 2005, pp. 264.
Eschle and Maiguashca outline their work in progress on "Making Feminist Sense of the 'Anti-Globalisation Movement'" in Ephemera 2005
Essays in Philosophy: a biannual journal, Vol 8 No 2, June 2007, publishes three essays discussing civil disobedience in the anti-globalization movement:
Schroeder, Stephen, 'All Things New: On Civil Disobedience Now', at http://www.humboldt.edu/~essays/schroeder.html
Bentouhami, Hourya, 'Civil disobedience from Thoreau to Transnational Mobilizations: the Global Challenge', at http://www.humboldt.edu/~essays/bentouhami.html
Mararo, Piero,'Violent Civil Disobedience and Willingness to Accept Punishment' at http://www.humboldt.edu/~essays/mararo.html
Fraser, Nancy, 'Abnormal Justice', Critical Inquiry (forthcoming), pp. 49, 'roughcut' at http://criticalinquiry.uchicago.edu/issues/Fraser.pdf
Discusses lack of shared assumptions about global justice in different cultures
Friedman, Monroe, Consumer Boycotts: Effecting Change through the Marketplace and the Media, London, Routledge, pp.284
US study considering boycotts by African-Americans, other minorities, religious groups, and for ecological and consumer motives.
Khagram, Sanjeev, James V. Riker and Kathryn Sikkink (eds.), Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks and Norms, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2002, pp. 366
Stolle, Dietlind, March Hooghe and Michele Micheletti, 'Politics in the Supermarket: Political Consumerism as a Form of Political Participation', International Political Science Review, 2005, Vol 26 No 3, pp. 245-269
Tarrow, Sidney, The New Transnational Activism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 258
Welsh, Ian and Graeme Chesters, Complexity and Social Movements: Protest at the Edge of Chaos, London, Routledge, 2006, pp. 256
analyses the 'turbulence' challenging neo-liberal globalization
Mobilization: an International Quarterly, Vol 9 No 3, Oct 2004, is a special issue on Latin America: Democracy, Globalization, and Protest Culture
b. Resistance to international economic organizations
i. Opposing global summits
della Porta, Donatella, Massimiliano Andretta, Lorenzo Mosca and Herbert Reiter, Globalization from Below: Transnational Activists and Protest Networks, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2006, pp. 336 pages
An in-depth look at the Genoa G8 summit in 2001 and the European Social Forum, from the protesters’ point of view based on survey of 800 activists at the Genoa protests and 2,400 participants in the Florence European Social Forum (2002)
Donson, Fiona, Graeme Chesters, Ian Welsh and Andrew Tickle, 'Rebels with a Cause, Folk Devils without a Panic: press jingoism, policing tactics and anti-capitalist protest in London and Prague', Internet Journal of Criminology, 2004, pp. 34, online at http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com
ii. Opposing IMF policies and privatization
Balanya, Belen, Brid Brennan, Olivier Hoedeman, Satoko Kishimoto and Philipp Terhorst, eds., Reclaiming Public Water: Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World Amsterdam: Transnational Institute and Corporate Europe Observatory, 2005, pp. 284, downloadable (706kb) at http://www.tni.org/detail_page.phtml?&page=books_publicwater
Davidson-Harden, Adam, Anil Naidoo and Andi Harden "The Geopolitics of the Water Justice Movement", Peace, Conflict and Development, Issue 11, Nov. 2007, pp. 34, online at http://www.peacestudiesjournal.org.uk/edition/23
Olivera, Oscar (in collaboration with Tom Lewis),Cochabamba!: Water War in Bolivia. Cambridge, MA: South End, 2004, pp. 224
Romano, Sarah. "Democratization through Resistance? The Contentious Politics of the Nicaraguan Anti-Water Privatization Social Movement", Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, Chicago, April 2009 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p361265_index.html
iii. Opposing the World Bank
c. Resistance to multinational corporations
i. Logging, mining, etc.
Moody, Roger, Rocks and Hard Places: The Globalization of Mining, London, Zed, 2007, pp. 213
A detailed analysis by a committed campaigner. Chapter 8, 'No Means No' discusses strategy against mining, calling for more emphasis on nonviolent direct action and greater scepticism about systems of 'certification'.
Moody, Roger (ed), The Risks We Run: Mining, Communities and Political Risk Insurance, Utrecht, International Books, 2005, pp.342
Part 1 Investigates the shadowy world of international mining finance, while Part 2 has case study chapters on mining projects and local opposition in West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Guyana, Kyrgyzstan, Tanzania and Peru.
Padel, Felix and Samarendra Das, 'Antropology of a Genocide: Tribal Movements in Central India Against Over-Industrialisation', paper presented in July 2006 to the South Asia Anthropologists Group at Goldsmiths College, London, available online at http://www.freewebs.com/epgorissa/FelixPadel-SamarendraDas.pdf
Especially on the indigenous campaign against bauxite mining in Orissa
ii. Oil companies
George-Williams, Desmond, 'The Ogoni Struggle' in George-Williams, Desmond (ed), ‘Bite Not One Another’: Selected Accounts of Nonviolent Struggle in Africa, Addis Abada, University of Peace Africa Programme, 2006, pp. 68-74, book online at http://www.upeace.org/library/documents/nvtc_bite_not_one_another.pdf
Saro-Wiwa, Ken, A Month and a Day: A Detention Diary, London, Penguin, 1995, pp. 237, republished as Saro-Wiwa, Ken, A Month and a Day and Letters, Ayebia Clarke Publishing, 2005, with Foreword by Wole Soyinka
Turner, Terisa E and M.O. Oshare, 'Women's uprisings against the Nigerian oil industry in the 1980s', revised version of paper presented to Canadian African Studies Association in May 1992, online at http://www.uoguelph.ca/~terisatu/Counterplanning/c9.htm
Wokoma, Iyenemi Norman, 'Assessing Accomplishments of Women's Nonviolent Direct Action in the Niger Delta', in Natukunda-Togboa, Edith, and Dina Rodriguez Mintero (eds) Gender and Peace Building in Africa, Costa, Rica, University of Peace, 2005, pp 167-185. Whole book online at http://www.africa.upeace.org/documents, chapter here. A shorter account also appears in Iyenemi Wokoma, 'Women and Nonviolent Struggle in Africa', in George-Williams, Desmond (ed), ‘Bite Not One Another’: Selected Accounts of Nonviolent Struggle in Africa (above)
Armbruster-Sandoval, Ralph, Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Solidarity in the Americas: the Anti-Sweatshop Movement and the Struggle for Social Justice, New York, Routledge, 2005, pp. 224
Brooks, Ethel C, Unraveling the Garment Industry: Transnational Organizing and Women's Work, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2007, pp. 304
Contrast the necessity of local resistance - eg for the right to unionize - with the transnational emphasis on comsumer boycotts that, she argues, can uninentionally reinforce the global economic forces they denounce
Carty, Victoria, 'The Internet and grassroots politcs: Nike, the athletic apparel industry and the anti-sweatshop campaign', in Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science, 2001, Vol 1 No 2, pp 34-47, available online from http://www.peaceaware.com/tamara/issues/volume_1/issue_1_2
Carty, Victoria, 'Transnational Mobilizing in Two Mexican Maquiladoras: The Struggle for Democratic Globalization' in Mobilization: an International Quarterly, Oct 2004, Vol 9, No 3, pp 295-310
Seidman, Gay W, Beyond the Boycott: Labor Rights, Human Rights, and Transnational Activism, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 2007, pp 176
Examines the impact of international consumer pressure on multi-nationals operating in South Africa, India and Guatemala, in particular focusing on the issue of monitoring after a corporation has adopted a voluntary code of conduct.
Taylor, Julie, 'Leveraging the Global to Empower Local Struggles: Resistance and Efficacy in Transnational Feminist Networks' in St Antony's International Review, Vol 1 No 2, Nov 2005, pp. 102-117 downloadable from http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/jcr/stair/1_2/1_2_index.html
iv. Specific corporations
Gill, Lesley, "'Right There with You': Coca-Cola, Labor Restructuring and Political Violence in Colombia", Critique of Anthropology, Sep 2007; vol. 27: pp. 235-260
Fazar, Anwar and Radha Holla, the Boycott Book, draft online at http://www.theboycottbook.com/
Johnson, Douglas A, 'Confronting Corporate Power: Strategies and Phases of the Nestle Boycott', Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, 1986, vol. 8, pp. 323-344.
Summa, John, 'Killing Them Sweetly', The Multinational Monitor, November 1988, Vol. 9, No. 11, online at http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1988/11/mm1188_10.html
d. Resistance by small farmers
e. Zapatistas and other indigenous resistance in Mexico
Acostavalle, Melanie, Devashree Gupta, Doug Hillebrandt, and Dana Perl, compilers, Transnational politics: A Bibliographic Guide to Recent Research on Transnational Movements and Advocacy Groups,revised June 2003, is online at http://falcon.arts.cornell.edu/sgt2/contention/transbib_june2003.htm.
It covers a range of research on 'protest events' and patterns of organising, and Section IX looks at the following 'movement sectors' - a) democratization, b) environmental movements, c) ethnicity, indigenous groups and nationalism, d) Europeanization, e) human rights, f) labour, g) migration, h) peace, i) religion and j) women.
Cortright, David, Bibliography on Nonviolent Social Change is online at http://davidcortright.com/teaching/bibliography-nonviolent-social-change/
Pandiri, Ananda M., A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography on Mahatma Gandhi, Westport CT, Greenwood Press. The second volume (pp. 653) was published in 2007 (lst vol in 1995)
Souter, Rona-Jeanne, Black Sash archival collection in South Africa: a guide, Cape Town: Black Sash Trust and the University of Cape Town Libraries, 2006, pp. 202, online at http://www.lib.uct.ac.za/mss/existing/Black_Sash_Archival_Guide_1.pdf - catalogues items about the anti-apartheid women's organisation Black Sash, and groups with which it cooperated, in libraries throughout South Africa
The Global Nonviolent Action Database, initiated by George Lakey at Swarthmore College, includes brief accounts of cases of nonviolent action from more than 200 countries. http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu
The International Center on Nonviolent Conflict (ICNC) now produces a frequent (twice a week) electronic News Digest on Nonviolent Conflict offering internet links to news stories on "active civilian-based struggles against oppressive regimes, nonviolent resistance, political and social dissidence, and the use of nonviolent tactics in a variety of causes". These are grouped regionally. There is an archive of past digests going back to the first issue in January 2009. To subscribe (gratis), email icnc [at] nonviolent-conflict.org
Also on the ICNC is a resource library on nonviolent action unrivalled on the web, including book chapters, journal articles, and videos and slides from the ICNC's "webinars". http://nonviolent-conflict.org/index.php/learning-and-resources
New Tactics in Human Rights is a website managed by the Center for Victims of Torture. It includes a database of new tactics, tactical notebooks describing particular campaigns, a list of training tools, and monthly online dialogues on issues such as "unarmed accompaniment", "using mobile phones for action", "the power of place: sites of conscience" and "training in nonviolence and action". http://www.newtactics.org
Nonviolence 101 is as "an Experience-based Manual for Approaches, Methods, and Outcomes in Academic & Activist Organization", linked with Nonviolence International and maintained by Paul Hubers. It contains numerous downloadable resources, mostly in English but with some in other languages, and invites authors to send more, including including publications and dissertations. http://home.comcast.net/~nonviolence101
Nonviolence Today was a magazine published from 1985 to 2000 in connection with the Australian Nonviolence Network. The issues from 1990 onwards are online at http://dkeenan.com/NvT/index.html
The Open Society Archives, maintained in Hungary, have a range of material on Communism, the Cold War, Human Rights, including transcripts of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty bulletins. http://www.osa.ceu.hu/guide
The Peace and Justice Studies Association in the USA provides a useful online list of peace studies and conflict resolution journals in English - http://www.peacejusticestudies.org/membership/journals.php
The (multilingual and interactive) Research on Anarchism forum is at http://raforum.info
Waging Nonviolence gives a platform to reportage on nonviolent action from around the world.
c. MA and PhD Theses
Bosnjak, Spasa, Fight the Power. the role of the Serbian independent electronic media in the democratization of Serbia, School of Communication, Simon Fraser University, MA thesis, 2005, pp 133, online at http://ir.lib.sfu.ca/retrieve/669/etd1528.pdf
Bernstein, Sarah, Mobilising Maternity: The Impact of Mothers’ Peace Movements, Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, Coventry University, 2004, MA dissertation, pp. 56, online at http://www.coventry.ac.uk/researchnet/peacestudies/a/1136
Botmeh, Jawad, Civil Resistance in Palestine: the village of Battir in 1948, Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, Coventry University, 2006, MA dissertation, pp. 58, online at
Carate, Edison (2009) ¡Que Se Vayan Todos! Leadership, Formal Organization and Social Movements: the Case of the 'Rebelíon de los Forajidos', University of Pittsburgh. MA, Master's Thesis 2009, at http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/view/type/thesis.html
Dudouet, Veronique, Peacemaking and Nonviolent Resistance: A study of the complementarity between conflict resolution processes and nonviolent intervention, with special reference to the case of Israel/Palestine, Bradford School of Peace Studies Ph D thesis, 2005, pp. 419
Edmonds, Amy E, The Catholic Church and the Nonviolent Resistance in Chile, Dept of Political Science Baylor University MA dissertation, 2006, pp. 105, online at https://beardocs.baylor.edu/bitstream/2104/4020/1/Amy_Edmonds_masters.pdf
Mastnak, Lynne, The Process of Engagement in Nonviolent Collective Action: Case studies from the 1980s, University of Bath, Ph D dissertation, 1995. Study of psychology of nonviolent action based on interviews with activists from Guatemala and peace movements in West and East Europe by END and Greenham activist better known as Lynne Jones
McLeod, Jason, Morning Star Rising: Maximising the effectiveness of nonviolent struggle in West Papua, School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University, BA dissertation, pp. 122, online at http://www.papuaweb.org/dlib/s123/mcleod/ba.pdf
Muller, Annika, Nonviolence in the context of the Palestinian resistance against Israeli occupation, Philipps Universitat, Marburg, MA dissertation, 2008, pp. 69, online at http://www.lebenshaus-alb.de/magazin/media/pdf/palestininan_nonviolence_resistance.pdf
Plows, Alexandra, Praxis and Practice: The 'What, How and Why' of the UK Environmental Direct Action (EDA) Movement in the 1990s, School of Social Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Ph D thesis, 2002, pp. 399 online at tools for change
Soerensen, Majken Jul, Humour as Nonviolent Resistance to Oppression, Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, Coventry University, MA dissertation, 2006, pp. 60, online at
A shortened version was published as 'Humor as a Serious Strategy of Nonviolent Resistance to Oppression', in Peace & Change, Vol. 33 No. 2, April 2008, pp. 167-190.
Stäuble, Estheranna, Nonviolent Direct Action. Conflict Transformation and the Global Justice Movement: the Aubonne Bridge Case, Bradford School of Peace Studies MA dissertation, 2004, online at www.aubonnebridge.net
Walker, Chris, "An ICT Policy Dilemma: Ramifications on Strategic Nonviolent Social Movements and the Global Islamist Insurgency", The Fletcher School Tufts University MA dissertation, 2007
d. Library sources and archives
The Fannie Lou Hamer Institute for Citizenship and Democracy at Jackson State University, Mississippi, makes available a number of resources on the US civil rights movements, including articles, timelines for various campaigns, lesson plans, bibliographies and links to other collections of materials. http://www.jsums.edu/hamer.institute/Resources/Resources.html>/a>
Marquette University, Milwaukee, USA, houses the records of the US group Voices in the Wilderness 1996-2005 (a nonviolent group breaking sanctions on Iraq) and the papers of its co-founder and coordinator, Kathy Kelly, including her involvement in the Gulf Peace Team, actions for nuclear disarmament and against the School of Americas. The Department of Special Collections and University Archives aims to process these by 2009. Contact Phil.Runkel@marquette.edu or Marquette University Department of Special Collections and University Archives, PO Box 3141, Milwaukee, WI 53201-3141, USA
The Toumanoff Virtual Library, founded in 1998, publishes working papers written by scholars funded by the (US) National Council for Eurasian and East European Research, including many pertinent to nonviolent struggle in post-Communist societies.
e. Curriculum guides
Dalton, Dennis, "Nonviolent Power in Action", a series of three E-seminars https://www1.columbia.edu/sec/dlc/dkv/cero/full/dennis_dalton.html
Hardiman, David, "Nonviolent Resistance: Global History 1830-2000", a module taught at Warwick University, http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/history/undergraduate/modules/resistance/
The International Center on Nonviolent Conflict in partnership with the US Institute of Peace have prepared a course on "Civil Resistance and the Dynamics of Nonviolent Conflict", online at http://www.usip.org/files/Civil%20Resistance%20Syllabus%20Outline.doc
It aims to "to provide an in-depth and multi-disciplinary perspective on civilian-based movements and campaigns in defending and obtaining basic rights and justice around the world. This course will focus on governance, strengthening civil society, grassroots movements and human rights." The ICNC organises a range of academic seminars, including some for university lecturers on "teaching civil resistance" - as well as supplying the curriculum for these, it is offers other resources for university courses on civil resistance.
McElwee, Timothy A., B. Welling Hall, Joseph Liechty and Julie Garber (eds.), Peace, Justice, and Security Studies: A Curriculum Guide, Boulder CO, Lynne Rienner, 2009 (7th edition - note the 6th edition was in 1994), pp. 543
Includes a thematic essay by Barry Gan on "The Relation of Peace Studies to Nonviolence" (pp. 79-89).
Section 9 (pp. 131-160) is on Violence and Nonviolence, and contains four outlines for courses of 13-15 sessions, including session topics and lists of required texts. Other sections also include relevant course outlines - for instance "Nonviolent Responses to Terrorism" and "Peacemaking in Practice: Seminar in Nonviolence and Social Action"
ARCA (Associations and Resources for Conflict Management Skills), Peace Training: Preparing Adults for Nonviolent Intervention in Conflicts, 2007, pp. 68, online at http://www.peacetraining.org
The Change Agency, Strategy for Change: Workshop Resources for Campaign Strategy, developed in Australia between 2005 and 2006, pp. 51, 2MB download from http://www.thechangeagency.org/_dbase_upl/tCA_strategising_resources.pdf
Cornell, Tricia, Kate Kelsh and Nicole Palasz New Tactics in Human Rights: A Resource for Practitioners, Minneapolis, The Centre for Victims of Torture, 2004, pp. 190.
A workbook written for the project New Tactics in Human Rights, this groups tactics under prevention, intervention, restorative and building human rights culture and institutions. Available online at http://www.newtactics.org/ToolsforAction/TheNewTacticsWorkbook/Readordownloadfiles This web page also has a series of Tactical Notebooks in several languages documenting experiences in a range of countries.
Duhamel, Philippe, The Dilemma Demonstration: Using nonviolent civil disobedience to put the government between a rock and a hard place, Minneapolis, New Tactics in Human Rights/Centre for Victims of Torture, 2004, pp. 28, online at http://www.newtactics.org/sites/newtactics.org/files/resources/Dilemma_Demonstration_English.pdf
Eguren, Enrique and Marie Caraj, New Protection Manual for Human Rights Defenders, Brussels, Protection Online, pp. 208, downloadable from http://www.protectionline.org, supersedes 2004 edition (also mentioned in Section A.4)
includes exercises for training those about to engage in nonviolent protective accompaniment
Herngren, Per, Paths of Resistance: The Practice of Civil Disobedience, Philadelphia, New Society Publishers, 1993, pp. 214, is now available online at http://ickevald.net/perherngren/english/Path_of_Resistance_Per_Herngren_2004.htm
King, Mary E. (series editor), Nonviolent Transformation of Conflict - Africa, Addis Abada, University of Peace Africa Programme, downloadable from http://www.africa.upeace.org/resources.cfm The series has been produced for African readers and makes a priority of drawing on African experience.
This series so far includes four books:
King, Mary E and Christopher A Miller, Teaching Model: Nonviolent Transformation of Conflict, 2006, pp. 139 offers a 12-topic course, introducing the dynamics of nonviolent struggle and strategic issues but including one topic on African traditions of nonviolent conflict transformation and discussions of episodes such as the Port Elizabeth consumer boycott (South Africa), the 2002 nonviolent movement in Madagascar to enforce election results, and current Movement for Democratic Change in Zimbabwe. Includes notes for lecturers, suggestions for role-plays and other participatory exercises in class, and desired learning outcomes. http://www.upeace.org/library/documents/nvtc_Teaching_Model.pdf
Miller, Christopher A, Strategic Nonviolent Struggle: A Training Manual, 2006, pp. 142, aims to complement the more theoretical Teaching Model. It is designed as 'a tool for civil society leaders — in youth movements and programmes, churches, athletics, and other areas — who are interested in creating workshops or training programmes on realistic alternatives to armed struggle. http://www.upeace.org/library/documents/nvtc_Training_Manual.pdf
George-Williams, Desmond (ed), ‘Bite Not One Another’: Selected Accounts of Nonviolent Struggle in Africa, 2006, pp. 123. Covers colonial era nonviolent struggles for independence and contemporary collective active to secure human rights, including women's rights, and social justice. http://www.upeace.org/library/documents/nvtc_bite_not_one_another.pdf
Miller, Christopher A, Only Young Once: An Introduction to Nonviolent Struggle for Youths, 2006, pp. 88 - 'a practical guide geared alike towards university or secondary school students, young soldiers, young professionals, civil society leaders, and youthful parliamentarians.http://www.upeace.org/library/documents/nvtc_only_young_once.pdf Also translated into French at http://www.upeace.org/PDF/file_Jeune_qu_une_fois_Only_Young_Once_Fr_Standard_.pdf
Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance, Handbook for Nonviolent Action, Oak Ridge, Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance, 2005, online at http://www.stopthebombs.org/content/documents/nonviolencemanual.pdf
The Peacebuilding Toolkit, Colombo, Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies, 2nd edn, 2007, pp. 104, downloadable at http://www.humanitarian-srilanka.org/PCIA/ToolKit/Toolkit-E.pdf
Inspired by the 2003 >u>The Peacebuilding Toolkit - Learning from Good Practice: the Experience of Indonesian Peacebuilding Practitioners, this includes sections on peace advocacy and promotion and protection of human rights and women's rights.
Popovic, Srdja, Andrej Milivojevic and Slobodan Djinovic, Nonviolent Struggle - 50 Crucial Points: A Strategic Approach to Everyday Tactics, Belgrade, Centre for Applied Nonviolent Action and Strategies (CANVAS), 2006, pp. 95. Downloadable from http://www.canvasopedia.org/legacy/content/special/nvstruggle.htm
A field guide for waging a strategic nonviolent struggle by Otpor activists
Popovic,Srdja, Slobodan Djinovic, Andrej Milivojevic, Hardy Merriman and Ivan Marovic, CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle, Belgrade, Centre for Applied Nonviolent Action (CANVAS), 2007, pp. 147, online at http://www.canvasopedia.org/files/various/Core_Curriculum-Students_Book.pdf
Road Alert, Road Raging: Tops Tips for Wrecked Roadbuilding online at http://www.eco-action.org/rr
British nonviolent direct action manual especially geared towards protest camps
Scotland for Peace's website includes a range of training hand-outs and notes for trainers in its page on nonviolent resources: http://scotland4peace.org/current_proj_edu.htm
Sheehan, Joanne, 'Decades of Nonviolence Training: Practicing Nonviolence', The Nonviolent Activist, July-August 1998, online at http://www.warresisters.org/nva0798-4.htm
An account of the role of training in nonviolent movements in the USA
Taylor, Richard K, Training Manual for Nonviolent Defense against the Coup d'Etat, 1994, online at http://nonviolenceinternationalnet.
An outline for a ten-session workshop.
Trapese Collective (eds), Do It Yourself: A Handbook for Changing Our World, London, Pluto, 2007, pp. 320
Born out of experience preparing for the 2005 G8 summit in Scotland, this book uses the term 'popular education' to discuss participatory decision-making, media work and preparation for direct action. TRAPESE stands for 'Taking Radical Action through Popular Education and Sustainable Everything!’ - see http://www.trapese.org
van der Zee, Bibi, Rebel, Rebel: the Protestor's Handbook, London, Guardian Books, 2008, pp. 256
Written for a British audience - tips from a range of campaigns.
Vukosavljevic, Nenad, Training in Peacebuilding and Conflict Transformation: Experiences of the 'Centre for Nonviolent Action' in the Western Balkans, Berlin, Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management, June 2007, pp. 18, downloadable from http://www.berghof-handbook.net/uploads/download/vukosavljevic_handbook.pdf
Reflections by one of the founders of Sarajevo's Centre for Nonviolent Action
War Resisters' International, Handbook for Nonviolent Campaigns, London, WRI, 2009, pp. 152
With contributions from Australia, Belgium, Britain, Colombia, Chile, Germany, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Scandinavia, Serbia, Spain, Turkey and the USA. An online version, often expanding on the printed edition and in the future with further materials, is available at http://wri-irg.org. WRI also produced an issue of its The Broken Rifle, No 80, Dec 2008, to greet the publication of handbook, featuring articles on an international trainers interchange held in the Basque country in October 2008, and Joanne Sheehan's account of the development of training in the School of Americas actions at Fort Benning - online at http://wri-irg.org/pubs/br80-en.htm
return to Update table of contents
The website Nonviolence 101 offers downloads of a range of manuals, including various produced specifically for US nonviolent direct action campaigns. http://home.comcast.net/~nonviolence101/nv_texts.htm
Please send suggestions for additional items to:
howard [at] civilresistance.info
In the case of books, please include author, title, publisher, date of publication, number of pages.
In the case of journals or book chapters, please include page numbers and full details of book or journal.